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R D & ». 1997 



The Bulletin 

the Amateur 
Entomologistj 
Society 

World list abbreviation 
Bull amat. Ent. Soc. 

Volume 54 




1995 



Edited by 
Wayne Jarvis B.Sc. 

Index compiled by Jacqueline Ruffle 

Edited by Wayne Jarvis 

Published by 
The Amateur Entomologists' Society 
P.O. Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG 
ISSN 0266-836X 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Caswell. Wesley 
Dillon. A.D. 



Author 


Namber 


: Pages 


Abejuela. Grace C. 


401 


173: 




402 


190-2 


Ash worth. Mike 


399 


52 


Ayres. Geoff 


401 


161 


Badmin, John 


399 


59-60 


Bailey, M. 


398 


14-16 


Bartman, Greg 


402 


197-203 


Batty. Paul 


403 


226 


Benton. Ted 


400 


100-104 


Bragg. Phil 


401 


155-6 


Brock. Paul D. 


402 


197-203 




403 


235 



402: 209 
401: 158 



IT J DA 

hades. K.A. 


401: lob 


Edmonds. Michael 


401: 164 


Edwards. P.J. 


401: 159-60 


Eiland. Murray 


403: 244-5 


Ellis. Hewett A. 


398: 11-13 


Frost. Roy A. 


399: 48: 




402: 194 


Gardiner. Chris 


402: 194 


Goff. Roy 


399: 35 


Grey. Phil 


403: 240 


Guye. Michael G. 


400: 88. 89- 


Hancock. E. Geoffrey 


399: 36-37 


Hancox. M. 


403: 238 


Hao. Huang 


399: 53-58: 




63-64 


Harbottle. A.H.H. 


402: 206 


Hardy. Peter B. 


401: 173: 




402: 190-2 


Harvey. Martin 


ICN 16: 7 


Hodge. Rosalind 


403: 248 


Hughes. M.O. 


400: 104 


Irons. Stuart 


400: 105 



Aathor 

Jarvis. Wayne 



Jones. Colin 
Jones. Richard A. 



Kay. Humphrey 
King. D.O. 
King. Tony 
Knight. Gordon 
Kor^'szko. Jan 



Namber: Pages 



Larsen. Torben 



Madin. D.F. 
Martin. C. 
McCann. Frank 



McCormick. Roy 
McNamara. Don 



Norris. Dave 

Parker. R. 
Plester. Leigh 



Raper. Chris 
Rayment. Freda 
Robinson. Neil A. 



25-30: 
77-82; 
166-72: 
210-15; 
267-69 
249-52 
38-40. 
41-42: 
403: 227-32 



398: 
399: 
401: 
402: 
403: 
403: 
399: 



399: 40 
398: 17-24 
403: 252-4 
403: 222-6 
398: 8: 

399: 42. 48. 58. 

62. 76: 
402: 195: 
403: 248 

398: 3-8: 
399: 43-46 



40i 
401 
401 
402 
403 

401 
399 
402 



149-54 
129 
133: 
196: 

234. 237. 
242. 246 
134-48 
47-48: 
193-4 



400: 106 



401 
398 
401 
403 



172 
9-10: 

156. 162-4: 
241-2 



399: 37 
399: 65 
402: 178 



2 



Author 

Seow-Choen, Francis 

Slaughter, Derek 
Slaughter, Lee 
Smith, J.A.D. 
Steele, Tony 
Stevens, Graham 
Stubbs, Alan 
Sutcliffe, Eddie 

Tebbutt, Peter 



Number: Pages 

399: 49-51; 
403: 239 
403: 243-4 
403 243-4 
401: 154 

130-3, 161 
269 
18: 4-7 
236-7 



401: 
403: 
ICN 
403: 



402: 204-6 



Author 



Thomas, Rachel, C. 



Waring, Paul 



Withrington, David 



Number: Pages 

399: 66-76; 
401: 124-9; 
402: 179-90 



399: 


66-76; 


401: 


124-9; 


402: 


179-90; 


403: 


247-8, 




255-66 


403: 


233-4 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Aberrations 

Discovering Newnham-on-Severn: The Scarlet tiger 

{Callimorpha dominula L.) 399: 47-48 

Heath fritillary aberrations in 1994 403: 243-4 

Note on the Scarlet tiger moth (Callimorpha dominula L.) 

at Newnham-on-Severn 402: 193-4 

Red-spotted form of the Poplar hawkmoth larva 398: 11-13 

Two more gynandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph, 

Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) with notes on captive behaviour 399: 49-51 



Africa 

Butterflies in Kakum National Park, Ghana, 

Part 1: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae 

Part 2: Nymphalidae & Hesperiidae 

Large white in South Africa 

Some Emperor moths (Saturniidae) of the Southern Sudan 



Amateur Entomologists' Society 

60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Part I: 1935-44 398: 25-30 

Part II: 1945-54 399: 77-82 

Part III: 1955-64 400: 107-16 

Part IV: 1965-74 401: 166-72 

PartV: 1975-84 402:210-15 

Part VI: 1985-95 403:267-9 

1996 subscriptions 402: 206 

AES Area Conservation Representative in Britain ICN 16: 7 

Date for your 1996 diary (AGM & Members' Day) 403: 238 

Date for your 1996 diary (AES Exhibition) 403: 245 



398: 3-8 
399: 43-46 
403: 240 
403: 255-66 



3 



Exhibition report and list of exhibitors at the 1994 exhibition. 

held at Kempton Park Racecourse on 8th October 1994 401: 134-48 

Arachnida 

Feigned death in the Wolf spider {Pisaura mirabilis) (Clerk) 399: 41-42 

Mass phoresy by Pseudoscorpions 403: 252-4 

Story of Spider Sue 402: 209 

Asia - see also specific countries 

Stick-insect Datames oi/eus (VVesuvood) 1859 (Phasmida) 403: 239 

Austria 

Hill-topping beha^ioui- of the Su alloutail butterfly {Papilio machaon) 

in the Lechtaler Alps. Ausn-ia 399: 52 

Meadows, mountains and butterflies: Austrian T\,to1. August. 1993 400: 100-104 

Obser\ing butterfUes in Austria. July 1994 401: 130-3 

Beha\iour 

Buneniy adaptation to unnatural habitats in the Philippines 402: 190-2 

Cannibal ladybirds 399: 35 

Connection between Meloe proscarabaeus and Anthophora reiusa 

along the Pembrokeshire coast 403: 222-6 

Feigned death in the Wolf spider {Pisaura mirabilis) (Clerk) 399: 41-42 

Further note on Black-veined white aggregations in central Finland 403: 241-2 

Further note on Swallouiail lar\'ae eating ground elder 401: 156 

Further note on the piggv-back fly 399: 76 

Hill-topping behaviour of the Su allowtail butterfly (Papilio machaon) 

in the Lechtaler Alps. Austria 399: 52 

Ladybird, the weevil and the Cola bottle 398: 8 

Mass phoresy by Pseudoscorpions 403: 252-4 

Mate-guarding in Ckisiaflava (Meigen) (Diptera: Clusiidae) 399: 38-40 

Migration puzzle 399: 40 

Observations on the appearance and behaviour of species of the 

Stick insect genus Timema. (Scudder). (Phasmida: Timematodea) 402: 197-203 

Some cricket species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae. Gryllidae and 

Gryllotalpidae) found in South-Westem France: Observations under 

field and captive conditions 400: 89-99 

Two more gvnandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph. 

Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) witn notes on captive behaviour 399: 49-51 

Biological clocks 

Effects of temperature on the de\-elopment of the Northern eggar moth. 
Lasiocampa quercus callunae. and the wider implications 403: 247-8 

Book reviews - NB. Names in parentheses are those of the authors, not the reviewers 
British butterflies: Vernacular names including forms, subspecies and 
aberrations (W.A. McCall) 399: 62 



4 



Butterflies and moths of Berkshire (B.R. Baker) 400: 106 

Conservation of butterflies in Britain past and present (J. Feltwell) 402: 207-8 

Danmarks Svirrefluer (E. Torp) 401: 157-8 

Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens (V. & A. Lukhtanov) 399: 60-61 

Insect conservation biology (M.J. Samways) ICN 16: 9-11 

New life for old woods (Land Rover Woodlands Campaign) ICN 17: 12-3 

Scuttle Flies: The Phoridae (R.H.L. Disney) 399: 62 

The butterflies' flypast (C. Simson) 399: 61 

The insects: An outline of entomolgy (P.J. Gullan & P.S. Cranson) 402: 208 

Butterfly houses 

Rajah Brooke flits to the big city 398: 9-10 

Cartophily 

Ramblings of an aged cartophilic entomologist 398: 1 7-24 

China 

Erection of a new genus for the "Dubernardi- group" and a new species 

of Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in China 399: 53-58 

New subspecies of Dabasa hercules (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) 

from Wuyi Mountains, China 399: 63-64 

Cigarette cards - see: Cartophily 

Coleoptera 

Cannibal ladybirds 399: 35 

Connection between Meloe proscarabaeus and Anthophora retusa 

along the Pembrokeshire coast 403: 222-6 

Conservation 

English Nature species recovery programme ICN 18: 8-9 

JCCBI guidelines for invertebrate site surveys ICN 17: 5-11 

Natura 2000 sites (Special Areas of Conservation) in the UK ICN 18: 4-7 

Woodland Trust deadwood policy (Letter) ICN 16: 12 

Corfu 

Corfu in late September - butterflies 203: 233-4 

Costa Rica 

Observation of Prepona dexamenus (Hopffer) 401: 154 

Czech Republic 

Moth recording in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 

4th-llth September 1994 399: 66-76 

Diptera 

Further note on the piggy-back fly 399: 76 



5 



Mate-guarding in Clusiafhua (Meigen) (Diptera: Clusiidae) 399: 38-40 

Rare Syrphid found in Gvvynedd. Wales 400: 104 

England - see also Scotland. Wales 

A gall wasp newly recorded in Britain ICN 18:8 

English Nature species recovery programme /CN 18: 8-9 

Key wildlife sites in Gloucestershire ICN 17: 13 

Natura 2000 sites (Special Areas of Conservation) in the UK ICN 18: 4-7 

Requests for sighting of species ICN 18: 8 

Road schemes in Bedfordshire. Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire ICN 16: 8 

Visit to Whixall Moss 399: 42 

Woodland Trust deadwood policy (Letter) ICN 16: 12 

Equipment 

Help wanted curing a problem with a cabinet 400: 106 

V8 4x4 mobile insect trap 401: 162-4 

Will breeding and insect nets be banned"^ 401: 161 

Exhibitions 

Correction to Exhibition report (Vol. 54 401: 147) 402: 214 

Exhibition report and list of exhibitors at the 1994 exhibition. 

held at Kempton Park Racecourse on 8th October 1994 401: 134-48 

Los Angeles insect fair - 1995 403: 244-5 

Review of the new permanent exhibit of insects at Oxford 403: 244-5 

Finland 

Further note on Black-veined white aggregations in central Finland 403: 241 

France 

Grey sand-covered bug: a request for help with identification 400: 88 

Moths and butterflies of the French Pyrenees. 22nd-31st July 1994 401: 124-9 

402: 179-90 

Some cricket species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae. Gn^'llidae and 

Gryllotalpidae) found in South-Western France: Observations under 

field and captive conditions 400: 89-99 

Ghana 

Butterflies in Kakum National Park, Ghana, 

Part 1: Papilionidae. Pieridae, Lycaenidae 398: 3-8 

Part 2: Nymphalidae & Hesperiidae 399: 43-46 

Hemiptera 

Grey sand-covered bug: a request for help with identification 400: 88 

Request for froghopper records 399: 59-60 

Hymenoptera 

A gall wasp newly recorded in Britain ICN 18: 8 



6 



Connection between Meloe proscarabaeus and Anthophora retusa 

along the Pembrokeshire coast 403: 222-6 

Identification 

Grey sand-covered bug: a request for help with identification 400: 88 

Insect collections 

Help wanted curing a problem with a cabinet 400: 106 

Use of silica gel for drying insects in the tropics 401: 155-6 

Invertebrate Conservation News 

No. 16 398: (1-13) 

No. 17 400: (1-13) 

No. 18 402: (1-13) 

Legal issues 

Adding species for legal protection (Letter) ICN 16: 13 

Proposals for legal controls on butterfly releases in Britain ICN 18: 3 

Quinquennial review of 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act ICN 16: 3-7 

ICN 17: 3-4 

Review of species legally protected in Britain ICN 18: 9-13 

Road schemes in Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire ICN 16: 8 

Wildlife and Countryside Act quinquennial review 403: 226 

Will breeding and insect nets be banned? 401 : 161 

Lepidoptera 

1994 - A Vapourer moth year in Staffordshire 399: 76 

Another Midland Monarch 399: 48 

Autumn Lepidoptera from Glasgow 403: 237 

Banana butterfly 401: 161 

Brown argus {Aricia agestis) in Northamptonshire 402: 204-6 

Butterflies in Kakum National Park, Ghana. 

Part 1: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae 398: 3-8 

Part 2: Nymphalidae & Hesperiidae 399: 43-46 

Butterfly adaptation to unnatural habitats in the Philippines 402: 190-2 

Corfu in late September - butterflies 203: 233-4 

C\;nthia cardui in East Sussex 402: 206 

Dark green fritillary in Northamptonshire 402: 19 Ar 

Dingy skipper in Derbyshire in August 402: 194 

Discovering Newnham-on-Severn: The Scarlet tiger 

{Callimorpha dominula L.) 399: 47-48 

Early Lepidopteral sightings 403: 248 

Effects of temperature on the development of the Northern eggar moth, 

Lasiocampa quercus callunae, and the wider implications 403: 247-8 

Entomology note from Glasgow 402: 196 

Erection of a new genus for the "Dubernardi- group" and a new species 

of Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in China 399: 53-58 

Further note on Black-veined white aggregations in central Finland 403: 241-2 



7 



Further note on Swallowtail larv^ae eating ground elder 401 : 156 

Further Staffordshire Lime hawkmoths 403: 248 

Glasgow obser\'ations 401 : 133 

Good, the bad and the indifferent: moth numbers in Avon. 1989-1994 398: 14-16 

Grey dagger on laurel 403: 234 

Handkerchiefs in Trinidad and Tobago (Lepidoptera: Ni^nnphalidae) 399: 36-37 

Heath fritillary aben-ations in 1994 403: 243-4 

Hill-topping behaviour of the Swallo\\tail butterfly [Papilio machacr 

in the Lechtaler Alps. Austia 399: 52 

Lai-ge white in South Africa 403: 240 

Lar\'al findings in Glasgow 403: 246 

Late emergence 399: 48 

Latticed heath in Staffordshire 399: 58 

Meadows, mountains and butterflies: Austrian TvtoI. August. 1993 400: 100-104 

Migration puzzle 399: 40 

Moth recording in the Czech and Slovak Republics. 

4th-llth September 1994 399: 66-76 

Moth sightings in 1994 , 399: 37 

Moth that wasn't 403: 269 

Moths and butterflies of the French PvTenees. 22nd-31st July 1994 401: 124-9 

402: 179-90 

More Lepidoptera from Glasgow 403: 242 

National PvTalid recording scheme launched 398: 24 

New subspecies of Dabasa hercules (Lepidoptera; Papilionidae 

fi-om Wuvi Mountains. China 399: 63-64 

Note on the Scarlet tiger moth {Callimorpha dominula L.'' 

at NewTiham-on-Sevem 402: 193-4 

Observ'ation oi Prepona dexamenus (Hopffer 401: 154 

Observing butterflies in Austria. July 1994 401: 130-3 

Pale clouded yellow (C. hya/e) - a request for records 401: 164 

Proposals for legal controls on butterfly releases in Britain ICN 18: 3 

Puffin Island expedition 403: 249-52 

Purple thorn records in Staffordshire 402: 195 

Rajah Brooke flits to the big city 398: 9-10 

Red-spotted form of the Poplar hawkmoth larva 398: 11-13 

Search for crenata - the Dusky-marbled brown 401 : 159-60 

Small yellow wave record 399: 62 

Some Emperor moths (Satumiidae) of the Southern Sudan 403: 255-66 

Specialised moth in Cornwall? , /CAM6: 7-8: 

/CN 18; 13 

Sti-ange tale of "The Manchester Tinea" - retold 403: 236-7 

Unlikely butterfly habitat in the Philippines 401: 173 

V8 4x4 mobile insect trap 401: 162 A 

Was 1994 a great Clouded yellow year? 401: 158 

Malaysia 

Rajah Brooke flits to the big city 398: 9-10 



8 



Two more gynandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph, 
Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) with notes on captive behaviour 399: 49-51 



Medical entomology 

Of bats, badgers and bovines 403: 238 

Mental meanderings 

Bugged up to the nines - dress sense for entomologists 403: 227-32 

How long-legged was that Roman soldier? 
A contribution on Romanus longipes 402: 178 

Odonata 

British Dragonfly Society national survey 400: 105 

Further study of the Odonata of Milton Country Park (South Cambridgeshire) . 401 : 149-54 

Orthoptera 

Roesel's bush-cricket in Surrey 401: 129 

Some cricket species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Gryllidae and 

Gryllotalpidae) found in South-Western France: Observations under 

field and captive conditions 400: 89-99 

Phasmida 

Observations on the appearance and behaviour of species of the 

Stick insect genus Timema. (Scudder). (Phasmida: Timematodea) 402: 197-203 

Stick-insect Datames oileus (Westwood) 1859 (Phasmida) 403: 239 

Two more gynandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph, 

Heteropterxjx dilatata (Phasmida) with notes on captive behaviour 399: 49-51 

Philippines 

Butterfly adaptation to unnatural habitats in the Philippines 402: 190-2 

Unlikely butterfly habitat in the Philippines 40i: 173 

Population statistics 

Good, the bad and the indifferent: moth numbers in Avon, 1989-1994 398: 14-16 

JCCBI guidelines for invertebrate site surveys ICN 17: 5-11 

Preserving one's records 401: 165 

Recording schemes 

JCCBI guidelines for invertebrate site surveys ICN 17: 5-11 

National Pyralid recording scheme launched 398: 24 

Preserving one's records 401: 165 

Scotland 

Autumn Lepidoptera from Glasgow 403: 237 

Entomology note from Glasgow 402: 196 

Glasgow observations 401: 133 

Laival findings in Glasgow 403: 246 



9 



More Lepidoptera from Glasgow 403: 242 

Siphonaptera 

Nests too dry for fleas? 399: 66-76 

Slovak Republic 

Moth recording in the Czech and Slo\-ak Republics. 

4th-llth September 1994 399: 66-76 

Slovenia or Slovakia? 401: 172 

Spain 

Moth that wasn't 403: 269 

Taxonomy 

Erection of a new genus for the "Dubernardi- group" and a new species 

of Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopaloceral in China 399: 53-58 

New subspecies oi Dabasa Hercules i Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) 

from Wuyi Mountains. China , 399: 63-64 

Tobago 

Handkerchiefs in Trinidad and Tobago (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae] 399: 36-37 

Trinidad 

Handkerchiefs in Trinidad and Tobago ^ Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae] 399: 36-37 

USA 

Los .Angeles insect fair - 1995 403: 235 

Obsei'X'ations on the appearance and behaiiour of species of the 
Stick insect genus Timema iScudder). (Phasmida: Timematodea) 402: 197-203 

Wales 

Connection between Meloe proscaraboeus and Anthophora retusa 

along the Pembrokeshire coast 403: 222-6 

Puffin Island expedition 403: 249-52 

Rare Syrphid found in Guynedd. Wales 400: 401 

Welsh invenebrate review ICh' 18: 3 



10 



SPECIES LIST 

NB. References are to articles largely or solely referring to the species listed below. Species 
lists and passing references have not been indexed. 



Species Number: Pages 


Author Number: 


Pages 


A 

/\cvonictQ psi 


df)"^- 949 

'i-UO. iLO'-t, 


HydrdiQ jiQmmcolQriQ 


Oyy. 


62 


Adolio bipunctQtQ 










Aeshna grandis 


400: 105 


Laothoe populi 


398: 


11-13 


Anthophora retusa 


403: 222-6 


Lasiocampa quercus 






Apom\;elois bistratieUa 




callunae 


403: 


247-8 


neophanes 


/CN 16: 7-8; 


Lycaenidae 


398: 


6-8 




iL^iv AO. lO 








r\pUi lU CiUtUcyi 


4n^- 94-1 9 


l^liillLUiiLl ULilUllU 


dCl'^- 


243-4 




dC)9- IQd 
'fUZ . 1 y'-i 


WIbIoq proscoroboBus 


dClV- 

HrU / . 


222-6 


AriciQ Qgcstis 


dC)9- 904 f> 




dfl"^- 
HrUu. 


248 


AudQcidcQ follioti 


/PN 1 8- R 
la. O 








r^ULUi-}! (Jpi ILL gUi 1 11 1 lU 




iNyi 1 ipi laliUafc; 


oyy . 


36-7, 42 






KyigylU Ui ILlLjuU 


oyy . 


76 


K^QcyvQus TnorsriQili 




rQplllO rnQCnQOU 


Oyy . 


52; 


nlJitmnmhri Hnmini iln 

^^yjtllll 1 1^1 L/l IKA KA\yi 1 III HAl\U 


Sgg- 47-8: 




401: 


156 




40P- 1Q3-4 


P;=%T\i 1 i r^n i H :^ o 


398: 


5 


\^/Ui)lU jlUuLl 


QQQ. QO Ar\ 
oyy. oo-T-u 


Porosy^rphiAS mQliriBllus 




104 




407- 164 




ooy . 


6; 


C\jnthiQ CQrdui 


dC)9- 906 




oyy . 


53-58 








403: 


240 


JjnnnQn h^r/^i ii^q 




1 iOLALifL* 1 1 III kAL/IH'J 


399: 


41-42 


Danaus plexippus 


399: 48 




401: 


154 


Datames oileus 


403: 239 




401: 


173 






Pyralidae 


398: 


24 


Er\;nnis tages 


402: 194 












Saturniidae 


403: 


255-66 


Gluphisia crenata 


401: 159-60 


Selenia tetralunaria 


402: 


195 


Gryllidae 


400: 89-99 


Setniothisa dathrata 


399: 


58 


Gryllotalpidae 


400: 89-99 












Tettigoniidae 


400: 


89-99 


Hamadiyas guatemalena 401: 161 








Hesperiidae 


399: 45 


Zygaena hnicerae 






Heteropteryx dihtata 


399: 49-51 


latomarginata 


399: 


76 



11 



© The Amateur Entomologists' Societ}' 
Registered Charity No. 267430 
All Rights Resen-ed 



Printed in England b\ 
Crax itz Printing Company Limited. 1 Tower Hill. Brentwood. Essex CM 14 4TA. 




of the Amateur 



Entomologists' 
Society 



EDITOR 

WAYNE JARVIS BSc. 



The Amateur Entomologists* Society 

Founded in 1935 



President: 
Secretar];: 

Treasurer: 
Registrar: 
Bulletin Editor: 

General Editor: 

Advertising Secretar];: 
Exhibition Secretary: 
Youth Secretary;: 
ICN Editor: 
Wants & Exchange: 

Habitat Conservation Officer: 



Brian Gardiner 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 
Simon Fraser 

Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College at Silwood 
Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY. e-mail: s.fraser@ic.ac.uk. 

Andrew Lock 

150 Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW9 lUU. 
Mark Colvin 

5 Oakfield, Plaistow, Billinghurst, West Sussex RH14 OQD. 
Wayne Jarvis 

9a Brook Street, Luton, Bedfordshire LU3 IDS. 
e-mail: jarvisw@bbsrc.ac.uk. Tel: (01582) 485820. 

Mike Bonsall 

Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College at Silwood 
Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY. e-mail: mbonsall@ic.ac.uk. 

Rob Dyke 

26 Ridings Avenue, Winchmore Hill, London N21 2EL. 
Roy McCormick 

36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8WR. 
Darren Mann 

c/o The Registrar, address as above. 
David Lonsdale 

33 King's Road, Alton, Hampshire GU34 IPX. 
Owen Lewis 

School of Biological Sciences, University of Birmingham, 
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT. 

Martin Harvey 

1 Arrowfield Cottages, Rotherfield-Greys, Henley-on- 
Thames, Oxon. 



Subscriptions: First subscription (including entrance fee) £11, or £8 under 
18. Renewals £9 or £6 under 18. Overseas members £12. 
Subcription due on the 1st March each year. 

Advertising Rate: The following charges apply to adverts in the body of the 
Bulletin. Full page £60, Half page £40, Quarter page £25. 
Insert charges available on request to Advertising Secretary, 
address as above. 



Worldwide Butterflies 

Sherborne, Dorset. dt9 4qn. Tei 01935 746O8 Fax 01935 29937 




CATALOGUES OF 

SPECIMENS 
FOR COLLECTORS 

We will be pleased to send 
any of the following. 50p in 
stamps would be appreciated 
and please mention the AES. 

1 . The Allcard Collection 
8000 superb European 
butterflies. Very important 
collection in exceptionally 
fine condition. 

2. British Butterily 
Aberrations. Colour 
catalogue of rarities and 

^^^^^ licenced protected species 
from old collections. 

3. British Moths. 

4. British and European 
Butterflies. 



^ m^.^ 5. A Hundred and One 

Cover illustration by Sally Goodden, BA (Hons), lUustrastor Exotic Butterflies in 

colour. 



6. Exotic Set and Papered 
Colour CatalOgUG 1995 specimens, illustrated in 

colour. Sent with any other 
current lists. 

A wide range of butterfly and n\oth 
livestock, colour illustrations on 
every page. Books, entomological 
equipment and specimens. 



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AES BULLETIN 



No. 398 



THE NATURAL 
HISTORY MUS 

13 MAR 1995 

PURCHAbbD 
ENTOMOLOGY LIBRARY 




Gditorial 

The New Year is upon us, and with it comes the Society's 60th 
Anniversary. It was hoped that the new look Bulletin would be ready for 
this issue, but unfortunately we have had some problems in producing it, 
and have therefore decided to shelve the plan for this volume. We have, 
however, introduced some changes in the format as you will notice as 
you read on. The major addition to this volume is the start of our diary 
section, to keep you informed of the goings on in the entomological 
world. Any dates of meetings, exhibitions etc. are gratefully received. Also 
included in this issue is ICN number 16, and, to celebrate our 
anniversary, a look back at just a few of the many articles received during 
the first decade of the Society. 

I expect that most members are aware that the first prosecution has 
been brought in the UK in respect of possession for sale of butterflies 
protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. 
The prosecution, brought by the Leicestershire police after a visit to the 
1993 Christmas Entomological Fair in Leicester resulted in fines totalling 
£490 plus costs of £80 for possession for sale of 14 Chequered skipper 
butterflies (Carterocephalus palaemon). The interpretation of the Act is 
still a major cause of confusion amongst entomologists. It is therefore 
welcome news that David Sheppard of English Nature has agreed to keep 



2 



FEBRUARY 1995 



both the AES and the Entomological Livestock Group infoi"T.ec o: any 
future changes in the Act. To simplify the Act as it stands, ir.e AES and 
ELG are hoping to produce a booklet, in conjunction with English 
Nature, for members clearly explaining the Wildlife and Countryside Act 
with regai'd to insects. It is also hoped that members will submit questions 
to be answered by English Nature to clariry :hc legis'sTion. 
Questionsshould be sent to me as soon as possible. We have also been 
promised an up to date copy of the Act and a current list of all species 
concerned, which I shall pass on to you as soon as it is received. 

We have recently been contacted by Catheiine Cribb who in:r:-n-.5 us 
that she is still recei\ing phone calls about Societv^ matters, over a ye^r 
after Peter's death. We would therefore, ask members who ha . e 
Catherine's telephone number as a Society number, not to use ::. ru: :c 
fonvard all matters to a member of Council (showm on the inside n zn: 
cover of all BuUetins). Your help with this matter would be greauy 
appreciated by all concerned. 

The Society holds its Annual General Meeting on 22nd Apni at the 
Royal Entomological Society. 41 Queen's Gate. London. The format of 
the day will follow a similar format to that of last years event. Details of 
how to get to the meeting are given on the inside back cover o: inis 
Bulletin. The day will commence at 11am. 

The AGM will see our SecreTaiy. Simon FrcS^r '^.'.s r:s::::n due 

to work commitments overseas. As yet we still ns/. c :c r.r.u a i cU-ace.-r.en: 
for him. Any member who is interested in the position should contaci 
Simon as soon as possible for fuither details of what the job entails. 

We have recently decided that the AES should include electronic mail 
addresses, wherever possible, for a faster contact of council members. 
Those addresses which are available ai-e included on the inside front 
cover of the Bulletin. Finally, we have also decided that inserts will nc /. 
be accepted into the Bulletin. This change in policy has been brough: 
about for the simple reason that we have now been pushed into the next 
postage band, and therefore an extra 50g of weight can be used. Rates 
for inserts may be obtained from Rob Dyke our ad\-ern5ing secretary at 
the address on the inside front co\'er. 

Best wishes for the 1995 season. 



Wayne. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 3 



BUTTERFLIES IN KAKUM NATIONAL PARK, GHANA, 
PART I: PAPILIONIDAE, PIERIDAE & LYCAENIDAE 

by Torben B. Larsen 

358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

As part of background research for my book, The butterflies of West 
Africa - origins, natural history, diversity and conservation, I decided to 
study the butterfly fauna of Kakum National Park in depth. Virtually no 
attempts have been made to compile complete lists of butterflies from 
single localities in West Africa, though such lists would be a useful aid to 
assessing total biodiversity. A further advantage of studying single 
localities in depth is the gradual development of an understanding of 
seasonality, the relative frequency of the various species and their habitat 
preferences, which is hard to obtain through flying visits to many 
localities. 

Kakum National Park consists of about 350km^ of tropical rainforest in 
good condition, though parts were selectively logged not that long ago. It 
is one of the most important conservation areas in West Africa, where 
rainforest has been lost at an alarming rate throughout this century. 
Perhaps the largest indicator of the continuing health of the forest is the 
presence of the small forest elephant, a well-differentiated subspecies of 
the savannah elephant, so shy that its habits and social organisation are 
still only poorly understood. 

The park has become something of a "conservation flagship" in Ghana 
since it is readily accessible by tarmac road from Cape Coast, a town 
some 150km west of the capital, Accra. Cape Coast was for long a slaving 
centre and the coastline is dotted with forts (Portuguese, English, Dutch 
and Danish) which stand as living testimonials to one of the worst 
examples ever of the human capacity for inhumanity. The Park is being 
developed by the Ghana Wildlife Department with technical support from 
Conservation International and financial support from US AID. 

The purpose of this paper is to give an impression of the butterfly fauna 
in a West African rainforest setting. 

The biogeographical setting 

The West African rainforest is one of four major forest regions in Africa, 
all of which are - or at various times were - in continued faunal contact. 
The Afrotropical region has some 3,700 butterfly species, more than two- 
thirds of which are forest species. About 900 forest species occur in 
western West Africa, i.e. the area west of the Dahomey Gap - a 
biogeographical barrier where a tongue of savannah breaks the forest 



4 



FEBRUARY 1995 



zone between Ghana and western Nigeria. North of the forest zone occur 
an additional 100 or so savannah species. So far 870 of the thousand 
West Afi'ican species are known with cenaintv' from Ghana. 

Since all the forest zones in Africa are. or have been, in recent faunal 
contact, there is considerable similarity- between the regions. Levels of 
regional endemicity are relatively low. Thus, hardly any genera of 
butterflies are limited to West Africa, but about 120 species are - 15% of 
the forest fauna. The remainder are found in other forest regions as well, 
often ranging right through from Sierra Leone to western Kenya, and 
even to the East African coastal forests. 

The butterflies of Kakum 

I have spent some 60 days in the field (35 field days, defined as five 
hours' collecting a day in good weather conditions) at Kakum on 
numerous occasions over the past 18 months. In the course of this I have 
established the presence of almost 440 species of bunerflies - half the 
Ghana total and nearly two-thirds of Ghana's forest butterflies. However, 
many remain to be discovered and I would expect the total to be 
somewhere between 550 and 600. 

To place these figures in perspective, the highest published figures from 
elsewhere in West Afiica are around 380 (Olokemeji, Gambari and Agege 
in Nigeria (Larsen. Riley & Comes 1980, Riley & Comes 1970. Hopkins 
1970)). The most detailed faunistic study yet of butterflies in West Afiica 
is the review of the Liberian fauna by Fox et al. (1965 !, At this point only 
475 species were known with certainty from Liberia. During their many 
years of collecting. Fox and his wife caught far fewer species in Liberia 
than I have personally found at Kakum.. 

A short walk in Kakum National Park 

A good day in the ti'opical forests is one that is partly cloudy, so that sun 
and shade alternate. This keeps down temperatures so that butterflies are 
active all day - and allows the collector to suiwive the whole day as well! 
On veiy sunny days heat shuts down much of the activity- by noon-time, 
and many of the undergrowth species do not leai'e their hiding spots. A 
walk should be planned to take in both abandoned logging roads, open 
clearings, and the dark forest paths where the sun hardly penetrates. A 
well-planned walk on a good day can be I'ery satisfying indeed, 1 
regularly see as many as 150 species in a single day. My personal record 
is 225. on an absolutely perfect day in the Gambari Forest, near Ibadan 
in Nigeria, at the right time of the year, when my local experience was at 
its best. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



5 



Table 1. The butterflies of Ghana and of Kakum National Park (as of June 1994) 



Family/Subfamily 


Africa 


Ghana 


Kakum 


r cnjiinji iiucifc; 


R7 

o / 


91 


1 7 


PieridaG 


1 

1 /o 


47 


94 


Ly LafcJI llUclc: 


±'-T 1 O 


^0<J 


1 1 R 


lYUJUil 111 IClfc; 


14 


9 


0 


L-lDyintilllafc: 


Q 
O 


1 
1 


1 


Lycxi icixi ici^ 


19 


5 


5 


Oaiyriliafe! 




47 


z,o 


Apaturinae 


2 


1 


0 


Charaxinae 


187 


49 


20 


i Ny 1 1 Ijjl lOlil icifc; 








Acraeinae 


199 


39 


25 


Hesperiidae 


478 


191 


91 


TOTAL 


3495* 


864* 


433* 



present totals about 3650, 870 and 441 respectively. 



Papilionidae 

There are at least 17 Swallowtails (Papilionidae) at Kakum. The Giant 
emperor swallowtail (Papilio menestheus Drury) is the most common, 
together with Papilio c\;proeofila Butler; the males of both patrol along 
open paths. Occasionally, the huge Papilio horribilis Butler will swoop 
down from the canopy with wings held a third open. There are three of 
the brilliant Green-banded swallowtails of the Papilio nireus group, often 
joining the Long-tailed swordtail, Graphium policenes Cramer, at damp 
patches. An occasional flash of emerald, hurtling along at prodigious 
speed, announces the rare Graphium fynderaeus Fabricius - one of the 
most beautiful of all African butterflies. 

So far neither of Africa's largest and most spectacular butterflies (Papilio 
zalmoxis Hewitson and Papilio antimachus Drury) have been sighted at 
Kakum, but they may well be there. Both are remarkably scarce, local, 
and seasonal in West Africa. 



6 



FEBRUARY 1995 



Pieridae 

The whites and yellows (Pieridiae) of Africa are very similar to those of 
Asia and the Neotropics - indeed Appias and Eurema are pan-tropical 
genera, and Belenois is well represented in Asia. Among the most 
prominent is the Forest grass yellow (Eurema senegalensis Boisduval); on 
old logging roads, where the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica has 
penetrated, the Common grass yellow (Eurema hecabe Linne) of open 
habitats may also be found. The two normally never fly together. The 
most prominent of the whites are four members of the genus Leptosia, 
flying everywhere with what must be among the weakest flights of any 
butterflies. On warm days large numbers of Belenois and Appias come to 
damp sand (see plate 95A Fig. 1). Some of the Pierid females show a 
remarkable degree of dimorphism which has not yet been systematically 
studied; they seem to be mimics of Mylothris. Many of the African 
Pieridae (not least the Colotis and related genera) are savannah 
butterflies and these never penetrate the forest, though several of them 
invade cleared agricultural land. There are only 25 Pieridae at Kakum 
and few remain to be discovered. 

Still missing is the Ghost (Pseudopontia paradoxa Felder), the only 
member of the subfamily Pseudopontiinae, with its transparent wings and 
amazing venation. Just possibly Kakum is not wet enough, but it seems to 
be generally rare in Ghana, and during my extensive collecting I have 
taken just two in Ankasa National Park. 

Lycaenidae 

The Lycaenidae are by far the largest group of African butterflies with 
about 40 per cent of the total fauna, but they are a very mixed lot indeed. 
The most unusual are the African subfamily Lipteninae. These are small 
white, yellow, red, orange or black butterflies - often with beautiful 
patterns - that are strictly limited to the proximity of Crematogaster ants 
which build large paper nests on tree-trunks. There seems to be no real 
symbiosis - the larvae have no honey glands - but no ants ... no 
butterflies. The Lipteninae are so bizarre that many were originally 
described as Pieridae or Acraeinae. They are not at all numerous at 
Kakum and need looking for. They gather in little clusters on twigs or 
tendrils, especially those of Marantaceae which have extra-floral nectaries. 
They never visit flowers and their proboscis is reduced in length 
compared with flower-feeding Lycaenidae. My favourites are the almost 
clearwing Ornipholidotos; I was particularly pleased to find a colony of 
OrniphoHdotos larseni Stempffer, which I never saw again since finding 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 7 



one of the types in Nigeria in 1967! The largest of the Liptenines is 
Mimacraea darwinia Butler, a stunning mimic or co-mimic of Acraea 
epaea Cramer. Some 30 of these species have been recorded, but there 
must be many more. 

The Epitola section of the Lipteninae are usually blue on the upperside, 
and therefore rather less unusual. The huge genus Epitola probably has 
some 30 Ghanaian species, but I have only taken three or four at Kakum. 
They seem to live high up, just below the canopy, and are only seen 
when they come down to display on their chosen parade ground. Each 
species has its own display time, lasting less than an hour. On three 
separate occasions, within a few minutes of 11.30, I have taken a single 
male Epitola carcina Hewitson in exactly the same spot. It will be a long 
time before all the Epitola and the related genera in Kakum have been 
recorded, but the largest of them (Hewitsonia boisduvalii Aurivillius) is 
fortunately there. Conservation International is planning to construct a 
canopy walkway which may help in pinning down the habits of these 
particular butterflies, I shall certainly spend many days on the walkway 
with a long-handled net. So far only ten members of the Epitola group 
have been found; there must be at least 20 more. 

There are a few members of the subfamilies Miletinae and Liphyrinae, 
the truly carnivorous species, which feed on Homoptera or ants. Of these, 
only Megalopalpus zymna Hewitson is tolerably common. I took a single 
female of the Moth butterfly (Euliphyra mirifica Holland), which feeds on 
the early stages of the vicious tailor ants [Oecophylla); I had no idea what 
it was until I took it out of the net! 

The Aphnaeinae and Theclinae are numerous and mostly rather similar 
to Oriental species, and many would not look out of place in the 
Neotropics. Most are quite scarce, however. For instance, there are some 
25 of the beautiful lolaus in Ghana, but I have only taken four or five at 
Kakum. The rarest are members of the Pseudalestis, about which Denis 
Owen (1991) recently wrote; my total is a single battered male of 
Pseudaletis leonis Staudinger which dropped out of the canopy. One 
species that is common is the False-head butterfly, Oxylides faunas. Not 
only does it have the amazing false-head, but it has an extra twist - it 
turns 180° a fraction of a second before landing in order to improve the 
effect. I pointed out this phenomenon to a group of Wildlife Department 
staff during my first visit to Ghana and word has spread. Now I keep 
being told the story in other parks by staff who do not know me - an 
interesting example of how effective informal communication channels 
can be. I have about 30 members of this group so far, but there must be 



8 



FEBRUARY 1995 



almost twice as many. And there are new species to be found; I have just 
described Diopetes kakumi, a beautiful new Thecline. 

Apart from Anthene and related genera, the Polyommatinae are poorly 
represented in the forest zone. The most evident are the snow-white 
members of the Oboronia, including by far the eastern-most colony of 
Oboronia libenana Stempffer. The Polyommatine tally so far comes to 
35. 

Only two Riodininae of the genus Abisara, well represented also in 
Asia, are known from West Africa. They seem to be restricted to the very 
highest points of West Africa (700 metres plus) and may well be 
genuinely absent from Kakum. 

The only African mainland Libytheine, L'lbythea labdaca Westwood is 
usually absent, but then occasionally turns up as a migrant by the million. 
Since it is found only in the forest zone, it is difficult to fathom why these 
large-scale movements take place. 

(to be continued) 



THE LADYBIRD, THE WEEVIL AND THE COLA BOTTLE 

by Jan Kori^szko (6089) 

During September 1994, a student friend. Miss Sharon Parry-Thomas, 
told me of an observation she had had a few weeks before. This was a 
ladybird which appeared to be attracted to an empty, green, plastic cola 
bottle. She noticed the ladybird sitting on a small indentation on the 
bottle, which was almost the same shape and size as the ladybird. 

Sharon thought it was trying to bite into the bottle - maybe there was 
already a very small perforation in the bottle, and the smell or taste of the 
cola, the colour of the bottle or a combination of the two attracted the 
ladybird. 

On a few occasions at home in my pantry, I have noticed the odd 
weevil sitting on the neck of my two litre plastic pop bottles. They seem to 
be trying to find a way into the bottles. I have heard of ladybirds, but 
more so weevils, that can give a human a small bite or nip at times, but 
their jaws would find a plastic bottle quite hard going. I wonder if other 
members have had similar observations or can add to this subject. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



9 



RAJAH BROOKE FLITS TO THE BIG CITY 

by Leigh Plester (2968) 

Yla-Muuratjdrvi, FIN-41800 Korpilahti, Finland. 

Given 15 hours to kill in a tropical city, my hero Captain Cook (Keith 
Floyd) would probably head for the nearest source of human nectar, but 
being an entomologist and having four people in tow (all female, aged 
from three to infinity), I naturally set out to enjoy myself still further. 
Taman Rama-Rama, Kuala Lumpur's Butterfly Park (or Butterfly Centre, 
if you believe the legend on the plastic carrier bags) is located in a quiet 
part of the city, amidst the sophisticated greenery of parks, including an 
orchid one, all well worth visiting. It's a bit out of the way, but if you stand 
looking stupid (no sweat for me) at the exit to K.L. airport, it takes all of 
ten seconds for a taxi driver to approach you, offering to "show you the 
sights". Depending on your bent, these can vary from the nefarious to the 
fairyous - and what more like a nymph than a butterfly (I said I was an 
entomologist)? Well, of course, we ended up at the flutterby one. 

The butterflies (Lepidoptera) at Taman Rama-Rama are housed 
together with the visitors in a huge, landscaped net cage, liberally 
sprinkled with saplings, bushes, herbaceous plants, mounds of scarlet 
hibiscus flowers sprayed with honey, and meandering concrete paths. 
The splash of water comes from what can only be described as a "live 
stream". Animals ranging from rabbits to turtles and some lethal-looking 
lizards peer out of cages at the humans under netting and, to those with 
long sight, create the right jungle atmosphere. There is also a small 
python who looks at you as though contemplating what he'd do to you if 
only he'd been born an anaconda. 

August 30th was a dull day, but hot for all that. A lot of the butterflies 
in the enclosure sat about on leaves, drooping in the tropical heat, while 
others flapped about from place to place looking exactly as they do in the 
rainforest. I and my entourage were a bit cynical at first, having just 
virtually stepped out of a North Borneo one, but we had to admit the 
resemblance to reality was pretty good. In other words, they had got it 
right. And for people from the big city, not to mention from as far away 
as cold old Europe, Taman Rama-Rama, like other butterfly parks, must 
be a revelation. Well worth visiting, in short. 

Fitting some of the local names to the actual insects in the butterfly 
house is not recommended to those suffering from hunger pains: 
Chocolate pansy, Yam fly. Knight, Wizard, Baron, Snow flat, Palm fly, 
Saturn, the jolly old Plum Judy and the Atlas moth. Most spectacular in 



10 



FEBRUARY 1995 




Fig. 1. A live leaf butterfly (left) advertises itself on an information board for the species. 



flight are the jet-black and gold Helena birdwings (Plate 96B Fig. 3) and 
the lamp-black and emerald Rajah Brooke's birdwings (Plate 95B Fig. 4) 
- taking me, at least, back to Sarawak and the era of the White Rajahs. A 
room in the entrance building harbours a fascinating collection of vivaria 
housing various kinds of Malaysian insects, other arthropods, and even a 
master-of-camouflage frog. 

A slight fly (Diptera) in the ointment is the lack of early stages. Being 
naive, I had expected to see caterpillars a-chobbling and chrysalids a- 
splitting, if not eggs actually being deposited. A young man in a shelter 
near the waterfall was busy glueing pupae to sticks and from him I 
learned that the butterflies are unfortunately bred elsewhere. Another, 
more serious, irritation was the lack of any kind of pamphlet in English. 
There was only a photocopied sheet in Bahasa saying "Welcome to the 
Butterfly Park", explaining that the attraction had been opened on 4th 
February 1992. Most of the brochure was filled with such things as a 
puzzle, a crossword and a "Cari Perbezaannya" (find the odd-one-out) 
for the local children. 

For all that, if you are left with a few hours in K.L., all-in-all a friendly 
and fascinating city, try to beetle (Coleoptera) off to the Kuala Lumpur 
Butterfly Park. Its modest entrance fee truly represents money well-spent. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



11 



THE RED-SPOTTED FORM OF THE POPLAR HAWKMOTH 
LARVA 

hyHewett A. Ellis {9940} 

16 Southlands, Tynemouth, T\^ne & WearNESO 2QS. 

Over the last sixteen years it has been my good fortune to find several red- 
spotted larvae of the Poplar hawkmoth, Laothoe populi, Linn., the latest 
two on 10th September, 1994 in Preston Cemetery, North Shields. One of 
these is shown in the accompanying photographs (Plate 95D and Fig. 1). 

These attractive-looking larvae have been recognised for over two 
hundred years (Sepp 1762), but the standard texts (Carter & Hargreaves 
1986) refer to them only briefly. Until recently (Ellis 1993b) there was 
available little information concerning the possible variations in 
anatomical distribution of the spots, and it was not known whether the 
spotting affects one or both sexes, is inherited or acquired, is related to 
the larval ground colour or to the particular foodplant. 

The colour photographs illustrate some of the main features of these 
larvae. The spots may be located along the subdorsal lines, the spiracular 
lines or in miscellaneous regions as follows: 

Subdorsal line spots 

These are arranged more or less symmetrically about the dorsal midline 
and occur on one or more of the three thoracic segments and the first to 
seventh abdominal segments. In a series of 207 red-spotted larvae I have 
found subdorsal spots in 166 (80.2%). Their distribution and size are not 
random. Subdorsal spots are most frequent and largest on the third 
abdominal (A3) segment and overall their order of diminishing frequency 
is: 

A3>T2>A7>A4>A2>A1>A5>T1>T3>A6 

Some combinations of subdorsal spots are more frequent than others and 
the six commonest are: 

T2, T3 & A7>A3>T2, A3, A4 & A7>T1, T2, T3, Al TO A7 
= A3&A7>T2&A3 

Spiracular line spots 

In a few (5.3%) spotted larvae there are subdorsal spots only, but 
commonly (77.3%) there are accompanying spots on the spiracular line. 
For the most part (74.9%) these are located anterior and/or posterior to 
the spiracles, but in a few larvae (2.4%) there are spots at the same level 
on segments T2 and T3 where there are no spiracles. Paraspiracular spots 



12 



FEBRUARY 1995 




Fig. 1. Subdorsal line spois Tl lo A / ; spiracuiar line spois Al lo A6. dark red pigment of 
apex of head capsule and prolegs. 



may be the only markings in about a sixth (IT^'^o) of spotted larvae. As 
with the subdorsal spots there is much individual variation between 
laivae. but in the commonest pattern (in 22% of larvae) there are anterior 
and posterior spots in relation to eveiy abdominal spiracle on Al to A8. 

Miscellaneous red markings 

In this categoiy there are a number of locations for the red pigment which 
is most fi-equent on the head capsule at the apex and sides, and around 
the ocelli and the mouth parts. It may also occur on the sides of the 
thoracic legs and abdominal prolegs. and at the base of the tail-horn. 
These miscellaneous markings tend to occur in larvae with the most 
prominent and numerous subdorsal and paraspiracular t^pes of red spots. 

Rearing pupae and adults horn these laivae has shown (Ellis 1993b) 
that both males and females may be of the red-spotted variety and 
interestingly one larva with symmetrical spots proved to be a bilateral 

gynandromoiph (Ellis 1993a). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



13 



Since the larvae may be found in the wild feeding on various types of 
poplar and willow it seems unlikely that the red spots are related to the 
foodplant and this has been confirmed during the rearing and breeding 
studies. Some larvae are unspotted in their early instars and the full 
complement of spotting may be delayed until the fourth instar. The 
breeding studies have confirmed that the red-spotting is inherited but not 
by a simple Mendelian or sex-linked mechanism and the precise mode of 
inheritance has not been determined. The various types of spotting are 
not related to the larval ground colour. 

It should be pointed out that the larvae of the Eyed hawkmoth 
(Smehnthus ocelhtus) may be ornamented with similar red spots to those 
described here in the Poplar hawkmoth. Since these forms of the larvae 
have existed for at least two centuries, then presumably the spotting does 
not significantly adversely affect the well-being (or survival) of the larvae. 

It has been suggested (Barrett 1895), that these red-spotted larvae 
occur more frequently in the north of the United Kingdom. I have found 
them in Lytham St Annes, on Lindisfarne (Holy Island) off the North- 
umberland coast, and locally in North Shields. I would be interested to 
hear from anyone with records of such larvae in order to ascertain 
whether or not Barrett's suggestion is correct. 

REFERENCES 

Barrett, C.G. (1895). The Lepidoptera of the British Isles. 2. Heterocera, Spinges, 

Bombyces. Reeve, London. 
Carter, D.J. & Hargreaves, B. (1986). A Field Guide to Caterpillars of Butterflies and Moths 

in Britain and Europe. Collins, London. 
Ellis, H.A. (1993a). A bilateral gynandromorph of the Poplar hawkmoth {Laothoe populi 

Linn.). The Vasculum 78: 15-17. 
- , (1993b). Observations on the red-spotted form of the larva of the Poplar hawkmoth, 

Laothoe populi Linn. The Vasculum 78: 32-50. 
Sepp, C. & Sepp, J.C. (1978). Butterflies and Moths (reproduction of selected copper 

engravings from the original De Nederlandsche Insecten with modern text by S. McNeill). 

Joseph, London. 



INDEX TO VOLUME 53 (1994) 

Apologies are given for the non-inclusion of the index to Volume 53. We 
will be including this with the next issue of the Bulletin. 



14 



FEBRUARY 1995 



THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE INDIFFERENT - MOTH 
NUMBERS IN AVON 1989-1994 

Mike Bailei; (9153) 

Ho//y Cottage. Tuning. Timsbur[/'. Bath. Avon BA3 IHG. 

I have been running a small 18 watt fluorescent "blue-black" light trap in 
my garden in Timsbury. near Bath for the last six years. 1993 seemed to 
be the quietest season so far, with many species being present in 
unusually low numbers. I was interested to read that Dominic Rey 
(Bulletin 52: 256) found butterfly numbers were low in 1993 and that he 
described it as the worst for 20 years. This started me wondering whether 
or not AES members had had similar findings to mine. Looking in back 
copies of the Bulletin, I found that several members over the recent years 
have commented upon the abundance or, of late, the scarcity of 
Lepidoptera. Opinions, however, were sometimes divided, for example, 
Peggy Pittkin (Bulletin 49: 183) observed that 1989 was a poor year for 
both butterflies and moths although G.R. Smith (Bulletin 49: 212-215) 
found plenty of butterflies in the south-west of England and the Scottish 
Highlands. In 1991 Brian Gardiner (Bulletin 51: 29) found butterfies and 
moths abounding in Cambridge, whilst Roger Hayward (Bulletin 52: 82, 
99, 173) definitely found it to be a poor year with '"A late and poor 
season", which "continued", through to an "autumnal anticlimax""! 



Table 1 . Macro-mioth totals. Tyning, Timsbury, Avon. 
1st March 1989 to 15th October 1994. 



Year 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


1993 


1994 


Total of individual moths 


8887 21948 


4981 


8653 


4401 


13203 


Trapping nights n = 


200 


217 


175 


199 


201 


220 


Average per trapping night 


44 


101 


29 


44 


22 


60 


Species tally per year 


168 


191 


165 


176 


167 


201 


% of 6 years tally of 279 species 


60 


68 


59 


63 


60 


72 



(Correlation between total of moths caught and species tally r = 0.59. t = 2.41, 4 d.f.. P <0.1) 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



15 



Table 2. The number of years in which each species of macro-moth was 
recorded 1989-1994. Tyning, Timsbury, Avon. 





No. 
species 


% 


Caught in all 6 years 


89 


32 


Caught in 5 out of 6 years 


40 


14 


Caught in 4 out of 6 years 


28 


10 


Caught in 3 out of 6 years 


34 


12 


Caught in 2 out of 6 years 


30 


11 


Caught in 1 out of 6 years 


58 


21 


Total 


279 


100 



The total number of individual moths, the average daily catch and the 
annual species tally for the period 1st March to 15th October for '89-'94, 
caught in my garden is given in Table 1 . The average daily catch and the 
species tally for each year is shown in the graph, Fig. 1. 

As can be seen this site produced its highest population total in 1990 
which was approximately five times greater than the low total years of '91 
and '93. On this scale one would presumably have to place '89, '92 and 
'94 as being closer to an intermediate/average level. 

Being a relative newcomer to moth trapping, having been more 
involved in catching and ringing birds, I've been amazed at the large 
amplitude in the oscillations in the rise and fall of insect populations. It 
certainly makes for more spectacular graphs! 

In Table 2, I've listed the number of species that were found in all six 
years, down to being recorded in only one of the years. 

I was surprised by just how few species, 89 out of 279 (32%) were 
found in every year and indeed that 58 species (21%) occurred in one 
year only. Obviously the rate at which new species get added to the list 
will slow down but I can quite see that this has implications for atlas and 



16 



FEBRUARY 1995 



Fig. 1. Macro-moth totals. Tyning, Timsbury, Avon. 
1989 - 1994 (1st March - 15th October) 




\ j Average per trapping night 
Hj Species tally per year 



censusing work. In any one year the best I would have achieved was 72% 
and the worst 60% of the total found in all six years. 

I would be very interested to hear from other members who run traps 
on a regular basis to see just how their totals vary from year to year. Has 
anyone had fluctuations in numbers that are similar to, or different from 
mine? I certainly get the impression from talking to a few "old-hands" that 
the last six years have not been remarkable in terms of high numbers, if 
anything the opposite seems to be true. It would, therefore, be very 
informative to hear not only of recent totals and/or average nightly 
catches but of trap totals over a longer period too. 

There does seem to be some correlation between the yearly total of all 
moths caught and the number of species identified although in this small 
sample it is barely statistically significant. Nevertheless, a record of the 
total of species caught each year from regularly trapped sites could also 
reflect differences in annual abundance and would be of great interest. 



FEBRUARY 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




Fig. 1. Pierids visiting a deliberately created "urine patch" - three Belenois theora, four Appias 
sahina. and one Ewema senegalensis. All are males. 




Fig. 2. A praying mantis eating Euphaedrafrancina, one of the largest butterflies of the forest 
floor, having picked it off a rotting fruit. 



PLATE 95A 



COLOUR SECTION 



FEBRUARY 1995 




Fig. 3. A female Helena birdw ing imbides nectar from hibiscus blossoms. 




Fig. 4. The park's emblem, a Rajah Brooke birdw ing rests on a banana leaf. 



PLATE 95 B 



Number 16 February 1995 



INVERTEBRATE 
CONSERVATION 
NEWS 




The Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Founded in 1935 



ICN Editor: 

AES Habitat Conservation Officer: 



David Lonsdale 

33 Kings Road. .-^lion. Hampshire GU34 IPX. 
Martin Harvey 

1 .Arrow-field Corages. Roiherfield-Greys. 
Henley-on-Thames. Oxon. 



AES Conservation Committee 

Reg Fr^' The Havithoms. Frating Road. Great Bromley. 
Colchester. Essex C07 7JN. 

Colin HaiT Fourpenny Cottage. Dungates Lane. Buckland. 
Betchworth. Syn-ey RH3 7BD. 

Owen Lewis School of Biological Sciences. University of 

Birmingham. Edgbaston. Birmingham B15 2TT. 

Darren Mann 104 Albert Street. Canton. Cardiff CFl ajP. 

Stephen Miles 469 Staines Road West. Ashford. Middlesex TIV15 2.AB. 

Mai-tin Harvey Address as above. 



ICN is printed by Cra\-itz Printing Co. Ltd.. 1 Toi.\er Hill. BrenP.'.'ood. Essex CNn4 4TA. 
Co\-er designed by Wayne Jar\is. Illustrations by Mike Hill. 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal 
are solely those of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or 
sought requests for help or information, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and 
Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that 
might be sustained by reliance thereon. 



INVERTEBRATE 

CONSERVATION 

NEWS 

No. 16, February, 1995 



Editorial 

It is just over a quarter of a century since ICN first appeared under its 
original title as the AES Conservation Group Bulletin, and the next few 
editorials will ask how much success has there been in tackling the 
problems that were then being highlighted. Then, as now, we were 
pointing out that habitat destruction was the main problem causing the 
decline and extinction of invertebrate populations. We also tried to 
discourage unscrupulous activities by a minority of field naturalists, in 
particular "over-collecting". Both messages were - and remain - valid, 
but experience now proves that governments and international agencies 
find it much easier to target unscrupulous naturalists than to control 
habitat destruction. 

The criminal law can certainly help to conserve populations of many 
vertebrates, on which collecting or hunting can have a major impact. For 
terrestrial invertebrates, however, collecting usually involves a very much 
smaller proportion of their populations, which consist of relatively large 
numbers of individuals with high rates of both fecundity and mortality. 
Even so, for species brought to the brink of extinction through habitat 
destruction and isolation, the precautionary principle suggests that there 
must be situations where collecting could be the last straw. There is no 
scientific evidence to support the arguments of those who think that legal 
protection of invertebrate species ought to be as wide-ranging, for 
example, as that applying to birds in the UK. Nevertheless, the laws in 
some other countries are applied to many invertebrates for which 
collecting is not a credible threat; for example Mark Collins revealed in 
AES Pamphlet No. 13 (1987) that it is an offence to collect any species of 
ladybird in the Flemish region of Belgium. 




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February 1995 



It would be hard to prove whether the criminalisation of collecting 
endangered species has helped their populations "on the ground", but it 
has been accepted by a wide range of entomologists who would not in 
any case wish to collect such species. In Britain, the voluntary code for 
collectors, published by the Joint Committee for the Conservation of 
British Invertebrates (JCCBI), is widely respected by naturalists. However, 
most serious field entomologists seem firmly against the idea of legal 
protection for long lists of species, not only because collecting is necessary 
for the study and identification of most taxa, but also because they value 
their personal freedom. Even in Britain, however, the current law raises 
anxieties over the possession or sale of legally acquired specimens of 
scheduled species, since possessors of fully protected species can be 
found guilty unless they can prove otherwise. 

The increasing attention paid to invertebrate conservation in nature is a 
very welcome development, but it is also becoming a source of 
disagreement over the need for legal restrictions on the individual. Those 
who have responsibility for reserves have a very understandable desire to 
control things that happen "on their patch". More seriously, unauthorised 
activities can interfere with specific conservation management objectives. 
The JCCBI has recently discussed these issues, and one suggestion that it 
considered - and rejected - was that collecting any invertebrate on a 
nature reserve without authorisation should be made punishable by law. 
This discussion took place within the context of the JCCBI's drafting of a 
policy document on the role of law in invertebrate conservation. This 
document, now finalised, sets out clear criteria for deciding when a 
species could qualify for full legal protection. This document will be 
published in a later issue of ICN, once the list of signatories has been 
announced. 

The JCCBI document on legislation also deals with the control of 
introductions or re-introductions. The document states that: 

"Introductions or re-introductions should normally be controlled by 
law only when they involve species or genetic forms not native to the 
state concerned. Exceptions may be necessary for economic reasons 
as well as in the interests of wildlife conservation." 

Perhaps with this last point in mind. Butterfly Conservation is now 
arguing for legal controls on the release of any of the rarer British butterfly 
species, since such releases can undermine conservation management 
objectives. This could be done by adding these species to Schedule 9 of 
the Wildlife and Countryside Act, as explained by Alan Stubbs on behalf 
of Butterfly Conservation in this issue of ICN. The proposal deserves 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



(3) 



careful consideration, since field naturalists should not condone activities 
which threaten valid conservation programmes. However, as in all 
activities not directly harming other human beings or their property, the 
criminal law should be invoked only with good reason. 

News, Views and General Information 

Quinquennial review of 1981 Wildlife & Countryside Act 

In Britain, the lists of legally protected plant and animal species are 
reviewed every five years. We learned in November that proposed 
changes in the next review were to be sent to the Joint Committee for 
Nature Conservation by mid-February, but this gave no chance to invite 
suggested proposals via ICN. However, we hope that ICN readers will 
have an opportunity to comment on any proposals that are made; this 
might help to prevent any unsuitable proposals being "given the nod" by 
those of us who sit on committees. We do not yet know of any proposed 
additions of invertebrate species to Schedule 5, which relates to 
collecting, disturbance and trade. However, there will be a proposal from 
Butterfly Conservation that certain butterflies should be added to 
Schedule 9, which relates to the release of species into the wild. 

The proposal, drafted by Alan Stubbs, reads as follows:- 
Proposal 

All British Red Data Book and Notable Butterflies should be added to Schedule 
9, making it illegal to release these species except under licence. 

Notable = Nationally Scarce = Pink Species (species currently occurring in 
no more than one hundred 10km squares in Great Britain). 

At present, these butterflies are listed under Schedule 5. Some species are 
fully protected; the rest require a licence for trading of wild-caught specimens 
(under Section 9[5]). 

Schedule 9, Part 1, is subject to Section 14. It is 14 (1) which controls release 
of non-native "kinds" of animal, even those not listed in the Act [14 (1) (a)]. 
However, there is also provision to list species which are established or 
otherwise resident [14 (1) (b)]. This reads:- 

14. - (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, if any person releases or 
allows to escape into the wild any animal which - 

(a) is of a kind which is not normally resident in and is not a regular 
visitor to Great Britain in a wild state; 

or 

(b) is included in Part 1 of Schedule 9, he shall be guilty of an offence. 



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February 1995 



History of Proposal 

The concept and its reasons were floated at the 58th meeting of the JCCBI 
held on 20th October 1994, allowing some discussion of the implications. On 
30th October the Conservation Committee of Butterfly Conservation (BC) 
further reviewed the implications and decided that the proposal was necessary 
and should be forwarded to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 
the government agency handling the Quinquennial Review consultation. The 
JNCC observer at that meeting considered that Schedule 9 was an appropriate 
means of achieving the objective. At the JCCBI Executive Committee meeting 
on 12th December, the proposal was discussed, and a statement from BC was 
requested by representatives of two of the national entomological societies 
(BENHS and AES). 

No-one welcomes having to use legal measures. However, if there are 
problems that can be best resolved using legislation provided by Parliament, 
then that is the route that has to be faced. 

In making this proposal, BC is aware that it is a sensitive issue, both for 
those who oppose controls and those who support them, but BC feels that 
action must be taken in the best interests of conservation. 

Proposals have to be received by JNCC by mid-February 1995. JNCC will 
be issuing a consultation document incorporating all submissions, thus giving 
societies and other interested parties a chance to comment. It is open to 
anyone to counter this proposal. However, it will need to be shown that the 
problem does not exist or - if it does exist - that the reasoning is wrong and 
that alternative equally effective measures can be adopted. 



Reasons for the proposal 

1. There is widespread concern that butterflies are being released 
surreptitiously, rather than with consultation and co-operation with the 
conservation bodies. 

2. The voluntary principle does not work; indeed there are strong adherents of 
private release who are unlikely to relinquish their freedom of action. 

3. The JCCBI has published a code of practice, Insect Re-establishment - a 
Code of Conservation Practice, which is widely ignored. Procedures to 
encourage people to submit notice of releases, let alone seek consultation 
over proposed releases, have met with almost zero co-operation from the 
general fraternity of those who are effecting private releases. 

4. Now the conservation movement has taken butterfly conservation on 
board, increasingly treating butterflies as high profile flagship species, there 
is little excuse for individuals to act alone. Entomologists should be able to 
achieve far more for butterflies by encouraging the conservation bodies by 
working with them, rather than against them. 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



(5) 



5. Increasingly, the future of butterflies depends on a more detailed 
understanding of their ecology and response to management. Surreptitious 
or other unofficial releases can be disruptive and lead to the wrong 
measures being adopted by the conservation bodies. 

6. There are already examples of research being ruined by unannounced 
releases, and this can happen one, two or three years into a project. After 
all the time, effort and finance, how would you feel as the person doing the 
research or responsible for the site? In one such classic case the research 
had been funded by a conservation body. What message does that send? 
What confidence can funding and grant-giving bodies have in their 
continued support of butterfly research? 

7. Many butterfly sites have their populations monitored. Very often one of 
the objectives is to monitor the ability of the site to support butterflies. It is 
essential to know the natural population levels and carrying capacity and, if 
numbers are falling, to respond by adjusting the management. If someone 
is quietly releasing butterflies, all may appear well until those releases stop. 
Then suddenly, and too late, it is revealed that the habitat has become 
unsuitable to support the resident population. 

8. Uncontrolled releases could be of stock from anywhere. The conservation 
movement is concerned that local stock should be used. There is an 
increasing awareness that there are local genetic differences, at a 
physiological level even if not in appearance. New techniques such as 
genetic fingerprinting are likely to highlight further the desirability of 
avoiding further confusion and uncertainty over the origin and nature of 
populations. 

9. Furthermore, it is a moot point whether Section 14 (1) (a) prohibits release 
of foreign stock of species that are resident in Great Britain; it would need 
a test court case to decide whether "animals of a kind" means not only 
species, but also genetic forms (eg the release of foreign races of the 
Swallowtail). Listing in Schedule 9 would close this loophole and would be 
quite explicit under 14 (10) (b). 

10. A great deal of effort goes into recording schemes at county and national 
levels. Part of the objective is to repeat such activity at intervals in order to 
understand the wildlife health of the countryside and the changes which are 
occurring for better or for worse. There is little point if one is recording the 
unnatural status of species resulting from unadmitted releases, sometimes 
on sites that cannot naturally support the species anyway. Any conservation 
message that action is necessary to prevent further decline of butterfly 
. habitat in the countryside is obscured, weakened and perhaps lost. 

11. Most of the Red Data Book and Notable Species occur predominantly on 
reserves and other sites owned or managed by conservation bodies, or are 
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) where the statutory conservation 



(6) 



February 1995 



agencies have a responsibility. The concern is to protect and manage the 
flora and fauna that naturally occur in such places. The presence of species 
implies success in managing sites to maintain those species. Special 
butterflies often require special management objectives and it is grossly 
unfair if surreptitious release is giving the wrong messages about priorities 
and management. 

12. With freedom goes responsibility. The freedom or "right" to release 
butterflies wherever one wishes has to be set against the freedom of the 
conservation bodies to be free from the disruptive activities considered 
above. What right has anyone to release butterflies on to someone else's 
land without permission? If people are using freedom irresponsibly, then it 
must be no surprise if legal controls become necessary. 

13. The focus is on butterflies, since that is where the problem lies. If similar 
concerns should arise with other taxa. the Schedule 9 mechanism can be 
adopted. 

Operation of licensing 

1. The licensing authority would be the Department of the Environment 
(DoE). acting on the advice of the statutory conservation agencies. 

2. A licence would be considered only if it were supported by one or more of 
the conservation bodies (eg county wildlife trust. National Trust etc.) and 
indeed a leading society (or JCCBI) may also be appropriate backers. As a 
matter of course, it would help to have the backing of the local officer for 
the statutory agency, indeed essential if an SSSI were concerned. 

3. It would need to be clear that the principles laid down in the JCCBI code 
(or similar required code) were met. Key statements would need to include 
what was to be released, how it would be done, habitat management 
implications, the likelihood of success and plans for monitoring. 

4. This proposal upholds the principle that release has a valid purpose, in 
appropriate circumstances, and does not diminish the role of the amateur. 
The means is offered to provide a legitimate route, working with the 
conservation movement, whilst prohibiting irresponsible independent 
action. 

5. Research workers face additional bureaucracy in obtaining all the 
permissions required, but this has to be offset against the current risk that 
their research effort could be negated by a single unplanned release. 
Providing that the statutory agencies are properly informed, as they should 
be anyway, the mechanisms at office level ought to be easy to arrange. 

6. There will be concern that there are too many inconsistencies and 
uncertainties in the operation of Schedule 5 licences at DoE. There are 
inherent problems from the wording of the Act. The Schedule 9 situation is 
different, clear-cut rather than ambiguous, and easier to handle. 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



(7) 



Comments on this proposal are invited from all ICN readers, and will be 
taken fully into account by the AES Conservation Committee and by the 
Society's Representatives on the JCCBI when the time comes to vote on 
the issue. The apparent failure of voluntary controls is particularly worth 
examining. 

AES Area Conservation Representatives in Britain 

Martin Harvey, Habitat Conservation Officer 

12 Cater Road, Lane End, High W\;combe, Buckinghamshire HP14 3JD. 

At the time of writing we have five AES Area Conservation 
Representatives, and their names are given below. If you have a local 
conservation issue you wish to raise with an Area Representative, or if 
you could offer him or her any help, please write to him or her enclosing 
a SAE and giving your AES membership number. If you are interested in 
becoming an Area Conservation Rep yourself please contact me for 
further details. 

Dave Hemingway 

ISAshdene Garth, Crofton, Wakefield, West Yorkshire WF4 IPH. 

Neil Jones 

31 Drummau Road, Birchgroue, Swansea SA7 9QA. 
Dr Helen Marcan 

49 Red House Road, Bodicote, Banbury, Oxfordshire 0X15 4AZ. 
Robert Partridge 

11 New Road, Mepal, £/y, Cambridgeshire CB6 2AP. 
Geoff Trevis 

14 Old Coach Road, Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 8BB. 

Sites and Species of Interest 

A specialised moth in Cornwall? 

Dr F.N.H. Smith, writing in the Ministry of Defence conservation 
magazine Sarictuary (No. 23, 1994), asks some interesting questions 
about the very local pyralid moth, Apomyelois bistratiella neophanes, 
which was found at the Penhale MoD training area, Cornwall in 1991. In 
A Field Guide to the smaller British Lepidoptera, edited by A.M. Emmet, 
the larval food source of this micro-moth is recorded as the fungus 
Daldinia concentrica, growing on "dead birch, less often on gorse or other 
plants, especially on burnt stems". 



(8) 



February 1995 



Following the appearance of the moth in a light trap. Dr Smith 
investigated the hillside above the trap site, where all the gorse had been 
burnt two years earlier. On many of the larger chan^ed stumps, he found 
numerous fruit bodies of D. concemrica which, as its common name ?ving 
Alfred's cakes implies, look like balls of charcoal, several centimetres in 
diameter. He found lan.'al frass around many of the fruiting bodies and 
verified the presence of the moth by rearing some adults from one of the 
stumps. 

Dr Smith's obseivation at Penhale suggests that the moth's presence 
there is dependent upon the availability of burnt gorse. which is of course 
restricted to relatively infrequent periods. Birch, the other typical "host" 
tree for the moth, is virtually absent at the site. The moth could not be 
found at Penhale by 1992. by which tim.e fruit bodies of D. concentrica 
had become hard to find. Dr Smith wonders whether the moth might be 
able to follow the scent of burning gorse many miles distant, but this 
question perhaps presumes too firmly that a burnt substrate is needed by 
either the larvae or adults. This supposition is perhaps ruled out by the 
fact that the host fungus is also used by the larvae when it fruits on 
unburnt birch and other plants. The fungus is actually found most 
commonly on ash trees, but it could be that ash tends to occur in biotopes 
which are not suitable for some stage in the m.oth's life cycle. 
Alternatively, perhaps, the species of host tree affects the quality of the 
fungus as a larval food source. 



Road schemes in Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and 
Northamptonshire 

The Bedfordshire. Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire Wildlife Trust 
has drawn attention to the many sites in its area that are threatened by 
planned road building and widening schemes. Its September 1994 issue 
shows a map of the region concerned, annotated with a summary of 
potential damage at each site. Of the uventy-one sites, seventeen are 
designated as nature reserves. SSSIs or county' wildlife sites. Some of the 
main biotopes that would be affected are wetlands, chalk grassland and 
woodlands, all of which are important for threatened invertebrate species. 
Particular species mentioned by the Trust are the Black hairstreak at sites 
along the Ml. for which widening is planned through Bedfordshire and 
Northamptonshire, and the Small blue and Grizzled skipper at Badgers 
Hill County Wildlife Site, which stands in the way of the proposed Luton 
East Circular Road. North. 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



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Book Review 

Insect Conservation Biology by M.J. Samways, Chapman & Hall, 1994, 
xvi+358pp, ISBN 0 412 45440 8, hardback, £37.50. 

The growing popularity of conservation in western countries has not been 
matched by a public awareness of the nature and relative scale of the 
damage that human activities inflict on different forms of wildlife. 
Vertebrate taxa receive most of the attention, but this book assembles a 
body of compelling evidence to show that the risk of extinction is greater 
for insect species, not only because there are immensely more of them, 
but also by virtue of their often exacting habitat requirements. The first 
chapter illustrates the evolutionary adaption of insects to almost every 
terrestrial ecosystem. The author draws on some interesting data; for 
example in a survey of Seram rain forest, over half the estimated 43.3 
million individual arthropods in one hectare were Collembola, reflecting 
the importance of habitats in the soil. The very success of insects, which 
has produced perhaps 10 million extant species, belies the vulnerability of 
many species which are so closely adapted to geographically restricted 
biotopes that even a slight change can wipe them out, often to the point 
of total extinction. In the tropics, both the diversity of species and the 
threats to them may seem to make British conservation issues pale into 
insignificance. However, despite our relatively small insect fauna, our 
ratio of species to land area appears to be surprisingly high by world 
standards. 

The remaining introductory chapters describe the many ways in which 
insect habitats have been damaged, while also outlining the aims and 
responsibilities of national and international organisations which seek to 
ameliorate this loss. A central problem, which has a chapter of its own 
later in the book, is the fragmentation of biotopes. This is less serious for 
the relatively mobile animals, especially birds, whose requirements often 
seem uppermost in the minds of those who influence conservation policy. 
Fragmentation prevents species from re-colonising suitable sites following 
chance local extinctions. In the longer term it could also prevent species 
from keeping pace geographically with climatic change or other large- 
scale events (as many did during past glaciations) . When fragmentation 
and other problems are viewed in the context of tropical ecosystems, 
current conservation efforts seem inadequate in scale and often 
inappropriate in emphasis. 

The author goes on to examine ways in which conservation could 
become more effective by taking proper account of insect population 
ecology. The ability of species to disperse in a fragmented landscape must 



(10) 



February 1995 



be understood in order to determine the optimum size and shape of 
reserves and the value of different types of "corridor" between otherwise 
isolated habitats. He stresses the need to think about very small-scale 
"micro-sites" within biotopes, which are essential for survival. Studies on 
single species show that their different developmental stages and 
sometimes the two sexes have greatly different micro-site requirements. 
This does not necessarily mean that we must tinker with sites to help 
favoured species, since a broader-brush management of the landscape 
can achieve diversity in a way that is compatible with the economic use of 
the land. 

Although there are still places where the protection of natural 
ecosystems is the main objective of conservation, there are many other 
parts of the world where the sympathetic management of agricultural and 
other "disturbed" land is important. The author describes systems of 
"adversity agriculture" in which populations of vulnerable species can 
often fall below a "minimum viable level", leading to local or even total 
extinctions. This has happened even to former pest species such as the 
Rocky Mountain grasshopper (Melanoplus spretus) in North America. The 
risk of extinction is lower in "agroecology" systems, in which areas of 
natural vegetation can support a high proportion of the local insect fauna 
while serving as refugia for natural enemies of crop pests. There are, 
however, no absolute rights and wrongs in agricultural methods. Burning, 
for example, is very harmful to many species, but others depend upon it. 
Similarly, although biological control is often a "green" alternative to the 
use of chemical pesticides, it can be disastrous when the agents released 
are able to persist and to attack non-target species. 

The author looks at the pros and cons of "restoration ecology" and 
concludes that it is worthwhile in some cases, as when trees are planted 
for agroforestry in deforested tropical areas, or when herb-rich grassland 
is re-established in temperate farmlands. Restoration strategies can be 
helped by knowing the specific requirements of individual species, but the 
most vulnerable species are usually less able to recolonise the restored 
sites than widespread ones with greater tolerance of varied conditions. 
Some of the vulnerable species get special attention and can be artificially 
re-established, but the author sees this as the last resort. 

The rate at which insect species are being lost worldwide, according to 
one estimate quoted by the author, could be nineteen per hour over the 
next thirty years. Such figures serve both to stimulate concern about 
individual species and to emphasise that attempts to save a favoured few 
cannot address a problem of such proportions. The need is for an 
"umbrella" approach which can take account of both small-scale and 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



(11) 



large-scale elements of the landscape. To the extent that individual 
species can be helped, there is a need to improve methods of assessing 
their status; for example by recording the number of habitat sites per 
10km square; not just mapping a dot for the entire square. Attention also 
needs to be focused on species which are good indicators of diversity and 
which can be recorded efficiently in site surveys, rather than on taxa 
which happen to enjoy the most popularity. On a global scale, it is 
important to identify the regions of "mega-diversity" and endemism 
where efforts should be concentrated. 

By concentrating on the biology behind conservation, this book helps 
to identify the most urgent uses to which time and money should be 
devoted. However, the author admits that such an analysis is not 
supported by human attitudes towards insects, which often involve 
taxonomic favouritism or hypocrisy, as exemplified by those who are less 
aware of their own daily mass slaughter of insects than of the sadism of 
pulling the wings off a fly. Governments that ignore the wider 
conservation issues may pass laws to protect species against collecting or 
trade, but the result is often a high black market price. 

The book's extensive bibliography testifies to the great deal of work that 
has gone into producing it. Its emphasis on fundamental issues and on 
scientific evidence will complement other recent works which have 
concentrated more on practical conservation. A subject like this is 
intrinsically hard to divide into distinct sections, but there could perhaps 
have been less overlap and repetition of ideas. It required a good index, 
and the one provided here is certainly comprehensive, although it fails to 
list all the entries for some important topics. The author's commitment to 
the cause makes this much more than a dry academic treatise, but it will 
perhaps be more useful to students, research workers and policy makers 
than to the amateur conservationist. (Thanks are due to the British 
Journal of Entomology and Natural History for permission to reproduce 
this review here.) 



Future Meetings 

6-7th April 1995, London. 

Conference on "Conserving Europe's Bees", Linnean Society of London/ 
International Bee Research Association. 



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February 1995 



The four sessions are: (1) Habitat for bees. (2) Grappling with bee 
diversity. (3) Do plants need bees? and (4) Competition in bee-plant and 
bee-bee interactions. For further information contact:- 
CONSERVING EUROPE'S BEES. 

THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON. BURLINGTON HOUSE. PICCADILLY. 
LONDON WIV OLQ. 

22nd April 1995. Royal Entomological Society of London. 41 Queen's 
Gate. SW7. 

Amateur Entomologists' Society AGM and Members Day. Starting at 
11am. All welcome. Talks and practical demonsti'ations will acoompany 
the meeting. Guests are invited to bring along an exhibit. Please contact 
Wayne Jarvis. 9a Brook Street. Luton. Bedfordshire LU3 IDS to book 
space or for further information. 



Letters 

It should be noted that we received the following letter six years ago! It is 
still topical, despite having been "held over"" while ICN was in the 
doldrums, and so we are happy to publish it. The ICN item that sparked it 
off expressed concern over the practice of removing dead trees to make 
woodlands safer for the public . . . 

Woodland Trust deadwood policy 

from Pamela Harding. 

Woodland Trust Legal & Information Officer. 

I would like to respond to your item in the May 1988 issue of ICN 
concerning the Woodland Trust and its approach to dead wood 
habitats. 

Almost all Woodland Trust properties are open to the public and 
the Trust takes seriously its responsibilities towards visitors, which 
includes the necessity of some tree safety' work. This aspect of the 
Trust's management tends to be stressed in publicity material, perhaps 
wrongly so. since in most Trust properties there will be many areas left 
as non-intervention areas. In some woods dead wood habitats are 
being created and extended by management work. 

The item in question has picked up a few rather isolated examples 
from the Trust's literature. I could quote to you an item on the back 
page of the Trust's Newsletter 26 on the [1987] storm. "Fallen, 
damaged or dead trees that are not actually dangerous have been left, 
as rotting wood is a valuable habitat for fungi and insects'". 



Invertebrate Conservation News, Vol. 16 



(13) 



In Newsletter 25, which reported on the storm on the front page, 
there was a sub-heading "Dead Wood is Valuable" with a brief 
explanation. These are just two examples. 

The Woodland Trust aims to strike a balance between several 
objectives, including conservation, in the management of its 
properties. It also aims to educate the public about the need for 
woodland management. The Trust believes that it is fulfilling these 
roles more successfully than many other landowners and deserves 
credit for doing so. 



Adding species for legal protection 

from Peter Tebbutt, 

Abingdon, Northannptonshire. 

ICN 15 somewhat surprised me with its statement (on page 5) that the 
AES provides information etc that the JCCBI uses in its 
recommendations on the quinquennial review of species protected by 
law. If that is the case, then how come EVERYONE was astonished 
that the High brown fritillary was added to the fully protected list and 
that many of the restricted species are there only because of the 
pressure that Butterfly Conservation now exerts. One of its recent 
publications now makes it perfectly clear that it would like at least 25 
species of butterfly to be totally protected. Unless we want to return to 
our childhood days, when we kept just a few Large white caterpillars 
in a jam jar, then the JCCBI with its representatives from the AES and 
BENHS will have to bring in a better line of reasoning than they are 
presently using, or the fanatical (and usually ill-informed) will succeed 
in outlawing everything that most AES members enjoy doing (ie 
collecting and breeding butterflies), with fines being dished out in all 
directions. I do not wish to get really into this subject but I sincerely 
hope that a good dose of common-sense prevails before our hobby is 
completely ruined by unecessary regulations. 

Editor's note: The AES and most other member-organisations of JCCBI give authority to 
their councils to represent their interests. A more democratic arrangement might be 
desirable, but would usually not be feasible, since in most instances, votes could not be 
taken in time to respond to the issues in question. All we can do is to try harder to publicise 
proposals to which society members may wish to respond. In the case of the High brown 
fritillary, the JCCBI accepted evidence for serious decline. No-one submitted evidence to the 
contrary, but perhaps too few people knew what was going on around committee tables. 



CONTENTS 

Editorial (1) 

News, Views and General information (3) 

Quinquennial Review of 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act. 
AES Area Conservation Representatives in Britain. 

Sites and Species of Interest '. (7) 

A specialised moth in Cornwall? 

Road schemes in Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire. 

Book Review (9) 

Future Meetings (11) 

Letters (12) 

Woodland Trust deadwood policy. 
Adding species for legal protection. 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or tlieories, expressed in the pages of this Journal 
are solely those of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or 
sought, requests for help or information, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and 
Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that 
might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 



Published 28th February 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. 



FEBRUARY 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




Fig. 5. Selection of cigarette cards from Wills (1938) "Butterflies & Moths". 




Fig. 6. Selection of cards from Shell (Australia) (1962) "Beetle Series" 
and Wills (1914) "Garden Life'. 



PLATE 95C 



COLOUR SECTION 



FEBRUARY 1995 




Fig. 7. Subdorsal spots similar to Fig. 1 (Ellis) but none on A6. Spiracular line spots anterior and 
posterior to spiracles on Al to A8 and T2 and T3. Pigment around ocelli and at base of tail-horn. 




Fig. 8. Details ot shapes and locations of subdorsal line spots (to rear of each segment) and 
spiracular line spots (anterior and posterior to spiracle). 



PLATE 95D 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



17 



RAMBLINGS OF AN AGED CARTOPHILIC ENTOMOLOGIST 

by D.O. King (9094) 

Reproduced with permission of "Cigarette Card News". 

As a small schoolboy in the early 1920s, a favourite way of passing break- 
time (except of course in the conker season) was the game known as 
"Flick", played with cigarette cards. Standing a given distance from a 
wall, a contestant would lightly hold a card flat between fore and middle 
fingers, and by a flick of the wrist launch it in flight towards the wall. The 
player whose card ended up nearest the wall won the cards of all his less 
adept (lucky?) competitors. The game did not do a lot for the corners of 
the cards, nor for their general cleanliness, but no-one seemed to consider 
this aspect - we did not realise what future treasures we were vandalising. 

From an early age it was clear that I had inherited the trait of 
invertebrate collector so prevalent in my mother's family, so it was 
inevitable that I should latch on to cigarette cards as a suitable sphere of 
activity. "Flick" was not much of a way to form a collection, not only 
because of the sad state of most of the cards acquired, but also since, like 
winnings at the gaming table, they could all be snatched away again 
when you hit a losing streak. I began, then, cadging clean cards from 
smoker relatives and friends (my father was tactless enough to prefer a 
pipe and had to be cajoled into occasionally buying a packet of 
cigarettes), and my collection was launched in earnest. 

Another interest that made an early appearance was natural history, 
though it did not embrace my father's love of wild flowers, a subject on 
which he was very knowledgeable. I was encouraged in this by much 
browsing through the six admirably illustrated volumes of The Royal 
Natural Histori; among my father's books, backed up by our regular 
Sundays two or three times a year at the London Zoo, which never failed 
to include a visit to the Insect House. (In those days it seemed quite 
natural to go and stare at creatures behind bars; one felt a fleeting 
sympathy for them, especially the larger animals, in their restricted space, 
but we were very far from developing the properly tender conscience of 
today about the justification for zoos.) 

My strong inborn collecting urge was difficult to apply to living things, 
though for a year or two I did my best with a room full of tanks and cages 
housing lizards, amphibians, fish and all sorts of life gathered from the 
local ponds - there was one in a secluded corner of Sheen Common that 
had a particularly rich community. Coming home from an early spring 
expedition there, a school-fellow chanced to be at the far end of the 



18 



FEBRUARY 1995 



crowded bus, and I recall causing some embarrassment to the other 
passengers by loudly recounting to him my captures, and describing how 
the female toads all carried a male tightly clasped on their backs. I 
suppose I was about 11, and in the 1920s children were still innocent at 
that age, and adults more easily shockable than today. 

Butterflies and moths, however, were another matter - one could kill 
and set them for permanent display in a cabinet, making them eminently 
collectable. By the summer of 1922, my tenth year, butterfly net and 
killing bottle were my constant companions, and my first junior six-drawer 
cabinet was overflowing its contents into a second, rather superior if 
second-hand, model. I can still remember the excitement during our 
Swanage holiday that year of spotting, through the haze of white dust 
thrown up by the pony and trap carrying us from Wool to visit Lulworth 
Cove, a Clouded yellow flying by; the trap was halted and I jumped out 
in pursuit - which ended in three quarters success, my over eager swipe 
with the net having deprived the capture of one wing. So I had to set it in 
the "at rest" position, showing the underside in my collection. 

About the time I myself started, I discovered that an uncle was also a 
collector. By great good fortune he lived in East Sheen, only a couple of 
miles from my home in Putney (a tuppence bus ride, or penny half for me 
- those were the days!) and we became regular companions in pursuit of 
our hobby. He would often come over on a summer evening and we 
would walk up Putney Park Lane - an unmade private road lined with 
big elm and lime trees - to Putney Heath, scanning fences and tree trunks 
for resting moths, for whose capture we carried a supply of pill-boxes. 
Sometimes I would go to Sheen and we would take the towpath by the 
river from Mortlake to Kew railway bridge; in September this was an 
excellent place for Red underwings, at rest on willow trunks or the 
stonework of the bridge. At other times we would go to Richmond Park or 
Sheen Common, where I remember netting Ghost swifts in the twilight, 
including one giant female with a wingspan half as big again as normal. 

There were other outings besides the collecting ones. On one occasion 
we took a train to Bexley to visit Newman's butterfly farm, and spent a 
fascinating time being shown round by him. 1 believe his establishment 
was then the only one of its kind. In the slack winter months we would 
often go to the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, wandering 
through its many galleries and inevitably ending up poring over its 
collections of butterflies and moths. My postcard collection contains sets 
of exotic moths and exotic dragonflies bought there to remind me of 
those visits. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



19 



When items of equipment were wanted, be it pins, setting boards or 
anytliing up to a new cabinet, it was always a joy to visit Watkins and 
Doncaster's shop in the Strand. Guided by the sign of a Swallowtail 
butterfly hanging out high up on the building, you would go through a 
small doorway and up two narrow flights of stairs before pushing open 
another door to find yourself in a collector's wonderland of cabinets and 
specimens and all needful equipment great and small. It was impossible 
just to buy what you had gone there for and leave - you simply had to 
stay a while to look round this treasury, so much crammed into so little 
space there was scarcely room to move. 

My school from 1926 to 1930 was in Wimbledon, to which I cycled by 
the road that skirted the Common on the right, the left side being lined by 
large houses, giving two miles or more of fences on which with luck I 
could spot in passing moths that were not well camouflaged, like the 
Peppered, Mottled umber, Scarce umber. Spring usher and Dotted 
border. Sometimes I would go home across the common itself, illegally 
using the footpaths most of the way, and stopping to look for caterpillars 
on the many young birch trees. In my last three summers there I looked 
forward eagerly to the time of General School and Higher School 
Certificate exams, when free days always cropped up, and my uncle and I 
would set off with packed lunches for a full day out. On one such 
occasion we went to Petworth, where we found the Wood white, Pearl- 
bordered fritillary and White admiral. Most often we went by train to 
Oxshott, where we explored heathland and pine woods rich in insects, 
including the Bordered white, Latticed heath. Pine beauty and scores of 
other species. 

In 1927 my father, who was an architect, had a house built at 
Swanage, where from 1928 we spent our holidays until his death in 
November 1935. This meant that until I left school my mother and I were 
able to spend all the Easter and long summer holidays there, my father 
joining us at weekends and for such time as he could spare from work. It 
was a splendid centre from which to explore the varied types of country 
in the Isle of Purbeck, with all their differing insect life, and I never tired of 
tramping around it, either on my own or with my parents, or best of all 
with my uncle, who always came for a couple of weeks. Amongst many 
others there were Graylings on the quarry land above the cliffs; Dark 
green fritillaries, Chalkhill and Adonis blues on the Ballard Down; 
Lulworth skippers in a grassy gully on Anvil Point; and Silver-studded 
blues and Emperor moths on the heath behind Studland Bay with its 
scattered pine trees (on one of which we once found a Pine hawk). As 
well as these resident species, Purbeck provided a good landfall for 



20 



FEBRUARY 1995 



immigrants, which in some years appeared in great numbers. I remember 
clover fields alive with Clouded yellows and Painted ladies; ghostly 
Convolvulus hawks dimly seen hovering in the dusk to feed from the 
tobacco plants in our garden; and a Vestal, a Small mottled willow and a 
few Bordered straws among dozens of species that came to my bedroom 
light. These were times of nostalgically happy memory, though I should 
except one year, the first after I had started work, when I chose to break 
away from the former August and September restriction, and went in 
June. This was a foolish move, because at that time (and until life in the 
army cured me!) I was prone to hay fever, and would stand helplessly 
and miserably sneezing uncontrollably in the dusty lanes lined by pollen- 
laden hedges and verges. 

In the early 1930s I twice spent a week at Wicken Fen. It was a delight 
to see the Swallowtails around the flowers in the village gardens as well as 
on the fen itself, and glimpse the brilliant flash of a Large copper darting 
by. At night, the fen-keeper set up a floodlit sheet, to which swarms of 
moths came. He knew his moths well, speaking of them all by their Latin 
names, and eager to explain how to tell affinis from diffinis. It was a 
wonderful experience. 

As with the attitude towards zoos, collecting for mere pleasure in this 
way was not frowned upon as it would be in these more enlightened and 
conservation-conscious times. However, I had to discipline myself to a 
non-hunting season in 1935 in order to concentrate on final accountancy 
exams; this gave me thinking time to see the error of my ways, and my 
cabinets received no further specimens thereafter. I kept the static 
collection for another twenty-odd years, then regretfully decided its room 
was more useful than its company and sold it. This was a pity as it turned 
out, but I could not foresee that in the fullness of time there would be a 
naturalist grandson who would have been glad to take it over. 

Collecting was over but my interest in insects, and wildlife in general 
continued. So when during the war the anti-aircraft regiment I had joined 
was posted to Ceylon, I was delighted to find myself on a gunsite in a 
jungle clearing near Trincomalee, where we stayed about nine months. 
Insect life was abundant - not least the malaria-carrying mosquitoes 
against which we fought a losing battle - observing and listing it all, and 
trying my hand at sketching such as would remain still long enough was a 
continual pastime. The listing was pretty useless as my ignorance 
prevented identification of all these strange species; I bought a couple of 
books when in Colombo, but they were of minimal help. My fellow 
gunners all thought of me as mad, and one in particular, with no faith in 
my judgement of what was safe, was always warning me with a worried 
air that if I persisted in handling these creatures I should one day receive 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



21 



a nasty sting or bite; in fact the worst I suffered was an occasional squirt 
of noxious-smelling liquid from a plant bug. Maybe I was lucky! 

After Ceylon we had a stint in North Africa, arriving in Egypt a few 
days after the last of the Germans had been pushed out of the continent - 
no complaint from me on that score! Our now mobile unit wandered 
rather aimlessly to and fro across Libya for some time. We had a sort of 
base camp by the ruins of Tobruk, of which I have two abiding memories: 
the ecstatic welcome of a myriad of fleas awaiting us in the tents we were 
to use, and the novel flavour of some of the cookhouse dishes, including 
the revolting tea - the Germans having as their parting shot salted the 
water supply. We finally settled on a gunsite on the beach east of Port 
Said, where we stayed four months before our obvious superfluity as an 
anti-aircraft unit resulted in our being broken-up for retraining as infantry 
at the beginning of 1945. I myself ended up in Palestine, where I very 
pleasantly saw out the last months of my war service. Those parts of the 
Eastern Mediterranean I saw were a poor exchange from Ceylon for 
nature study, but 1 continued to list, and occasionally draw, whatever 
turned up, until in October I took ship for England and demobilisation. 

But to return to the 1920s, my collection of butterflies and moths and 
of cigarette cards were growing steadily side by side, each independent of 
the other and I had no thought of their ever doing otherwise. New series 
of cards I welcomed whatever the subject, from railway engines or ships 
to film stars or even cricketers ("even" because I was in no way a sporting 
child and my presence in my prep school XI could only be accounted for 
by there being so few boys to pick from). As may be imagined, there was 
an added warmth in my greeting of Players 50 "Natural History" in 1924; 
these were mainly of animals, with a few birds. Real delight, however, 
came with the link-up of my two interests in 1927, when my first series of 
butterfly cards began to appear and were avidly collected; this was Wills 
50 "British Butterflies" boldly drawn and well coloured specimens in the 
"set" position on pale plain backgrounds. 

In 1932 Players came up with 50 "Butterflies" (20 of which were 
British), the fully spread specimens extremely well painted and set on a 
white background that included delicate small sketches of foodplant and 
sometimes a butterfly in natural pose. Two years later a set of 25 large 
cards entitled "British Butterflies" was issued, consisting of the twenty 
British from the small set (with part of the background sketches cut off 
because of the squarer shape of the cards) and five other species added, 
in the same style. 

In 1938 Wills produced a series of 40 large cards entitled "Butterflies 
and Moths", another excellent production of set specimens photographed 
against plain pale backgrounds (Plate 95C Fig. 5). 



22 



FEBRUARY 1995 



Players and Wills were so overwhelmingly the most widely smoked 
cigarettes (among the people known to me) that I rarely saw cards from 
other brands. Two series I did not acquire until many years later were 
Godfrey Phillips's 1923 set of 25 "British Butterflies", photographs on 
black backgrounds (re-issued by Abdulla in 1935 for export), and Lea's 
untitled set of 30 butterflies and moths, mostly British, of c. 1924, printed 
on silk backed with paper and consisting of 12 slightly larger than 
standard small size, 12 large and 6 extra-large cards. 

All the sets so far mentioned had the perhaps inevitable drawback that 
in order to fill the card space each species was depicted in the same size; 
so a Small blue, for instance, was blown up to equal a sadly shrunken 
Purple emperor. This can be confusing to the non-expert, especially as 
the card text often fails to mention the natural size. Lea's three-size issue 
went some way towards overcoming this, but for some odd reason one of 
the extra-large layout was picked for the Jersey tiger, giving it an even 
greater wingspan than the Death's head hawk! 

One of two other series missed by me at the time was issued in 1924 
by Adkin (of whom 1 had never heard); this was 50 "Butterflies and 
Moths", an excellent set that differed from the rest in that in addition to 
the perfect insect each card showed the caterpillar and foodplant as part 
of a well illustrated background. Sadly, I still only have about two-thirds 
of the set. The other missed series did not appear until 1938, a set of 48 
"Butterflies and Moths" from Gallaher. The insects are shown against a 
background of appropriate flowers or leaves, but the overall effect to me 
falls short of excellence; however, the set has the merit of giving moths, at 
half the cards, a better than usual share of coverage, including species 
usually neglected. One odd thing is that the card for the Wood white 
bears the picture of a Green-veined! 

The coming of the 1939-45 war put a stop to the issue of cigarette 
cards for the duration, and though the tobacco companies intended to 
resume when it was over, this hope was not fulfilled in any general way. 
Players and Wills now only pack cards (larger than of old) with their 
cigars. In 1983 Players issued in Grandees a set of 32 "British Butterflies" 
- nature photographs taken from "The Complete Guide to British 
Butterflies" by Margaret Brooks and Charles Knight. 

The tradition of the standard small card was continued by several tea 
and other trading companies. Brooke Bond issued their first series in 
1954, and have since kept up a flow of generally well produced sets. In 
the present context one may note 50 "British Butterflies" (1963) and 50 
"Butterflies of the World" (1964). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



23 



Insects of orders other than Lepidoptera have received little card 
coverage. They are definitely the poor relations, losing out to the more 
general appeal of the others. (In my insect-collecting days it was rather 
the same story; in course of time I did extend my field beyond 
Lepidoptera to include the other orders, but they only mustered a small 
representation.) In 1962 Shell (Australia) issued a set of 60 medium sized 
cards entitled "Beetle Series" (Plate 95C Fig. 6) - the only one I know of 
to deal with one particular order. For the rest they are only to be found in 
ones and twos in a number of more general series, which usually also 
include some butterflies and moths. The fullest selection I know is in 
Wills's 1914 set of 50 "Garden Life" (Plate 95C Fig. 6), which deals 
exclusively with invertebrates (mostly those the gardener would prefer not 
to have). This is a good series, showing the various stages of 
metamorphosis of the subjects. As well as the Large white and nine 
species of moths, 27 other insects appear; most of the moths have the 
merit of being species not often pictured - like the Cabbage moth and 
"micros" whose larvae feed on fruit. 

In 1924 Lambert and Butler produced 25 "Wonders of Nature", which 
showed antlion, leaf-rolling beetle, scarab, leaf insect, praying mantis, 
stick insect, spider-hunting wasp, mason wasp, and army worm fly. In 
1930 Churchman issued 25 "Nature's Architects", amongst which were 
depicted leaf-cutting bee, Lackey moth larva, psyche moth, termite, and 
tree wasp. Wills's admirable four general knowledge series of 50 "Do You 
Know" all contained cards on insects of some sort: honey bee, 
butterfly/moth distinction, field cricket, and great green grasshopper 
(1922); privet hawk and house fly (1924); bookworm beetle, clothes 
moth and woodworm beetle (1926); and dragonfly (1933). 

In recent years Brooke Bond have issued a number of nature series, 
four including some insects. So have Players and their successor 
Winterman in Grandees; the larger format of these cards allowed better 
use of nature photography by such experts as Heather Angel, while the 
texts placed increasing emphasis on conservation needs - non-existent on 
pre-war cards. Again, four series included insects, with Lepidoptera as 
usual perhaps holding rather more than its own in what is still a good 
range of other orders. The relevant details from the sets of both issuers 
are listed below. 

Brooke Bond 

1980-40 "Woodland Wildlife" 

Stag beetle, damselfly, Lobster moth larva, Privet hawk larva, Buff-tip 
larva, Bordered white, Small tortoiseshell. 



24 



FEBRUARY 1995 



1981 - 40 -Small Wonders" 

Honey bee pollen baskets, butterfly proboscis. Ennperor moth 
antenna, cranefly balancers, tree hopper, fritillary butterfly wing 
scales. Privet hawk laiva prolegs. cuckoo spit, horse fly. Silkworm, 
wasp, aphid. 

1985 - 40 "Incredible Creatures"" 

Leaf-cutting ant. atlas moth, false-headed butterfly. 

1990 - 25 "A Journey Downstream"" 

Emperor dragonfly. 

Players/Winterman (Grandees) 

1987 - 30 "Britain's Nocturnal Wildlife" 

Lacewing. Elephant hawk. White plume moth, caddisfly. stag beetle, 
cockchafer, mosquito, oak bush cricket. 

1988 - 30 "Britain's Wayside Wildlife" 

Yellow-tail larva. Figure-of-eight larva. Oak eggar. Magpie. Small 
tortoiseshell and larvae, common scorpionfly. great green bush 
cricket, meadow grasshopper. Brimstone butterfly and larva. Orange- 
tip. Hedge brown (Gatekeeper), hoverflies. black-tipped soldier 
beetle, variable long-horn beetle, thick-legged flower beetle. 

1991 - 30 "Disappearing Rain Forest" 

Leaf-curting ant. termites, various butterflies drinking from a damp 
patch of ground, clearwing butterfly, stick insect, katydid. 

1992 - 30 "Wonders of Nature"" 

Monarch. Australian plague locust. Puss moth larva, wasp beetle. 

Note: The pre-war sets mentioned are of course far from exhaustive. 

being only those that have come to my notice. 




News 




NATIONAL PYRALID RECORDING SCHEME LAUNCHED 

A National Pyralid Recording Scheme has recently been launched. The 
first newsletter, which contains full details of how to contribute to the 
scheme, is available from Tony Davis. The Rangers House. Cricket Hill 
Lane. Yateley. Cambedey. Surrey GUI 7 7BB. A SAE would be greatly 
appreciated. 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



25 



Ml 

60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 
Part I: 1935-44 

by V^ayne Jaruis (9899) 

Over the next six issues of the Bulletin I intend to take a brief look back at 
just a small number of the articles which we have received over the years. 
This first part looks at the first ten years of the Society, during which time 
the Bulletin took many forms. 

In August 1935, the Society, then known as the Entomological 
Exchange and Correspondence Club, six members strong, produced its 
first publication, The Journal of the Entomological Exchange and 
Correspondence Club Vol. 1 which consisted of 13 duplicated parts 
issued over a period of 18 months. By the end of the Society's first year, 
membership had grown to 44, at which time our founder, L.R. Tesch, 
was forced to relinquish his part in the affairs. His resignation letter may 
be found in Volume 1, Number 9 (June 1936) (reproduced in the Golden 
Jubilee reprint of The Journal of the Entomological Exchange and 
Correspondence Club Volume 1 (1985)). The editorship and general 
running of the Society was then taken over by Beowulf Cooper and A.N. 
Brangham. Mr Cooper remained with the Society as Editor well into the 
second decade of the Society. Under them, Volumes 2 and 3 saw the 
Society's journal produced as The Entomologists' Bulletin by the renamed 
Amateur Entomologists' Society. These volumes were enlarged and 
enclosed with a tinted cover. A further change occurred for Volume 4 
(1939). This volume appeared under the name The Amateur 
Entomologist and was commercially printed. Initially, this contained short 
articles, queries and such like, but it soon became the practice that a 
whole volume of the journal was devoted to a particular subject area, 
thus giving birth to the Society's Handbooks. At this time the Bulletin was 
separated, and also commenced, somewhat confusingly with Volume 4 
issue 32 „ 



26 



FEBRUARY 1995 



The outbreak of the Second World War obviously had an enormous 
effect upon the Society. In September 1939, the Society formed the 
temporary Wartime Organisation with £5 from the Society's funds. The 
Society would remain quiescent until such time as all hostilities ceased 
and a Special General Meeting of all pre-war council members could be 
held. The production of all journals stopped, but contact with members 
was maintained by the production of Wartime Exchange Sheets, which 
comprised Volume 5 (1940-44). 

All of these issues were duplicated, almost all being done by one or two 
members of the Society's Committee, on the Society's own machine. 
Membership by this time had reached 256 (Wartime Exchange Sheet No. 
16). The first commercially printed Bulletin was produced in August 
1944, with Volume 6 number 64. These issues were printed without 
covers, and to allow for permanent storage, each volume was issued with 
a wrap-around cover in thicker paper. This practice continued until 
Volume 21 (1962) after which the Bulletin was issued quarterly, without 
an annual wrapper. Membership by end of 1944 had risen to 394. 

There follows a very small selection of the articles printed from 
Volumes 1 to 6. 

From Volume 1, Number 1, August 1935. Page 2. 
NOTES 

It is not expected that this number can contain very much under this 
heading, but the following have come to hand: 

The common elder has, at night been found to attract moths in 
considerable numbers, even when adjacent honeysuckle and gardens 
have been comparatively untenanted. Those who use any acetylene lamp 
might bear this in mind. 

The Lulworth skipper is reported to be unusually frequent in the 
Weymouth district, while the Clouded yellow, occasionally moderately 
common there, has not been seen. A scarcity of Clifden [Adonis] and 
Chalkhill blues from the same locality is also reported. 

Near Bridgwater, Privet hawk and Eyed hawk larvae have been found. 

One member was fortunate in finding four Pine hawks a month or so 
ago, a red letter day indeed. Incidentally, he is very anxious to track 
down the Purple emperor, and would be grateful for any news of his 
majesty's present, or reputed headquarters. 

Graylings are very abundant on the hills behind Cranleigh, Surrey, 
flying round the many gravel and sand pits there. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



27 



From Volume 1, Number 11, September 1936. Page 7. 

A NEW FOODPLANT OF THE HOLLY BLUE {CELASTRINA 
ARGIOLUS)? 

Mr Capener sends the following note on the Holly blue butterfly :- 
"I have just seen {17th August, 1936) a female ovipositing on the calyces 
of a shrub in the gardens here [Weymouthl. The name sounds like 
"Clewtia" (but the gardener didn't know how to spell it) . I am enclosing a 
seed-pod and flower - perhaps you know it? The leaves are very much 
like laburnum. A new foodplant? The shrub grows well and would be an 
ornament to any garden, so perhaps it will come into favour amongst 
those who bred this species instead of the usual holly-ivy combination." 

Mr Cooper [Hon. Secretary at the timel has established the identity of 
this plant as undoubtedly being a species of Cassia, commonly known as 
the bladder senna. Since there are one or two plants of this in Mr 
Capener's district, he will be pleased to send ripe seed pods of this to 
anyone desirous of growing this shrub as an experiment. Meanwhile, we 
hope Mr Capener will breed the ova he saw laid, and in due course 
report to us whether he considers this pabulum suitable, or merely a 
chance mistake on the part of the parent butterfly. 

From Volume 2, Number 16, May 1937. Page 42. 

THE EFFECT OF COLD ON THE HABITS OF ANTS 

by D.J. Billes 

A few experiments have indicated that cold dulls the warlike activities of 
ants. This is particularly noticeable in their attitude towards other 
individuals of the same species. 

A queenless colony of Lasius (Acanthomi^ops) flavus was introduced 
into a nest containing a single fertile female. There was no brood present. 
To my great surprise the workers clustered around the queen and she was 
accepted. Previously in the summer I had tried to introduce a queen with 
no success, all being killed, although they had been isolated for some 
time. The colony is now living in warmer quarters, but the workers have 
not changed their attitude towards the queen. 

Similarly with Lasius niger, when two workers with the brood of a dead 
queen were joined with a queen and one worker with no brood from 
another nest. In the summer the two workers attacked any queen I placed 
with them. The new queen now helps to look after the brood and the 
three workers do likewise, showing no signs of animosity. 



28 



FEBRUARY 1995 



To test this still further, I obtained a single worker of Formica rufa and 
placed it in a colony containing two females and a few workers. The 
single worker, very annoyed, attacked the workers of the colony at first, 
but later settled down and now cannot be distinguished from the others. 
This conduct is certainly very unusual as the colony and the worker were 
obtained from nests widely separated. This experiment could be extended 
by placing a worker of the same nest among the colony in summer to see 
what effect it might have. Experience has shown, however, that they will 
attack members of their own colony as well as from other nests. 

From Volume 3, Number 24, March 1938. Page 19. 
IMPORTED BEETLE 

bijS.C. Wincott 

On Friday, 23rd July, [1937] in the Charing Cross Road, London, I saw 
two ladies examining a large beetle which was crawling across the 
pavement. From a distance, the creature looked like a large stag beetle, 
but on close examination it proved to be a foreign species of a type which 
I could not recollect seeing before. I pocketed the insect and took it home 
wrapped in a handkerchief. The beetle fed on sugar and water and lived 
just two days. I later took it to the Natural History Museum, and Mr Arrow 
identified it as one of the rhinoceros beetles from Jamaica, Strategus 
titanus, specimens of which are not infrequently brought into this country 
in consignments of bananas. The insect in question had probably strayed 
from Covent Garden market. 

The September 1939 Bulletin (Vol. 4 No. 38) began with an editorial 
thus: 

Dear Fellow Members, 

Owing to this country having become engaged in war, further journals. 
Bulletins, and other AES communications will be suspended until such 
times as members of the Committee are again free to give their services to 
the Society. Funds will remain untouched until the cessation of hostilities, 
and the Society property will be stored as securely as possible. It is hoped 
that members will carefully preserve their membership lists and keep in 
contact with one another so that, on the resumption of our activities, the 
tracing of members who may have moved may be accomplished 
satisfactorily. We wish all members the best that fortune can provide, and 
hope that they will be able to keep their interest in amateur entomology 
alive wherever they may be. May it be soon that our next Bulletin be 
published! 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



29 



From Volume 5, Number 61. (Wartime Exchange Sheet No. 21.) 
February 1944. 

S.M. Hanson (320), at present serving with the FL^F in North Africa, 
writes as follows of a spot at which he was stationed in the desert in 
Tunisia: 

'Vanessa cardui (Painted lady). Quite rare until 29.9.43, when the first 
thunderstorm broke: immediately after this fresh males emerged 
everywhere, but it was not until 5.10.43, when another thunderstorm 
occurred, that females were on the wing. Specimens before the above 
dates were very worn and only found locally as odd ones, and gave the 
appearance of having been on the wing for a considerable period. There 
was no sign of the habit one sees in England of patrolling over a certain 
stretch of ground, and they would only linger about one place if a 
crushed pomegranate was put on the ground, whereon the butterflies 
become stupid and can be picked off with ease. So far I have found no 
trace of either nettle or burdock - perhaps these plants appear during the 
winter months (November - March), as the ground the rest of the time is 
hard, sandy and parched. Rain, which usually occurs with great 
suddenness, always causes the specimens to seek immediate shelter, but 
owing to lack of houses, trees or shrubs, they generally fly round and 
round in the thunderstorm without any prospect of finding cover. After 
5th October, numbers increased with great rapidity and by the 10th 
specimens were everywhere, apparently assembling for migration. By the 
13th very few remained, and, at the time of writing (1st November), the 
scarcity of the species compares with the numbers before 28th 
September. The appearance and size differs in no way from English 
specimens and they are equally bright on the upperside, with a generous 
orange flush which appears to be lost after a few days' flight." 

From Volume 6, Number 64, August 1944. Page 3. 

PUDDLE ATTRACTION 

by S.M. Hanson (320) 

During the first week of July 1941, when a dry spell of weather was in 
progress, a favourite wood of mine in Surrey was swarming with White 
admirals (Limeintis Camilla) and it was possible to see as many as six or 
more at a time, all flying low. The interesting thing was that on the side of 
a small road which went through the wood a puddle had remained 
throughout the dry season; this was alive with butterflies flying around the 
puddle and apparently drinking from it. Many specimens were settling on 



30 



FEBRUARY 1995 



Umbelliferous flowers, especially Angelica s}^'lvesiris. and it was possible lo 
see three or four at one flower-head, while other White admirals were 
settled on the tarred road. The following week, however, there were 
many showers: as a resuh. all the White admirals tlew high in the normal 
way and were distributed all over the wood and no longer in the 
immediate viciniti.- of the road near the puddle. 




Breaking up ran on a groundshee: Ln search of beetle larvae - 
a bug-hunier never lacks companionship. 



Canoon taken fi'om Volumie 6 Number 64. August 1944. 



CORRECTION TO BULLETIN 53 NUMBER 397 

Beuveen submission and publication, the address of the Hampshire 
Wildlife Tmst given in Justin Evans's article on page 226 has changed. 
The address in the last paragraph should now read: The Hampshire 
Wildlife Trust. 8 Romsey Road. Eastleigh. Hampshire SO50 9AL. Tel: 
(01703^ 613636. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



31 




Abbreviations 
BEHNS 
LCES 
RES 

RES(QG) 



Diary Dates 



British Entomological and Nature History Society. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 
Royal Entomological Society of London. 
RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 
Information from: 



To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. Any relevant 
items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is made for entries. Please 
allow three months advance notice. 



MARCH 

1st Inventorying the Worlds Insect Fauna. 

RES(QG) Tea 16.30hrs. Meeting 17.00hrs. Talk by Dr Nigel Stork about 
how much, or how little, progress has been made in the last few hundred 
years to describe the insect fauna, and its distribution, of Britain and the 
rest of the world. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

3rd AES Council Meeting. 

Westminster Central Halls. IS.SOhrs. 

4th Biology and Information of Spider Wasps with Particular Reference 
to the British Fauna. 

RES North Region and LCES meeting. Museum Information Centre, 
Liverpool Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool. 
I: Stephen Judd 0151 207 0001. 

5th Reptila '95. 

Reptile and Insect Fair at Stockport Town Hall, Cheshire. 
lO.OOhrs - 17.00hrs. Admission £2. 

I: Steve Howard 0161 429 7794 (or 0161 430 2631 after 7pm). 

18th LCES 118th Annual Exhibition. 

Woolston Leisure Centre, Warrington, Cheshire. IS.OOhrs. - 17.00hrs. 
I: Steve McWilliam 01928 573697. 

An Introduction to Hymenopteran Families with Special Reference 
to the Aculeates. 

BEHNS (Workshop) Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, 
Reading. lO.SOhrs. - 16.00hrs. 

I: Dr Ian Mclean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ. 



32 



FEBRUARY 1995 



21st Medically Important Insects. 

LEGS. Liverpool Museum. 19.00hrs. 

26th Leicestershire Spring Entomological Fair. 

Granby Halls Leisure Gentre, Aylestone Road, Leicester. 
lO.SOhrs. - 16.30hrs. Admission £1 & 50p. 
I: Jack Harris 01455 846310. 

APRIL 

5th How Insects Taste their Food. 

RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. I: RES 0171 581 8505. 

6th-7th Conserving Europe's Bees. 

Symposium to be held in London, organised by the IBRA and Linnean 
Society. 

I: International Bee Research Association, 18 North Road, Cardiff 
CFl 3DY. 

8th The National Network for Recording Britain's Moths: The Wax; 
Forward. 

BENHS (Workshop) Dinton Pastures Gountry Park, Davis Street. Hurst, 
Reading. lO.SOhrs. - 16.00hrs. 

\: Dr Ian Mclean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ. 

Earlx; Butterflies and Moths at Homefield Wood, near Marlow, 
Buckinghamshire. 

Joint AES/Butterfly Gonservation/BBONT meeting. Meet at entrance to 
Homefield Wood (SU814867) at 11am for approximately 2 hours. 
I: Martin Harvey 01635 550380 (work) or 01491 628364 (home - 
may change prior to April). N.B. This meeting will not go ahead if 
the weather is bad, please contact Martin in advance. 

1 1th The Species Recovery Programme Field Cricket Project. 

Tea 16.00hrs. meeting 16.30hrs. 

I: Dr Ian Mclean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ, 

18th A Day in the Life of a Curator. 

LGES meeting presented by Liverpool Museum Entomological Staff. 
Liverpool Museum 19.00hrs. 

22nd AES Annual General Meeting. 

At the RES, 41 Queen's Gate, London. 
I: Wayne Jarvis 01582 485820. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



33 



24th Save our Bugs! 

Wycombe Urban Wildlife Group. Illustrated talk by Martin Harvey on 

conserving butterflies, moths and other invertebrates. Follows WUWH 

AGM, Bassetsbury Manor Countryside Centre, High Wycombe, 

Buckinghamshire. 

I: WUWG 01494 536930. 

29th Identifying Ants. 

BENHS (Workshop) Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, 
Reading. lO.SOhrs. - 16.00hrs. 

I: Dr Ian Mclean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ. 



MAY 

3rd Medical and Veterinary Special Interest Group lecture. 

Title to be arranged. RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 581 8505. 

7th Durham Entomological Fair. 

Equestrian Centre, Stag Lane, Newton Aycliffe, Darlington. lO.OOhrs. - 

16.00hrs. Admission 50p all. 

I: James Houlihan 01388 721449 or 720503. 

10th RES East Region Meeting. 

Broom's Barn Experimental Station. 

I: Dr R.C. Welsch, ITE, Monk's Wood Experimental Station, Abbotts 
Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 2LS. 

14th Entomological Livestock Group Spring Entomological Fair. 

Pattishall Parish Hall, Pattishall, Towcester. ll.OOhrs. - 16.00hrs. 

Admission £1 & 50p. 

I: Paul Batty 01909 550272. 



JUNE 

4th Creepy Crawly Show IV. 

Queen Elizabeth Hall, Oldham. 12.00hrs - 17.00hrs. 

Admission £1 & 50p. 

I: Oldham Museum 0161 678 4649. 

7th RES Annual Meeting and President's Invitation Lecture. 

RES(QG). Tea IV.OOhrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 581 8505. 



BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL 



AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Registered charity number: 213149 



Founded in 1872, the Society holds regular lecture meetings in London and the well- 
known ANNUAL EXHIBITION will be held at Imperial College, London SW7, on Saturday 
28th October 1995; this will be followed by the ANNUAL DINNER. 

The Society maintains a library and collections at its headquarters at Dinton Pastures, 
which is open to BENHS members at various times each fortnight. Frequent field 
meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. 
The current programme card can be had on application to: the Secretary: R.F. McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth Devon TQU 8NR. 

The Society publishes British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, a quarterly 
journal of entomological articles, short communications, meeting reports, book reviews, 
etc. The Journal is free to BENHS members. For a sample copy contact: the Editor, 
Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. Tel: 0171-732 2440. 
Fax: 0171-277 8725. 

The Society has published several books including: A field guide to the smaller British 
Lepidoptera, edited by A.M. Emmet (288pp, paperback £18, hardback £22.50, - £1.80 
p.&p.); British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide, by A.E. Stubbs and S.J. 
Falk (270pp, 12 col. plates, hardback, recently reprinted, £26 - £2.80 p.&p.i. BENHS 
members qualify for special discounted prices. 

For further details contact: 
the Sales Secretary: R.D. Hawkins, 30d Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 
For membership application details contact: 
the Membership Secretary: A. Godfrey, 10 Moorlea Drive, Baildon, Shipley, 
West Yorkshire BD17 6QL 



BEE 
RESEARCH 
ASSOCIATION 



MICROSCOPES 



^ Specialist suppliers of stereo 
microscopes and compound 
microscopes for Entomology 
studies. 




18 NORTH ROAD 
CARDIFF 
CFl 3DY 



All instruments suitable for 
photography and drawing 
attachments. 



* Large stocks of used 



laboratory instruments. 



* Books, slides, stains, equip- 
ment - the complete service. 



For Scientific and Technical 
information on Bees (Apoidea) 
especially Honeybees (ApisSP). 



* Telephone helpline for 
enquiries and viewing 
appointments 



30 page illustrated catalogue 
(Stamp appreciated'. A 



0272 591551 



Please write to the aboxe address for 
derails of publications and membership. 
A specimen copy of "Bee World" is 
obtainable for 50p. 



BRUNEL MICROSCOPES LTD 

Dept. AES, 113 Henbury Road 
Bristol BSIO 7AA 



open until 10pm daily. 



Mdlands 
Entomological 
Fair 

Qranby Halls, Leicester 
Sunday 26th March 1995 

10.30am - 4.30pm 
Admissions £1.00 Adults - 50p under sixteens 

All major dealers and groups in attendance. 
Everything for the enthusiast. 

Livestock - papered and set specimens. 
Books and periodicals 
Collecting and breeding equipment. 
Large herpetology section. 

Approximately 70 stands altogether. 

Enquiries: 
Telephone Jack Harris, 01455 846510 

Bar and Refreshments. Plenty of free parking. 



Diary note: Christmas Fair 3rd December 1 995. 



A NEW REPRINT FROM THE 
AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 

PRACTICAL HINTS FOR THE FIELD LEPIDOPTERIST by J.W.Tiitt 

Written in three parts at the turn of the century, this book has been reprinted 
because it still represents the most comprehensive field guide covering both 
macro and microlepidoptera. Parts I to III all give a month by month guide to 
which species and stages to look for and how to find them. Part III also contains 
an extensive biological account of the early stages and how to keep, rear and 
describe them. 422 pages. Hardback. (Reprinted 1994). A separate supplement 
has been prepared which cross-references old to current scientific names and the 
English names of the species covered. Total price only £21.00. 

OTHER TITLES AVAILABLE FROM THE A.E.S. INCLUDE 



Habitat Conservation for Insects - A Neglected Green Issue 

(Hardback 262 pages, 15 figures+ 32 pages colour plates) £12.00 

A Lepidopterists Handbook (136 pages, 32 figs, 13 plates) £7.50 

Breeding the British Butterflies (60 pages, 6 figures, 5 plates) .... £3.95 

Breeding the British and European Hawkmoths (56 pages) £3.95 

Practical Hints for Collecting and Studying 

Microlepidoptera (40 pages, 1 1 figures) £3.40 

An Amateurs Guide to the Study of the Gentalia of Lepidoptera ( 1 6pp ) . £2.35 
A Silkmoth Rearers Handbook (Hardback, 225pp + 32 colour 

plates showing 74 photographs of larvae and adult moths) £13.75 

Killing, Setting and Storing Butterflies and Moths (19 pages) .... £2.85 

The Study of Stoneflies, Mayflies and Caddis Flies (44 pp, 10 figs.) . . £3.40 

Collecting and Studying Dragonflies (24 pages, 12 figs, 2 plates) . . . £2.35 

The Hymenopterists Handbook (226 pages, illustrated) £8.50 

Revised Fhght Tables for the Hymenoptera (24 pages) £2.00 

A Coleopterists Handbook (Hardback, 300 pages, illustrated) . . . . £15.50 

Host plants of British Beetles (24 pages) £2.00 

A Dipterists Handbook (260 pages, illustrated) £9.50 

Rearing and Studying Stick and Leaf-Insects (73 pp. 43 figs. 17 plates) . £5.00 

Rearing and Studying the Praying Mantids (22 pages, 9 plates) .... £2.85 

Rearing Crickets in the Classroom (12 pages. 2 plates) £1.80 



All the above publications sent post free to U.K. addresses. Outside U.K. please 
add 10% to order value for postage by surface mail. For postage by air-mail 
outside Europe please add 30% to order value. 

Please make all cheques/postal orders payable to 'AES Publications' and send to: 
AES Publications. The Hawthorns, Prating Road, Great Bromle>'. 
COLCHESTER C07 7JN. Telephone 0206 251600 



AES ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 



Saturday 22nd April 1995 
at the Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate 

HOW TO GET THERE 

There is no car parking facility at the R.E.S. and it is therefore strongly advised that public 
transport is used. 

By Train: The nearest mainline station is London Victoria from which the under- 

ground or bus systems should be used. 

By Underground: South Kensington Station is served by Piccadilly, Circle and District 
Line trains. 

By Bus: The following services serve the area: 

To South Kensington Station 

14 Putney Heath, Fulham, South Kensington. Piccadilly. Tottenham Court Road. 
45A Peckham, Camberwell, Brixton. Stockweii, Clapham, Battersea. South Kensington. 
49 Shepherds Bush, High Street Kensington, South Kensington, Clapham Junction. 
70 South Kensington, Notting Hill Gate, Acton. (Travels along Queen's Gate). 
74 Baker Street, Marble Arch, South Kensington, High Street Kensington. 

To Queen's Gate 

9 Aldwych, Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly, High Street Kensington, Hammersmith. 
9A Kensington, Hammersmith, Mortlake. 

10 Hammersmith, Kensington, Marble Arch, Oxford Circus. Tottenham Court Road. Euston, 
Kings Cross. 

52 Victoria, Knightsbridge, Notting Hill Gate, Ladbroke Grove, Wilsden. 




Victoru and 
Albert Museum 



outh Kensington Tube 

(Picca<lilly, Grde and District Unes) 



CONTENTS 



T.B. Larsen. Butterflies in Kakum National Park, Ghana. Part I. 

Papilionidae, Pieridae and Lycaenidae. 3 

L. Piaster. Rajah Brooke flits to the big city. 9 

HA. Elhs. The red-spotted form of the Poplar hawkmoth larva. 11 

M. Bailey. The good, the bad and the indifferent - moth numbers in Avon. 

1989-1994. 14 

D.O. King. Ramblings of an aged cartophilic entomologist. 17 

W. Jarvis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. Part I. 

1935-1944. 25 

Short communications 

J. Koryszko. The ladybird, the weevil and the cola bottle. 8 

Editorial 1 

Index to Volume 53 13 

News 24 

Correction to Bulletin 53 Number 397 30 

Diary dates 31 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal 
are solely those of the author{s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or 
sought, requests for help or information, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and 
Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that 
might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 28th February 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430). from 4 Steep Close. Orpington. Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd.. 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood. Essex CM14 4TA. 



s. S6 A 



ISSN 0266-836X 



%9 '^>^'^ 



Volume 54, No. 399, April, 1995 



The Bulletin 
of the Amateur 
Entomologists' 




EDITOR 

WAYNE JARVIS BSc. 



The Amateur Entomologists^ Society 

Founded in 1935 



President: 
Secretary;: 

Treasurer: 
Registrar: 
Bulletin Editor: 

General Editor: 

Advertising Secretary: 
Exhibition Secretary^: 
Youth Secretary;: 
ICN Editor: 
Wants & Exchange: 

Habitat Conservation Officer: 



Brian Gardiner 

2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 
Simon Fraser 

Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College at Silwood 
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Thames, Oxon. 



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No. 399 




CANNIBAL LADYBIRDS / 

by Roy Goff 

82 Cliffe Road, Gonerb]^ Hill Foot, Grantham, Lincolnshire NG31 SUP. 

On the 13th July I noticed some pupae of the Two-spotted ladybird 
Adalia bipunctata on the upperside of a leaf of a small silver birch 
(approx. 8ft.). The first group were of five pupae closely attached about 
the centre of the leaf. Further searching of the tree revealed several more 
groups with a maximum of six pupae on a leaf. What I was surprised to 
see was a fully grown larva eating one of the original group of pupae 
found. Looking closely I then noticed that several pupae were being 
consumed by their fellow larvae. In most instances there was only a single 
ladybird larva on a leaf but one pupa had the misfortune of being sucked 
dry by two which had attacked from opposite sides. I also observed one 
instance of a larva being attacked by a second. All the larvae bar one 
were full grown and some were about to pupate themselves. I have 
several similar silver birches in the garden quite close together but only 
the one by the pond had any ladybirds upon it. There was no trace of 
greenfly on the tree and no indication that there had been. 

The weather had been very hot and dry for several days which I 
suspect had some bearing upon the behaviour of the larvae. It is 
impossible to prove anything but I wonder if during the cooler weather 
the ladybirds had been "water fat" and able to pupate easily and in 
harmony with their neighbours. Once the dry conditions had gained a 
hold, larvae moving onto the tree were short of water and therefore chose 
to have one last feed before pupating themselves. I wonder if similar 
behaviour is frequent in these beetles or if anyone can offer a better 
explanation. 



36 



APRIL 1995 



HANDKERCHIEFS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 
(LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) 

by E. Geoffrey Hancock (3485) 

Glasgow Museums. Keluingroue. Glasgow G3 SAG. 

A small number of nymphalids found in Trinidad and Tobago have been 
given the local name of "handkerchiefs" as described in Barcant (1970). 
Having just returned from a visit to these islands as part of an expedition 
from Glasgow University during July 1994, I found a copy of the AES 
Bulletin with Leigh Plester's account of his observations in Tobago in the 
large pile of mail in the in-tray. Two days later, when I found time to read 
it, I was intrigued by the mention of a small unidentified black and white 
butterfly he had found in Arnos Vale, 23rd May 1990 (Plester, 1994). Its 
description seemed to be similar to some I had collected from Arima in 
Trinidad where it was common. These were Ph\;ciodes leucodesma 
(Fldr), the Common handkerchief, but it is not supposed to occur in 
Tobago. The term handkerchief is derived possibly from the name given 
by Felder to this species leucodesma (leucus - white; desme - bundle or 
package). Leigh Plester kindly sent the specimen to examine when it 
became apparent that it was the Blue-tinted handkerchief, D\;namine 
theseus (Fldr), a similar but smaller and more distinctively marked 
species. It is known to occur in Tobago so the mystery would appear to 
be solved. 

DAbrera (1987) has excellent illustrations showing the undersides also 
but the book is well beyond the pocket of most people. Of additional 
interest is the reference by DAbrera to the occurrence of dry season forms 
in Mexico, characterised by smaller size. The Tobago specimen, collected 
at the end of the dry season, has a wing length of 15mm whereas that 
illustrated is 20mm. However, it is consistent with other local examples 
according to the measurements given by Barcant (1970) and 
geographical variation may cloud the issue. Perhaps access to larger 
samples would demonstrate any seasonal changes in Trinidad and 
Tobago populations within species of this genus. 

Other species of D\;namme found in Trinidad and Tobago include 
arenae (Hiibn.), which is illustrated by D'Abrera using an example 
labelled Trinidad. He queries the locality for some reason but local 
naturalists appear to have no doubts about this species, where it is known 
by them to be widespread but decreasing in numbers (Barcant, 1970). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



37 



REFERENCES 

D'Abrera, B. (1987). Butterflies of the Neotropical Region, Part IV, N\;mphalidae (partim). 

Hill House, Black Rock, Australia, pp 528-678. 
D'Abrera, B. (1987). Butterflies of the Neotropical Region, Part III, Brassolidae, Acraeidae 

and N\;mphalidae (partim). Hill House, Black Rock, Australia, pp 386-527. 
Barcant, M. (1970). Butterflies of Trinidad and Tobago, London. 
Plester, L. (1994). De fus' time in Tobago. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc, 53(395): 151-156. 



MOTH SIGHTINGS IN 1994 

by Chris Raper (7540) 

22 Beech Road, Purley-or\-Tharnes, Reading, Berkshire RG8 8DS. 

Species: Meganola albula (Denis & Schiffermiiller) "Kent black arches" 

Location: Hartslock Nature Reserve, Goring, Oxfordshire. 
SU 618795 

Date: 29.6.94 

Recorder: Mr CM. Raper, 22 Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, 
Berkshire 

Species: Heliothis peltigera (Denis & Schiffermiiller) "Bordered straw" 

Location: Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, Berkshire 
SU 655762 

Date: 7.9.94 

Recorder: (as above) 

The first was taken using a Heath trap and the second at a kitchen 
window. Specimens were taken and the identifications have been 
confirmed by Brian Baker (25 Matlock Road, Caversham, Reading). 

The above records will be forwarded to the Entomologist's Record, 
John Campbell at the Oxford Natural History Museum, Brian Baker, 
BBONT and Paul Waring. 

It seems to have been a good year for migrants - several Clouded 
yellows were seen on the Downs this year and I have caught more 
migratory moths than I would normally. Other species new to me were 
the Cloaked minor and Rush veneer. Have other recorders noticed the 
same? 



38 



APRIL 1995 



MATE-GUARDING IN CLUSIA FLAVA (MEIGEN) (DIPTERA: 
CLUSIIDAE) 

fay Richard A. Jones 

13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 

Mate-guarding is a widespread behaviour in insects. To prevent 
promiscuity in his chosen mate and to counter the attentions of 
interlopers, the male stands guard over the fertilised female while she lays 
her (and his) eggs without interruption or removal of his sperm. 

The behaviour is perhaps best known and most often observed in 
dragonflies where mated pairs remain in tandem, the male clinging to the 
neck of the female with his anal claspers, while they bob over the water 
intermittently dipping the female's abdomen into the pool to release eggs. 
In many damselflies the couple both descend down a plant stem beneath 
the water's surface, remaining out of sight for several minutes while egg- 
laying takes place. In others, while the female oviposits, the male hovers 
nearby, driving off any inquisitive intruders. 

Some flies also engage in mate-guarding, but the behaviour is not often 
observed and less frequently reported. A few obvious species are well 
known mate-guarders. For example, males of the dungfly Scathophaga 
stercoraria (Linnaeus) sit in wait for females on a fresh pat, and after 
successfully mating, the male keeps a firm hold while the female lays eggs 
(Ridsdill-Smith, 1991 and references therein). Conopids are frequently 
seen in threes, as an intruding male attempts to interrupt a couple for his 
own ends. I have found Sicus ferrugineus (Linnaeus) and Conops 
ceriaeformis Meigen so entangled. In my experience, conopid pairs are 
seldom attached in coitus and more often than not the male appears to 
be present solely to guard the female against other amorous attentions. 

Several mate-guarding observations have been of small and secretive 
species (eg McLean, 1991), observed through the viewfinder of a camera 
and macro lens. So it was when I came across a pair of tiny pink flies on a 
rotten log in Leigh Woods near Bristol (part of the Avon Valley National 
Nature Reserve), on 2nd June 1994. I was able to take several pictures of 
the flies as they walked across the log. Unfortunately, I did not collect the 
specimens, but Peter Chandler has very kindly identified them from a 
photograph as Clusiafalva (Meigen) (Plate 95E, Fig. 2). 

As they moved, the female probed from side to side with her extended 
abdomen. Although I could not see any eggs being laid, this is what I 
imagined must be taking place. Meanwhile the male remained on her 
back, sitting motionless apart from the odd flick of his wings. 



39 



From the photograph it is clear that the male has a vice-like hold on his 
mate. Her wings are clamped by his legs; the front leg grips the base of 
the wing while the middle leg clamps across the centre. Dyte (1988) 
describes how the front legs of a mate-guarding dolichopodid fly, 
H\;drophorus oceanus (Macquart), grip the thorax near the bases of the 
female's wings. Unlike in Clusia, however, the female dolichopodid's 
wings were free to move and couples flew about quite actively. 

In many insects, sperm from a mating can be removed by a subsequent 
pairing. In dragonflies, part of the male's genitalia is specially shaped to 
scoop out any previous sperm. In other insects where a female mates 
many times it is the last male to mate that fathers most of the offspring, 
suggesting that sperm displacement has taken place (eg Parker, 1970). It 
is therefore in the male's interests to guard his mate against further 
copulation and prevent any new suitor removing or diluting the sperm he 
has already invested. 

! 

Mate-guarding is also thought to take place where males significantly 
I outnumber females. This is so with male dungflies which congregate on 
the fresh dung before the females arrive. Similarly Dyte (1988) found a 
larger number of males than females when studying the mate-guarding of 
Hydrophorus oceanus. Whether or not males of Clusia flava outnumber 
females is unknown. 

Unusually, the male Clusia in the photograph is much larger than the 
female carrying him. In the Diptera, males are normally slightly smaller 
than the females. In answer to my initial query, Peter Chandler replied 
that he has a pair of Clusia flava taken in cop where the male is very 
diminutive compared to the female. Dyte (1988) suggested that smaller 
male size might evolve as a response to mate-guarding, because small 
males are less of a burden to the females carting them about. This would 
be particularly important in dolichopodids (Dyte, 1988) and ephydrids 
(McLean, 1991) because they walk on water. 

Mating insects make interesting and sometimes willing photographic 
subjects; so engrossed are they in the activity of copulation that they seem 
not to notice the approaching entomologist laden down with copious 
quantities of Japanese optical gear, associated wiring and bits of 
ironmongery. Despite the fact that these photographs can raise more 
questions than they solve, capturing snap-shots of such activity is the first 
stage in understanding many aspects of insect behaviour, a field in which 
the amateur entomologist can still make advances. 



40 



APRIL 1995 



Acknowledgements 

My thanks to Peter Chandler for identifying the flies from a photograph 
and his helpful comments on the species, and to Tony Robinson, warden 
of the Avon Valley NNR who provided me with a permit to collect insects 
in the reserve. 

REFERENCES 

Dyte. C.E. (1988). Mate guarding and sex ratio in Hi^'drophorus oceanus (Macquart) 

(Diptera: Dolichopodidae). The Entomologist 107: 122-126 
McLean. I.F.G. (1991). Mate-guarding in Eph\,'dra riparia Fallen (Diptera; Ephydridae). 

British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 4: 65. plate III fig. 4 
Parker. G.A. (1970). Sperm competition and its evolutionan,' effect on copula duration in 

the fly Scatophaga stercoraria. Journal of Insect Physiology 16: 1301-1328. 
Ridsdill-Smith. J. (1991). Competition in dung-breeding insects. In: Bailey. W.J. & Flidsdill- 

Smith. J., (eds). Reproductive behaviour of insects: individuals and populations. 

Chapman & Hall. London, pp. 254-292. 



A MIGRATION PUZZLE 

by Humphrey Kay {9621) 

Airports can be good places to watch butterflies on migration, and I 
remember a tedious wait at Chicago airport being enlivened by the sight 
of hundreds of Monarchs flying southwards on their autumn migration 
some years ago. On 16th October this year I witnessed a similar migration 
at Charleston (South Carolina) airport of Large clouded yellow-like 
butterflies, all flying south at about 8mph in an almost continuous stream. 

Monarchs seemed to be scarce this year but on 12th October I had 
witnessed four in the Blue Ridge Mountains above Charlottesville. 
Virginia. The peculiarity of these four was that they all seemed to be 
flying in the wrong direction. To get them from Virginia to the wintering 
sites in Mexico the general direction is south-west but these butterflies 
were all gong slightly north of east. The place was the Beagle Gap in the 
Blue Ridge Mountain range (height about 2000ft.). so they were leaving 
the Shenandoah valley to reach the wide plains of eastern Virginia. This 
is a sensible way to go to ensure a journey with plenty of nectar-bearing 
flowers along the way. but how did they have the wisdom to take two 
right-angle turns, first left, then right, to reach this easier route? To pass 
through the Beagle Gap they had to fly head on into a brisk easterly 
wind, and I could only assume that it was the wind which informed them 
of the presence of more flowers ahead in that direction than there would 
have been on the more direct route along the Appalachians. Is there any 
other explanation? 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



41 



FEIGNED DEATH IN THE WOLF SPIDER PISAURA 
MIRABILIS (CLERK) 

by Richard A. Jones 

13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 

The large wolf spider, Pisaura mirabilis (Clerk) is a common sight in early 
summer. It frequently sits on bramble leaves in wait for some unwary prey 
to come too close. Its typical pose is one in which its front two pairs of 
legs are held outstretched, as if sensing vibration in the leaf, and its hind 
two pairs are arched, as if ready to launch an attack. 

In Nunhead Cemetery, London SE15, Pisaura is very common and I 
have photographed it on many occasions. However, on 11th May 1994 
my eye was drawn to what I took to be a dead specimen, or the empty 
skin of a recently moulted individual. At first I ignored what 1 took to be 
an inanimate shell, but thinking it might have succumbed to a fungal 
disease or parasite I took a closer look. As I drew forward, to my surprise, 
it suddenly sat up and adopted the usual alert stance of the species - legs 
outstretched, tensed and ready to make a move. I withdrew slightly to 
switch on the flash guns to my camera, and the spider again adopted the 
crumpled appearance of a shed skin. 

On a second approach, camera in hand, 1 moved extremely slowly and 
was able to get within inches of the animal to photograph it (Plate 95F, 
Fig. 3). The flashes immediately startled the spider and it again took up 
the standard Pisaura position (Plate 95F, Fig. 4). A few moments later it 
was shrivelled again, only to jump to attention if disturbed by the flash 
guns, camera or my enquiring face. 

Feigning death, or thanatosis as it is sometimes called, is a common 
response to danger; an insect (or spider) draws in all its legs, drops to the 
ground and remains motionless in the hope that it has become invisible 
against the background. Animals and birds (and also entomologists 
sometimes) that hunt by detecting movement are easily foiled by this 
trick. After a suitable period of stillness, the creature gets up and walks 
away, its attacker having long ago become bored and moved off. 

Quite what this Pisaura aimed to achieve, I do not know. Perhaps it 
saw me before 1 saw it and, fearing I was a predator, curled up to deceive 
me into thinking it was not a tasty snack, but just a dead and dry husk. 
My close approach may have convinced it that the tactic had failed and it 
then adopted an alert pose ready to dash off into hiding. But why should 
it revert to a rumpled appearance when I moved away? Maybe it 
intended to fool flies into landing periously close to what no longer 



42 



APRIL 1995 



resembled their spider enemy. Maybe it was preparing to moult, or 
perhaps it was simply ill or tired and hunched on its haunches to conseR'e 
energy and rest. 

Whatever its motives for feigning death, the spider's initial behaviour 
really did convince me that it was dead; its limbs took on the exact 
appearance of moulted skin, held loosely and iiTegularly curled under its 
body. I can find no published report of this behaviour and wonder 
whether it is novel. 

Acknowledgements 

Frances Murphy kindly commented on a draft of this paper. 



A VISIT TO WHIXALL MOSS 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

On 23rd June 1994. a sunny and hot day. 1 visited Whixall Moss. 
Shropshire with Kate Flannagan. Steve Chapman and Derek Heath. It 
had been a couple of years since 1 last visited this area, so we were 
looking foiward to finding some interesting species to photograph and 
record. We were not disappointed. 

There were a number of Large heath [Coenonimpha tullia) and 
Brimstone butterflies [Gonepteryx rhamni) along with Green hairstreaks 
[Callophrys rubi) and Holly blues [Celastrina argiolus). We also noted 
single specimens of the Triple-spotted clay [Xestia ditrapezium) . the 
Suspected {Parastichtis suspecta). the Round-winged muslin [Thumatha 
senex) and the Marsh oblique-ban'ed {Hypenodes humidalis) which were 
disturbed when we walked through the grass. 

Steve Chapman netted a possible Plain wave [Idaea straminata) but it 
was too worn to make a reliable positive identification. A few Grass 
waves [Perconia strigillaria) were also disturbed, and Steve pointed out a 
shrub on which settled a moth 1 had been looking for in this area but 
which had until now eluded me. the Manchester treble-bar [Carsia 
sororiata anglica). 

A number of Tiger beetles [Cicindela campesiris) were also seen 
running across the ground along with some beautiful black and yellow 
Longhorn beetles. 

At the end of the day we had an interesting talk with Dr Joan Daniels. 

the English Nature Site Manager, about our findings. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



43 



BUTTERFLIES IN KAKUM NATIONAL PARK, GHANA 
PART II. NYMPHALIDAE & HESPERIIDAE 

by Torben B. Larsen 

358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

(continued from page 8) 
Nymphalidae 

The Danainae are poorly represented in Africa, but all six Ghanaian 
species have been recorded. However, Danaus chri^sippus Linne only 
occurs as a stray in the forest proper and always looks distinctly 
uncomfortable; it is very common in the open agricultural lands 
surrounding Kakum. 

About 30 Satyrinae have so far been found, and they behave just as 
Satyrinae usually do in the tropics. More than half belong to the genus 
Bicyclus and I am beginning to be able to guess which species are where. 
Many live only in dense undergrowth and are best lured out by fruit bait - 
this is especially true for the huge blue-banded B. hewitsoni. Other 

species frequent more 
open forest, some are on 
swampy ground, and a 
few are found only along 
paths and in clearings. 

The Charaxinae are 
among the jewels of 
African butterflies and 
can nearly only be 
caught by the use of 
traps (see Fig. 1). I have 
not been overly diligent 
in this respect, and have 
taken only 20 so far. 
Now that I have a 
vehicle it will be easier to 
set traps and procure 
bait, so the total will rise 
to over 30 - perhaps 
including the rare 
Charaxes hadrianus 
Ward which I have taken 

Fig. 1. Tending a Charaxes trap. further down the COast. 




44 



APRIL 1995 



Now come the African forest butterflies par excellence, the genera 
Eur^phura (two in Kakum). Euriphene (twelve in Kakum). Bebearia 
(sixteen). Euphaedra (sixteen), and related genera (six). They are all 
hooked on fermenting fruit, and where monkeys and hornbills have 
dislodged lots of figs, the forest floor is caipeted with these spectacular 
butterflies (see Plate 95A Fig. 2). The Euphaedra are among the most 
beautiful in Africa. My favourite is the rare and very shy Euphaedra 
perseis Drury which is a phenomenal mimic of a day-flying moth, and 
which had adapted its flight pattern accordingly. They may not look that 
similar in a box. but I am hard put to tell them apan in nature. 

The beautiful C^'mothoe have seven representatives in Kakum. They 
are also fruit-feeders, but less tied to the forest floor. I found a lovely new- 
species there, only to discover that it had already been described as 
Cymothoe aubergeri Plantrou from Cote d'lvoire as recently as 1977 and 
never refeiTed to since. There should be six of the related Euptera and 
Pseudath\,'ma in Kakum. but they are exti"emely scarce, and 1 have only 
one. 

Four or five Pseudacraea are found in the park, and as the name 
implies, they are among the finest mimics of Acraea that can be 
imagined. There is disagreement over whether some species are 
polymorphic and breeding experiments are called for. I believe them to 
be strongly polymorphic and under the same son of genetic control as 
Swallowtails such as Papilio memnon Linne and the female of P. 
dardanus Brown, but it could be that several species are involved. Here is 
a splendid topic for a postgi'aduate thesis. 

So far no less than sixteen of at most twenty- species of Neptis have 
turned up - as many as twelve species in a single day. How males and 
females in this genus establish their respective bona fides I cannot say - 
several are almost impossible to tell apan under the microscope, but they 
obviously manage well in the field! Xeptis msiades Hewitson is perhaps 
the worid's most variable butterfly - or perhaps not. since I suspect it may 
be a complex of six to ten distinct species. 

The remaining Nymphalinae (some 25 species) tend to be species of 
clearings and paths, often large and very visible. The African oakleaf 
{KalHmoides rumia Doubleday) dive-bombs any passing butterfly. The 
Mother-of-pearl [Salamis parhassus Drury) circles lazily overhead, 
occasionally picking a fight with a neighbouring male. The beautiful 
Diadem (Hiypohmnas salmacis Drury) adds a splash of blue of almost 
morpho-like intensity. Finally, two of the few African Argynnini [Phalanta 
euri^tis Doubleday & Hewitson and Lachnoptera anticHa Hiibner) add 
their bright cinnamon to the scene. 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



45 



The Acraeinae are rarely much in evidence, though there may be a 
time during the dry season when they are more comxmon than I have yet 
seen them. Several species do have sudden population explosions at odd 
times of the year. Nonetheless, more than 25 species have already been 
recorded and there are probably no more than another five to be found. 
The subfamily is rather poorly represented in West Africa. The most 
interesting and complex species and groups are from the montane forests 
and the denser Zambesian savannahs. There are only 40 in all of West 
Africa, but twice as many in Kenya. 

Hesperiidae 

Some 90 skippers have so far been recorded, and there are more to 
come, since getting a complete representation of skippers depends on a 
lot of trudging along forest paths catching large numbers of the common 
species to check for the scarcer ones. Few skippers are common and 
many are exceedingly rare. Thus, I have seen but one Celaenorrhinus 
rutilans Mabille, a large and most evident species, and three rare 
Celanorrhinus that should be present have not yet been seen. Members 
of the Katreus and Calleaghs are almost "once-in-a-lifetime" events - on 
my last trip I saw Calleagris lacteus Mabille for the first time after spending 
more than a hundred days in suitable forests. The Paradise skippers of 
the genus Abantis are almost impossible to come across in West Africa; 
one of the most characteristic (Abantis eltringhami Jordan) is still known 
only from the holotype. 

The most spectacular skipper in Africa is the Giant skipper 
(Pyrrhochalcia iphis Drury), the archetype of a forest butterfly. Its slow, 
buzzing - but far from clumsy - flight in the semi-twilight of the dense 
forest is a familiar sight. It came as a real surprise to me that it was 
common right in the centre of Cape Coast township as well. That kind of 
ecological tolerance is genuinely rare among forest butterflies. 

I find the skippers a most exciting group and it is sad that they are all 
too often ignored or relegated to secondary status. Several of the recent 
major books on African butterflies exclude them completely. 

Conclusion 

There are probably nearly 600 butterfly species in Kakum, and up to 150 
of them can be seen on a good day's walk. This is interesting and 
important on its own. I shall have more to say about the composition, 
ecology, and biodiversity of Kakum butterflies when I have studied them 
further. But butterflies, being relatively well known, can be looked at as a 



46 



APRIL 1995 



proxy for wider arthropod biodiversity. Only about one per cent of all 
described arthropods are butterflies, so the 600 butterflies probably act as 
proxy for an absolute minimum of 60,000 other arthopod species. But 
most other arthopods are much less studied than butterflies, where 90% 
or more are known (I have only found a dozen new species in Ghana so 
far). Only between 15 and 35% have been formally described, so it is a 
safe bet that the Kakum butterflies are a proxy for 200,000 to 400,000 
other arthropods. 

That is the treasure-house which Kakum National Park protects. The 
Ghana Wildlife Department, with support of outside donors like the 
lUCN, Conservation International, and bilateral donors, is doing a good 
job with a minimum of resources, conserving the last remaining patches 
of unspoilt habitats. And while Ghana does have a genuine self-interest in 
ensuring the conservation of its original biodiversity and natural 
resources, the rest of the world does as well. 

So, please join me in three cheers for Kakum National Park. It is one 
crucial link in an all too fragile chain of nature reserves that protect the 
last remnants of the forest ecosystems of West Africa, the study of which 
has hardly begun. 

Acknowledgements 

This is paper no. 11 resulting from my initial research for the book 
Butterflies of West Africa - origins, natural history;, diuersit]; and 
conservation (1993-1998). The field work has been generously supported 
by the Carlsberg Foundation in Denmark. The Ghana Wildlife 
Department has supported the project throughout; their field staff are 
extremely helpful, and their large veranda tents are wonderful when it 
rains for days on end. Few places in Africa are as welcoming, safe, and 
decent as rural parts of Ghana. At a time when most news out of Africa is 
bad, let Ghana get credit where credit is due. 

REFERENCES 

Larsen, T.B., Riley, J. & Comes, M.A. (1980). The butterfly fauna of a secondary bush 

locality in Nigeria. J. Res. Lepid. (California), 18:4-23. 
Fox, R.M., Lindsey, A.W., Clench, H. & Miller, L.D. (1965). The butterflies of Liberia. Mem. 

Am. ent. Soc. (Washington), 19: 1-438. 
Hopkins, B. (1970). The Olokemeji Forest Reserve. IV. Checklists. Nig. Field (Ibadan), 35: 

123-143. 

Owen, D.F. (1991). Pseudaletis leonis: a rare mimetic butterfly in a West African rainforest 
(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera (Gainsville). 2: 111-113. 

Riley, J. & Comes, M.A. (1971). The Lepidoptera of Gambari Forest Reserve. Nig. ent. 
Mag. (Ibadan), 2: 103-107. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



47 



DISCOVERING NEWNHAM-ON-SEVERN: THE SCARLET 
TIGER {CALLIMORPHA DOMINULA L.) 

I by Don McNamara (55 73) 

I 6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UBIO OSU. 

Having taken-over my late parents' house and very large garden, about a 
quarter of an acre, in Newnham-on-Severn, Gloucestershire, the first of 
several busy tasks of refurbishment and reorganisation was to start-off the 
garden. I intended to plant as many plants, shrubs and trees as possible, 
that would be useful to butterflies and moths; reinforce the hawthorn 
hedge that separated the west side of the garden from a newly-sprouted 
housing estate, and create from the formerly immaculate and well 
manicured lawn, a small meadow of approximately 400 square metres - 
to be gently "managed" with the minimum of disturbance, in the hope 
that some Satyrids would colonise it. All this could grow while the DIY 
indoors proceded. 

A couple of ponds in the old garden and allotment areas, one for 
amphibians and one for some carp etc., would lay the foundations of 
what I hope to be a decent butterfly garden and, if I don't run out of 
money, a conservatory and two greenhouses would enable me to do 
some controlled breeding and research. 

My association with Newnham goes back to my National Service days 
and when I was drafted into the Gloucestershire regiment (I'll never 
understand the logic of this), my parents moved from West London to 
Newnham and I became a "forestman" overnight. A couple of years 
studying the language and I was free to explore. Although working in 
London, I used every opportunity to head west and generally tramp the 
countryside in the area clutching the usual paraphernalia. Nooks and 
crannies along the main railway line were (and still are) a rich source of 
discovery where undisturbed colonies of the Dingy skipper, Er\;nnis tages 
tages (L.), and the Grizzled skipper, Pijrgus malvae (L.), were found as 
well as a host of curious moths, most of which I am still sorting out. 

The Cotswolds, a former home of the Large blue, Maculinea arion 
eufyphron, revealed hairstreaks, most of the satyrs - a healthy colony of 
the Marsh fritillary, Eurodr\;as aurinia (Rott) and lots of other goodies. In 
the Forest of Dean, itself a treasure trove, the Silver-washed fritillary 
Arg\;nnis paphia (L.) flies, and the dragonflies around Soudley Ponds 
have to be seen to be believed. The bird and plant life, needless to say, is 
stunning. Professors Challenger and Sumerlee would be well-pleased. No 
pterodactyls as yet. 

On the advice of another AES-man, Peter Howard, I planted out a bed 
of comfrey, Sijmphytum spp., I'm not sure whether these plants are 
hybrids or cultivars but they are certainly prolific - on the offchance of 



48 



APRIL 1995 



attracting some Scarlet tigers, a long-time favourite of mine. This was 
planted in 1989 and in April 1993 fifteen larvae were found sunning 
themselves on the comfrey leaves. From these, I obtained several dozen 
offspring, most of which I returned to the garden and some to another wild 
patch about a mile from here. Although I've never seen this moth in the 
area, I'm told that it is recorded here and is quite common - so nothing 
extraordinary. 

However, one of the adults showed a golden suffusion over the usual 
creamy patches of white on the forewings, to my knowledge not a named 
aberration, so while I have a healthy stock of these under "protective 
custody" I'll try to keep them going for as long as possible to see what 
appears. It is possible that abs. bimacula or medionigra, darker forms, will 
turn up and there is an outside chance that ab. rossica could appear, a 
yellow form, but literature would suggest that this is more likely to happen 
from continental livestock - although I have four specimens in my collection 
(recycled from old collections), three from "Hants 1906, JHF" and one 
from "Ringwood 1898 A.J. Hodges ex J.H. Fowler", so you never know! 

ANOTHER MIDLANDS MONARCH 

by Ro\;AFrost (10011) 

Leigh Plester recorded a Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in the West 
Midlands in June 1992 (Bulletin 53: 48). On 22nd September 1994 at 
Arkwright, Derbyshire I had unmistakable views of a Monarch which flew 
slowly across a main road in a northerly direction, some two metres from 
me. I am familiar with the species from visits to Canada and the Canary 
Isles. Pleasing though it was to see, it seems more probable from the date 
and locality that it was an escapee or release, rather than a genuine vagrant 
from overseas. 

LATE EMERGENCE 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

During 1994 the Silver Y (Autographa gamma), was one of the most 
common migrants in Staffordshire and no doubt also in other counties. 

During October and November 1994 I found quite a few freshly emerged 
moths drying their wings on my south-facing garden wall with their empty 
pupal cases lying nearby. The larvae may well have fed on Arabis and 
other low plants in my garden. 

On 8th November I found a crippled moth which was quite small. These 
are known as Ab. gammina Staudinger (Colour Identification Guide to 
Moths of the British Isles by Bernard Skinner, Fig. 23). No doubt the mild 
autumn weather produced a number of these late emergences during 1994. 



AES BULLETIN, VoK54 



49 



TWO MORE GYNANDROMORPHS OF THE MALAYAN 
JUNGLE NYMPH, HETEROPTERYX DiLATATA (PHASMIDA) 
WITH NOTES ON CAPTIVE BEHAVIOUR 

by Francis Seow-Choen (9847) 

54 Mimosa Walk, Singapore 2880, Singapore. 

Introduction 

Gynandromorphism in the phasmids is rarely recorded, but examples in 
the Malayan jungle nymph, Heteropteryx dilatata (Family Bacillidae, 
subfamily Heteropteryginae) has been described on several occasions. In 
June and November 1994 respectively, I bought two wild caught adult 
gynandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph from Mr Michael Yeh. 
These insects were found by aboriginal collectors from the Tapah Hills in 
Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. 

Description 

The first insect (Plate 95E, Fig. 1 and Fig. 1) is 110mm long (excluding 
antennae) and male characteristics predominate and the general shape of 
the insect is male. The cephalic and right side of the insect tend to be 
female whereas the left and abdominal half of the insect tend to be male. 
The mesothorax is female. Both the right elytron and hind wing are 
shorter than the left elytra and hind wing respectively. The right elytron 




/ cm 



Fig. 1 . Scale drawing of the first Heteropteryx dilatata gynandromorph and its genitalia. 



50 



APRIL 1995 



(35mm) is almost typically female but with a brown lateral stripe. The left 
elytron (52mm) is green with several brown stripes and has a white 
margin typical of normal males. Legs on the right side are slightly thicker 
than those on the left. All legs are green however. The abdomen is brown 
and typically male. The genitalia are male. 

The second insect (Fig. 2) is 129mm long (excluding antennae) and 
whilst the general shape is male again, there are more female features in 
this specimen. The legs tend to be female. The head, mesothorax and 
metathorax are female. The hind wings are fully developed as in the male 
but the elytra are short and do not fully cover the hind wings. Colourwise 
the insect is generally green, with patches of brown. The fifth and sixth 
abdominal segments bear a central spine and the seventh and eighth 
abdominal segments bear a pair of typically female spines. The genitalia 
of this specimen are very unusual and do not entirely resemble either sex. 




Fig. 2. A photograph of the second gynandromorph 
of Heteropteryx diJotato. 



AES BULLETIN, VaL54 



51 



Captive behaviour 

The first specimen was reared in a mixed cage with Haaniella echinata 
(Family Bacillidae, subfamily Heteropteryginae) and fed on guava leaves 
(Psidium guajava) and local bramble (Rubus moluccanas). The 
gynandromorph was very active but no attempts at flight were observed 
although it was kept in a cage 8 feet by 7 feet by 4 feet in size. This was 
possibly as a result of the very short "female" wings. The insect made no 
attempt to mate with female Heteropteryx dUatata or female Haaniella 
echinata present in the cage. Interestingly however, male Haaniella 
echinata were often seen mounting the gynandromorph and attempts at 
mating were observed. Unfortunately, there was no other male 
Heteropteryx dilatata in the cage at that time. The gynandromorph died 
in September 1994 and a drawing of it was made in the freshly dead 
state. 

The second insect was reared in a 3 feet by 3 feet cage with Haaniella 
grayi (Family Bacillidae, subfamily Heteropteryginae) and female 
specimens of Heteropteryx dilatata and fed on guava, local bramble and 
leaves of a local fruit tree (Eugenia javanica). Both male and female 
Haaniella grayi were present in the cage. This second gynandromorph 
made no sexual attempts on any other insect present and no mountings 
were attempted on it by any of the male Haaniella grayi. 

Conclusion 

Gynandromorphs of insects are probably not as uncommon as is 
commonly thought. However, the sexual behaviour of these 
gynandromorphs is unknown and the first "male" gynandromorph seems 
to take no interest in females of the same species, although males of a 
closely related species were often observed attempting sexual liaison with 
it. Might female pheromones therefore not be produced by this male 
abdomen and genitalia? It was disappointing that no sexual activity was 
observed in the second specimen but this might be a result of the fact that 
in such a thoroughly mixed sexual specimen, hormones of either sex 
might be lacking resulting in an insect "eunuch". 

REFERENCES 

Brock, P.D. (1989). Gynandromorphs of the stick insect Heteropteryx dilatata. Bull. Amat. 
Ent. Soc. 48: 207-11. 

- , (1994). Halved gynandromorph of the stick insect Heteropteryx dilatata. Bull. Amat. Ent. 
Soc. 53: 33. 

Rumbacher, K. (1975). Zwei interessante phasmiden-Gynander. Ent. Z. 85: 177-8. 



52 



APRIL 1995 



HILLTOPPING BEHAVIOUR OF THE SWALLOWTAIL 
BUTTERFLY {PAPILIO MACHAON) IN THE LECHTALER 
ALPS, AUSTRIA 

bi;MikeAshworth (9427) 

21 Meadow Drive, Knutsford WA16 ODT. 

During an Austrian holiday in July 1992, I spent six days on a hut-to-hut 
walking tour in the Lechtaler Alps between 2200m and 2900m. In this 
period I only saw the Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio machaon) on two 
occasions. 

The first time was on reaching the top of the Hirschpleisskopf (2549m). 
The butterfly was clearly defending a territory of about 30m in diameter 
centred on the summit cairn. Numerous other (unidentified) white and 
brown butterflies were repelled from this area with vigour. My surprise at 
seeing a Swallowtail in this location was compounded when another 
approached the summit of the mountain and was summarily repelled by 
the incumbent. 

The second, similar, sighting was at the summit of the Samspitze 
(2625m), some 8km away, where a Swallowtail was seen nectar-feeding 
and engaging in territorial activity. On both occasions the weather was 
hot and sunny. Although I subsequently saw a few Swallowtails at a 
valley location near Ischgl (approx. 1350m), I am convinced that the two 
summit sightings were not "by chance" and the butterflies were displaying 
"hilltopping" behaviour. 

Several species of butterfly are known to engage in hilltopping, where 
males establish territories on hilltops and females visit these locations to 
be mated. This strategy is almost certainly used to assist mate location in 
populations, such as these alpine Swallowtails, where the density is low. It 
may also be used by species for which cryptic colours reduce the 
apparency of mates for each other, such as the Wall brown (Lasiommata 
megera), as described by Dennis (1987). Dennis extends the literal 
meaning of hilltopping to any behaviour in which topographic vantage 
points are used to aid mate location. Thus territories may be selected on 
patches of bare ground, walls, fences, stones, piles of gravel and other 
landmarks. 

REFERENCE 

Dennis. R.L.H. (1987). Hilltopping as a mate location strategy in a Mediterranean 
population of Lasiommata megera (L.) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Nota lepid. 10(1): 65- 
70. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



53 



ERECTION OF A NEW GENUS FOR THE ''DUBERNARDI- 
GROUP" AND A NEW SPECIES OF PIERIDAE 
(LEPIDOPTERA: RHOPALOCERA) IN CHINA 

by Huang Hao 

Qingdao Education College, China 266071. 

In this paper, a new species of Pieridae is described under a new generic 
classification for it and the "dubernardi-group". The butterflies here dealt 
with were collected by the author during 1992 and 1993 from Sichuan, 
Yunnan and Tibet. All type specimens are preserved in the author's 
collection. 

The "dubernardi-group" comprises a group of Asian Pierids belonging 
to the genus Pontia Fabricius or the genus Synchloe Hiibner. The latter is 
often merged into Pontia in most recent taxonomic treatments. The 
"dubernardi'-group" incorporates Pontia dubernardi Oberthur, P. d. 
gyantensis Verity, P. d. rothschildi Verity, P. d. bromkannpi O. Bang-Haas, 
Pontia chumbiensis de Niceville, Pontia kozlovi Alpheraky, P. k. aljinensis 
(R.X.) Huang and Murayama, in China, and Pontia sherpae Epstein in 
Nepal. 

The "dubernardi-group" was initially classified as Pieris due to the 
similar wing-shape, wing-venation and the presence of postdiscal black 
markings in forewing space 3 and hindwing space 6. De Niceville placed 
P. chumbiensis in Parapieris, a genus he proposed "for Papilio callidice 
Esper (the type)". Rober, in Seitz, followed this lead, placing P. 
dubernardi, P. chumbiensis and P. kozlovi in S\;nchloe Hiibner and 
alongside Pontia callidice due to the presence of a black discoidal spot on 
the upperside of the forewing, the configuration of the genitalia and the 
flight-pattern and behaviour of the living insect etc. 

It is most likely that the "dubernardi-group" has a taxonomic position 
between Pieris or Artogeia and Pontia or Synchloe. Its true taxonomy is 
decided by judgement on which is the main structure in generic 
classification. Here I state most of the important morphological features of 
the "dubernardi-group". 

(a) Wing shape rather narrow as in Aporia 

(b) Discoidal cell slightly longer than 1/2 costa 

(c) All veins slightly marked with black 

(d) Black discoidal bar of forewings conspicuous 

(e) Both sexes bear an apical marking on the hindwing space 6 



54 



APRIL 1995 



(f) Female upperside has postdiscal blackish markings in at least 
forewing spaces 1 to 3, and sometimes also in the hindwing postdiscal 
area. 

The features outlined above occur more readily in Pieris than in Pontia. 
Pieris shares features a, b and e wholly and feature c partially within the 
group. Pontia only shares feature d as does P. callidice. Although P. 
callidice also has well developed blackish submarginal marking on both 
wings, it cannot be said to share feature f for the following reasons. The 
markings are much narrower and are more interrupted in space 2 of the 
forewing and are much closer to the outer margin than to cell-end on the 
hindwing. Moreover, there is an undescribed taxon (described in this 
paper) closely resembling the "dubernardi-group", from Mount Gonga, 
Sichuan which indicates that feature d is not an important feature in the 
classification of the "dubernardi-group". As virtually all the veins are 
marked with black, the discoidal bar of the forewing within the group is 
connected to the black lines or streaks on the nearby veins, unlike Pontia 
where it is distinct. This feature is most apparent in the new taxon. I 
consider therefore, that feature d is only a specific systematic structure. 

The "dubernardi-group" is very sharply different from Pieris in features 
c and f. Therefore, a new genus needs to be erected for the entire 
"dubernardi-group" and the new taxon from Sichuan, as follows: 

Sinopieris gen.nov. 

Type species Sinopieris gongaensis Huang 

Wing-shape: Generally as in Aporia. Both wings are rather narrow with a 
smoothly rounded outer margin. 

Wing- venation: Forewing: R4 originating near the end of R3, very short 
or disappeared as in Pieris and Pontia. R2 originating before and near 
the upper angle of the cell. Discoidal cell slightly longer than 1/2 costa. 

Wing-pattern: Both sexes, both sides, both wings: All veins are broadly or 
thinly lined with black. 

Upperside: Forewing: Almost all veins are broadly pencilled with black 
from the apex to vein 2 or 3. 

Underside: Hindwing: Ground colour yellowish, matching the colour of 
the forewing apex. Black lines or streaks on or around the veins are 
very conspicuous, often broad and strong. 

Male upperside: Submarginal blackish markings present in at least 
forewing space 3 and hindwing space 6. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



55 



Female upperside: Both wings are dusted with more blackish scales than 
in the male. Postdiscal black band occurs in at least forewing spaces 1- 
3 and hindwing space 6, and is more extensive than in the male. 

Female underside: Postdiscal band of the upperside is partially repeated 
but is sometimes absent. 

Male genitalia: Valva is more or less squarish. Saccus is very thick, at least 
two or three times thicker than its length. 

The new genus Sinopieris can be distinguished from Pontia (including 
P. callidice) by the structure of the male genitalia. The valva is somewhat 
squarish, whilst in Pontia it is triangular with a much longer ventral 
margin. The saccus is very thin in Pontia, very unlike the thick structures 
seen in Sinopieris (see figure 1 A-F). 




D E F 



Fig. 1. Male genitalia: Ring and valva. 

(A) Sinopieris dubernardi (B) Sinopieris gongaensis sp. nov. (C) Pontia chlorodice 
gongdisica ssp. n. (D) Pontia callidice halasia (E) Pontia callidice kalora (F) Pontia daplidice. 



56 



APRIL 1995 



In addition, two other species, Apoha venata Leech and Aporia davidis 
Oberthiir can probably be placed in Sinopieris. They show a curious 
resemblance to the new taxon and the "dubernardi-group" in features a, 
b, c, e and f listed above. The greatest disparities are that their ground 
colour of the underside is pale yellow and not canary yellow, and that the 
black vein markings are much thinner than those of the ''dubernardi- 
group". However, this contrast is also found between Aporia hippia 
Bremer and Aporia bieti Oberthiir, which are homogeneous. Therefore, I 
consider that the canary yellow ground colour and the width of the black 
streaks on veins are not generic systematic structures. There is another 
doubt that both A. venata and A. davidis pose, this being that the 
forewing submarginal band is greyish and less brilliant on the upperside 
and has disappeared completely on the underside. This, however, is also 
seen in the female of the new taxon S. gongaensis. Therefore, I feel that 
more detailed examinations will demonstrate that A. ver\ata and A. 
davidis belong to Sinopieris. 

Sinopieris gongaensis sp. nov. 
Male: 

Head black, eyes brown and smooth. 

Labial palpus porrect, striped black and white, clothed with long blackish 
hairs beneath. 

Antennae about 0.4 length of forewing costa, superficially ringed white. 
Club well marked, abrupt, black- tipped, oar-shaped. 

Thorax above and below black, densely clothed with long black and grey 
hairs. 

Legs black and white striped lengthways. 

Femora densely clothed with long grey and white hairs beneath. 

Cilia white on both wing surfaces and inner margins, black outer margins 
to both wings. 

Forewing length 25.5 - 27mm. 

Both wings ground colour chalk white. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



57 



Upperside: Wing-base thinly powdered with black scales. 

Forewing: All veins heavily marked in black streaks except for veins 1 
to 3 which are only thinly lined with black, so costal margin is 
narrowly marked with black. Vein-tips from apex to tornus are 
broadly marked with black, so marginal portions of spaces 2 to 6 in 
ground colour are narrower. Submarginal black band strong and 
extensive, invariably connected with marginal black markings which 
are well continued in spaces 2 and 3, becoming narrow and 
sometimes interrupted in spaces 1, 4, 5 and 6. 

Hindwing: All veins remarkably thinly lined with black except for 2a 
and 3a, appearing broadly darkened where the underside's much 
broader streaks shine through. Costal margin lined in black. Outer 
margin marked with triangular black spots on vein ends. A black 
spot, somewhat smudged, appears in space 6. 

Underside: 

Forewing: White ground colour. Apex narrowly coloured canary 
yellow, matching hindwing ground colour. All veins evenly broadly 
marked with black with vein tips as upperside. Submarginal band of 
upperside often disappeared, at most appearing as black scales 
dusting the middle of veins. However, submarginal area invariably 
appears darker - slightly blueish-grey in appearance - where the 
upperside band shows through, 

Hindwing: The same in both sexes. Ground colour canary yellow. All 
veins stand out in very heavy black. 

Female: 

Head, eyes, labial palpus, antennae, thorax, abdomen, legs and cilia as in 
male. 

Forewing length 26mm 
Upperside: 

Forewing: Ground colour yellowish, heavily powdered with black 
scales, appears somewhat brownish. Maculation of male repeated 
but in a more brownish, less brilliant black. Apex more coloured 
yellow, matching the ground colour of hindwing upperside. 



58 



APRIL 1995 



Hindwing: Ground colour in shade of light yellow as in forewing apex. 
Basal and discal areas sparsely dusted with black scales except for 
space 7. All veins marked with broad black streaks of the same width 
as in male hindwing underside, except for 2a and 3a. Spot in space 
6 brownish, beginning a postdiscal line of discontinuous blots in 
spaces 3 to 5. 

Underside: As in male. 

Sinopieris gongaensis 

Distribution: Mount Gonga of Sichuan, China. 
Holotype: Male 
Allotype: Female 

Paratypes: 2 Males. Muoxi, Luding, Sichuan. 3400-3800m. 18 July 1992. 

This new species closely resembles Sinopieris dubernardi rothschildi 
(Verity), but can be easily distinguished from the latter as well as other 
members of the "dubernardi-group" in having its forewing submarginal band 
extended into spaces 4-6. It also has an apex with a white line in the marginal 
portion of space 6. In fact, this new species looks like a smaller and darker 
version of A. venata Leech which may belong to Sinopieris. Both species fly 
rapidly with Sinopieris dubernardi in the grassland near forest zones at 
heights above 3400 metres. I have noticed that all of them have a similar 
flight pattern. 



LATTICED HEATH IN STAFFORDSHIRE 

by Jan Kor\;szko (6089) 

On 17th July 1994, at Park Hall Country Park, Staffordshire while in the 
sandstone quarries collecting moths, I noticed approximately a dozen 
Latticed heaths (Semiothisa clathrata) flying in the warm^ sunshine. 

I have been expecting this species to turn up here for some years. 
Before 1979 it was found only in the extreme south and east of the 
county, on waste-ground and railway embankments at Wigginton, Walsall 
and Hanbury. But since then it has spread in the county northward, 
reaching Meaford, Apedale and Barlaston Rough Close Common where I 
saw a single specimen on 18th July 1994. This species is a newcomer to 
north Staffordshire in recent years. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



59 



A REQUEST FOR FROGHOPPER RECORDS 

by John Badmin (3406) 

Coppice Place. Perry VJood, Selling, Fauersham, KentMElS 9RP. 

Members will no doubt be familiar with the spittle-like masses or "cuckoo 
spit" produced by froghoppers in early summer, yet few have studied 
these insects in detail. Froghoppers are members of the order Hemiptera 
or tree bugs and belong to the family Cercopidae. There are ten species 
of froghopper in the British Isles ranging in size from the minute, ground- 
dwelling Neophilaenus exclamationis (Thunberg), a mere 3mm, to large 
tree-dwelling Aphrophora species over a centimetre in length. 

I have been studying the population biology of one froghopper, 
Cercopis uulnerata Illiger for more than ten years. This froghopper is very 
brightly-coloured with red and black forewings and is unlikely to be 
confused with any other British insect apart from a large ladybird or 
Burnet moth. Body length is approximately one centimetre. If the insect 
jumps you can be sure that is a froghopper! If you are still unsure, check 
to see if it has the sucking mouthparts characteristic of the bug group. The 
insect is illustrated on the front cover of the AES Leaflet No. 32 on 
Leafhoppers (Le Quesne, 1969). 

I would be particularly interested to hear from members of any sites 
(name, grid reference) where unusual colour forms of this species exist. 
The most dramatic variants are those where the red wing patches have 
been replaced by patches of yellow or pink (Badmin 1988, 
AuchenorrhiJincha Recording Scheme Newsletter No. 10). Very 
occasionally ''colourless" morphs are found where the red pigment has 
completely failed to develop. Some individuals also vary considerably in 
the extent of the black markings on the wings. These variants are more 
difficult to detect, and because they lack bright warning colours, may be 
predated by birds. They usually constitute less than 5% of the population. 

Adult Cercopis are most frequently seen basking on grass and flower 
stems, within a metre of the ground, but occasionally they may be found 
higher up on leaves and stems of low-growing branches of shrubs and 
trees. 

Adults begin to appear at the very end of April, through May and June 
with a few stragglers occurring as late as July. Cercopis colonies are 
frequently found in or near woods and along hedgerow margins. There 
are recent records of the froghopper adapting to motorway margins and 1 
have observed one colony on an exposed grass-covered sea wall far 
away from any woodland. 



60 



APRIL 1995 



C. vulnerata is fairly widely distributed in south and central England 
with records extending as far north as Newcastle. However, there are few 
records from the west country, East Anglia and Wales. There is a pre- 
1970 record from near Carlisle indicating that it may occur considerably 
further north than current records suggest. Any records from northern 
England and Scotland would be much appreciated. 

An indication of colony size would be useful. This varies from a few to 
over 200 individuals. Numbers have been on the increase over the past 
two years following a long period of decline so that populations may be 
easier to find this year. Adults are very sedentary by nature and rarely fly 
or jump more than a metre at a time, even when provoked. This suggests 
that groups of individuals separated by only a relatively short distance 
may exist as separate colonies. Even a wide footpath may be a 
considerable barrier to these insects depending on the surrounding 
habitat. 



Book Reviews 



Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens (Butterflies of North-west Asia) 
(Lepidoptera: Diurna) by Vladimir Lukhtanov & Alexander Lukhtanov. 
440 pages. 56 colour plates, coloured frontispiece, compact bound, size 
A/4 (21x30cm). price DM248. 

The book can be ordered from: Verlag Dr Ulf Eitschberger, 
Humboldtstrasse 13, D-95168 Marktleuthen. Fax: 0049 9285 8238 

In this book, for the first time, the butterflies of one of the most interesting 
areas of the Palaerctic are comprehensively reviewed. 

Dr V. Lukhtanov writes in great detail about 400 species and numerous 
subspecies, which have been shown to exist in north-west Asia. Beginning 
with the original descriptions (including synonyms and disputed taxa). the 
places of discovery, ecology and distribution (with a distribution map of 
each species) to the differential diagnosis between similar species are 
covered. The book is a marvellous publication, and an almost unlimited 
source of previously unpublished information. Some new descriptions 
(partim with Dr A. Dantchenko) also found their way into the book, and 
they are almost revisionist in character (for example Oeneis). The 561 
pictures (enlarged 1.33 to 1.5 times) on the 51 plates are after water- 
colour originals of A. Lukhtanov. and are supported by a further five 




APRIL 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




PLATE 95E 



COLOUR SECTION 



APRIL 1995 




Fig. 3. Pisaura mirahilis (Wolf spider) feigning death. 




Fig. 4. Pisuura niiiahili.s in an alert stance. 



PLATE 95F 



APRIL 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



61 



plates. To show distinction between difficult species, a further 51 pictures 
of genitalia preparations are presented. Genera where these come in 
useful are Erebia, Oeneis, and Mellicta. 

What is extremely interesting, for those interested in this particular area, 
is the information about the geography and climate of this heterogenous 
area. 

The Bibliography and detailed species index also make this publication 
a "must". It is a unique work. 

The text in general is written in German, but the main parts of the 
systematic part are also translated into English. 

Ulf Eitschberger 



The Butterflies' Fl\;-past by Clive Simson, 9 x 5V2 pp 127. Illustrated with 
8 colour plates by Mandy Shepherd. ISBN 0 9520268 2 1. Peregrine 
Books 1994. Hardback. Price £19.00 incl. P&P from Peregrine Books, 27 
Hunger Hills Avenue, Horsforth, Leeds LS18 5JS. (Tel: 0113 2585495) 

Almost 30 thirty years since Clive Simson last put pen to paper with A 
Bird Overhead, this life-long naturalist has now put his 80 years of 
experience of butterflies into print. Not a reference book, but a collection 
of reminiscences, ramblings and adventures that will entrance the reader. 
The memories are roughly grouped into chapters, covering the various 
families, but digression is the order of the day with this book, which 
makes a very interesting read. It was refreshing to sit down again with a 
new non-reference butterfly book, James Birdsall's The Bo\;s and the 
Butterflies being the last I enjoyed - this book is written in a similar vein. I 
don't suppose today's bug-hunters will have such fond memories of sunny 
days and plenty, in forty years time. Then they will write . . . "Thursday 
2nd: saw 2 io, got arrested; Friday 3rd: viciously attacked by old ladies 
who saw me with a net . . ." 

The price, however, is a little high for my liking at £19, but with the 
book being published in a single lot of 500 which is unlikely to be 
repeated, it can be considered as a limited edition and will no doubt be 
much sought after in the next century. It certainly ranks well alongside 
Allan, Stockley, Heslop, Newman, Birdsall and Fountaine on my 
"enjoyment" shelf. 

Paul Batty 



62 



APRIL 1995 



Scuttle Flies: The Phoridae by R.H.L. Disney. Hbk. 467pp. ISBN 0 412 
56520 X. Chapman and Hall 1994. £67.50. 

This specialist book looks at the vast diversity of this Dipteran family. It is 
an attractive book which contains extensive information on the biology of 
these flies. The introduction tells the reader just what a scuttle fly is. 
before launching into the book's major chapters on the egg. larval, pupal 
and adult stages of the insects. The book then goes on to outline the 
family ecology. 

The book then outlines the practical aspects of the family. An easy to 
use key of the 229 genera begins the section and deals with the 
identification comprehensively. Methods of collecting, slide mounting and 
marking are also covered as is the rearing and culturing of these insects. 

It is an interesting book, which is well set out. Whether it is worthy of its 
specialist book price is open to question, but if you can find a copy it is 
well worth having a look between the covers. Wayne Jarvis 



British Butterflies: Vernacular Names including forms, subspecies and 
aberrations by William A. McCall. 62pp. 1994. Printed by Dolphin Press. 
96 Whitehill Road, Glenrothes, Fife, Scotland. Tel: (01592) 771652. 

This book is a useful aid to deciphering those common names used in 
foreign texts, which we editors receive. This compilation is well 
researched and easy to use, giving an at-a-glance translation of the 
butterfly species found within the British Isles. As well as Scandinavian. 
Portuguese, Italian, German, Dutch. Spanish, French, Gaelic and Czech 
common names to name a few, the author has also included some Old 
English names, often found in those early entomological books. 
Aberrations are also well covered. The book is a useful addition to the 
library. Wayne Jai"vis 



SMALL YELLOW WAVE RECORD 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

On 26th June 1994 while beating on Millford Common. Staffordshire. I 
caught a Small yellow wave {H\;drelia flammeolaria) . It has been 
recorded in the nearby Cannock Chase, but is very local. Other 
Staffordshire records are. Burnt Wood. Belmont. Madeley. Balterley 
Heath, Chartley Moss, and Loynton Moss, where 1 saw it in 1986. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



63 



A NEW SUBSPECIES OF DABASA HERCULES 
(LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE) FROM 
WUYI MOUNTAINS, CHINA 

by Huang Hao 

Qingdao Education College, China 266071. 

Dabasa hercules splendens ssp. nov. 

The nominotypical race was described by Blanchard (1871) from Tibet. 
Hitherto it has also been recorded from Sichuan, Yunnan, Some authors 
have treated it as a subspecies of Dabasa gyas Westwood in Burma, 
Assam and east Himalaya. I have found a new subspecies of Dabasa 
hercules in the Wuyi Mountains, east of China. It differs in the following 
characters. 




Fig. 1. Dabasa hercules splendens Huang. 



64 



APRIL 1995 



Male 

Both wings are a little broader than those of hercules, especially the 
forewing. which has a somewhat longer posterior margin. The discal 
yellow band is much brighter in colour and conspicuously broader 
especially on the hindwing where it is inclined towards the wing-base at 
the posterior margin. It does not run parallel with the row of submarginal 
yellow spots as in hercules. Veins across the hindwing are not strongly 
marked with black and the upperside submarginal yellow markings are 
larger and closer to the outer margin. Space 2 contains a spot which is 
absent in hercules. 

The genitalia of the males shows a remarkably broader valva and a 
larger and longer saccus. The uncus is pointed towards the apical margin 
of the valva and is not folded downwards with vinculum, as in hercules. 

Subspecies: DabasQ hercules splender^s 

Distribution: Wuyi Mountains, east of China 

Holotype: Male. Forewing length 50mm. Dazhulan, Jianyang, 
Fujian Prov. of China. 1000m. 13th July 1990. 




Fig. 2. 

Male genitalia consisting of lateral view of genital capsule with left valva. 8th tergum and 
aedeagus removed: of posterior view and lateral view of juxta. 
A. ssp. splendens Huang B. ssp. hercules Blanchard 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



65 



NESTS TOO DRY FOR FLEAS? 

by Freda Ra\;ment (10305) 

5 Chaudos Road, Staines, Middlesex TW18 SAT. 

I have been interested in Siphonaptera for many years but only recently 
after retirement have I been able to indulge my hobby of making 
microslides of these creatures. (Funny how people look askance at me 
when I mention fleas, I can't think why?) 

At the end of September 1994 I decided to see if I could find any old 
reed-warbler nests in an area of reed-beds, as nests can be a good source 
of fleas. 

However, the first thing I did find was a Harvest mouse (Microm\;s 
minutus) nest, the first ever, for me, a beautifully woven nest the size of a 
tennis ball and full of pink naked babies. I found two nests that were in 
use, from which I hastily retired. Of the following seven 1 found, three 
were derelict and 4 unoccupied, but in good shape and full of fleas! One 
nest held 160 specimens, 57% of which were males (I may have missed 
one or two in the counting!). 

The fleas I identified were Megabothris turbidus and just one specimen 
of Hystrichopsi^lla talpae T. This is a large flea (5mm long mounted) and 
to a tiny Harvest mouse must seem a fearsome parasite indeed. 

Now according to F.G.A.M. Smut's excellent handbook on 
identification of British Siphonaptera, he says that only a few specimens 
of the very common mouse-flea Ctenophthalmus nobilis have been 
collected from this host due to the fact that the nests tend to be too dry for 
fleas to breed in. 

That certainly hasn't been my experience. 1 would be very glad to hear 
from anyone else interested in the subject. 

I have also recently seen (15th November) in the same swampy area A 
good many dragonflies (Aeshna grandis) mated up. I watched a pair in 
tandem laying eggs in the shallows, somewhat late. I thought, no doubt, 
to the mild weather. 



AES ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

To be held at the Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's 
Gate, London on Saturday 22nd April 1995 commencing at 11.00am. 
Details of how to get there are printed on the inside back cover of this 
Bulletin. 



66 



APRIL 1995 



MOTH RECORDING IN THE CZECH AND SLOVAK 
REPUBLICS, 4tli - 11th SEPTEMBER 1994 

by Paul Waring (4220) and Rachel C. Thomas 

1366 Lincoln Road. Werrington. Peterborough PE4 6SL. 

The 9th European Congress of Lepidopterology was organised for the 
Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (SEL) by the Department of 
Zoology and Bee Keeping, University of Agriculture, Brno, and was held 
at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice in the Czech Republic from 5th - 
9th September 1994. During the course of the Congress we had the 
opportunity to visit a number of Czech localities with lepidopterists of 
many nationalities and to operate light traps at some of these. Afterwards 
we drove through the Slovak Republic to the High Tatra Mountains, 
encountering a variety of habitats and a few more moths in the process. 
This article summarises our results and reports on the local moth 
recording work to which we were introduced. 

About 30 people are actively involved in recording moths in the Czech 
Republic, and somewhat fewer in Slovakia, according to Drs Ivo Novak 
and Karel Spitzer, two of the most active recorders of all, both of whom 
have published widely. Both men are members of SEL and attended the 
Congress. Ivo is perhaps best known in the UK as the author of the widely 
available book A field guide in colour to butterflies and moths, published 
in Britain by Octopus Books in 1980. Ivo works as a Senior Entomologist 
at the Research Institute of Crop Production in Prague. Karel is an 
Associate Professor at the Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of 
Sciences. He has published a number of papers, often in collaboration 
with Ivo, in Czech and international journals on a range of subjects 
including the use of moths as indicators in polluted or degraded 
environments, ecological studies of grassland Lepidoptera and seasonal 
patterns in moth abundance. He has a long-standing interest in the 
ecology and conservation of the Rosy marsh moth Eugraphe subrosea 
which has two sites in the Czech Republic, one on a pristine raised bog in 
one of the state nature reserves in south Bohemia and the other in the 
district of Ceska Lipa in north Bohemia. The moth has not been recorded 
from Slovakia (I. Novak, pers. comm.). In 1982 the two men co-authored 
The endangered world of insects, published in Czech, and they wrote the 
species accounts included in the Czech Red Data Book of Insects 
(published in 1992). 

On the evening of 4th September Karel kindly took a party of congress 
delegates, including ourselves, with light traps, to the Palava Hills, 11km 
to the west of Lednice. The following night we light-trapped with Ivo in a 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



67 



riverside location just north of Lednice and later we visited the type 
locality of the Sandhill rustic Luperina nickerlii, in Prokop's Valley near 
Prague. On 9th September we returned to the riverine woodland north of 
Lednice with a light trap and wine ropes and on 10th September some 
moths came to an actinic light at a campsite by the Mala Fatra National 
Park near the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. The results of these trips are 
given in the accompanying table, and the habitats and the more 
interesting species we encountered are described below. 

Palava Hills 

The Palava Hills are a system of limestone outcrops, part of which is 
administered and managed as a state nature reserve within the Palava 
Protected Landscape Area, in the Czech province of Moravia. Such 
limestone areas are very restricted in Moravia but are better represented 
in the Tatra area of Slovakia where we saw some spectacular formations 
(Plate 95G, Fig. 5). The Palava Hills have been known and worked by 
entomologists for nearly a hundred years and the butterfly and moth 
fauna is comparatively well known. A full list of the species, with 
accompanying notes and reference list, has just been compiled by Zdenek 
Lastuvka (1994) who accompanied us on the light-trapping session and 
identified the moths as they arrived. On this visit our group set up three 
mercury vapour lights just before dusk and ran them until 23.45hrs. 




HUNGARY 



Map 1. Sites within the Czech & Slovak Republics 



68 



APRIL 1995 



These comprised our Skinner trap and two lights operated in front of 
vertical white sheets (Plate 95G. Fig. 6). all amongst grassland in the 
shelter of limestone rocks. The evening was calm. warm, dry and star-lit 
after a sunny day. Moths began to arrive as soon as the lights were 
switched on and by the end of the evening we had about 200 moths in 
our Skinner ti'ap. Species not represented in Britain but characteristic of 
this habitat were the sleek grey noctuid moth Cherosotis morgaritacea 
(Plate 95G. Fig. 7) and the small fawn geometrid Cataclisma riguata. We 
saw several of the former at each light but only one of the latter. The 
larvae of C. margaritacea, a moth of south-central and eastern Europe, 
have been reported feeding in flowers of hawkweeds Hieraciurn spp. 
while those of C. riguata feed on various members of the Rubiaceae 
(bedstraws) (Kirby. 1903). Also present were the distinctive geometrids 
Artiora euonymaria (Plate 95G. Fig. 8) and the Bordered grey 
Selidosema brunnearia. The larvae of A. euonymaria feed on Spindle- 
tree Euonumus europaeus, upon which we saw a couple of adults at rest. 

It was interesting to see the Spotted sulphur Emmelia traheahs which is 
quite a numerous species in this warm dry site. This moth was formerly a 
Breckland speciality in Britain but it has not been seen there since 1960 
and is presumed extinct. Good species of calcareous grassland, also 
found in Britain, included the Straw belle Aspitates giluaria and the Royal 
mantle Catarhoe cuculata. We recorded both the Scarce bordered straw 
Heliothis armigera and "Dewick's plusia" Macdunnoughia confusa which 
have occurred as migrants in Britain. The latter is resident in the Czech 
Republic but the former is only a migrant, as in Britain (I. Novak, pers. 
comm.). A couple of the Pale stigma Mesogona acetosellae were seen. A 
single specimen was recorded in Britain in 1895. during a period of much 
migrant activity. The Centre-baiTed sallow Atethmia centrago (formerly 
xemmpihna) caused some excitement among the Scandinavian delegates 
for they seldom see this species, which evidently is rare or absent as far 
north as Finland and Sweden. Many of the other species are also 
common in similar habitats in Britain (Table 1). 

Riverine habitats on the banks of the River Dyje north of 
Lednice 

These woods and woodland edge habitats proved surprisingly 
unproductive in terms of numbers of moths in comparison to the 
limestone grassland habitats of the Palava Hills at the time of our visit. 
This is a seasonal difference (I. Novak, pers. comm.). On the first of our 
two nights at this site we operated our ti'ap on rough herb-rich grassland 



AES BULLETIN, Voi.54 



69 



by a shrubby field boundary and mixed broadleaved woodland adjacent 
to the river. The field boundaries were dominated by various sallow Salix 
species and the main tree in the woodland was ash Fraxinus excelsior. 
Other trees and shrubs present in these woods included hornbeam 
Carpinus betulus, a lime Tilia sp., pedunculate oak Quercus robur, field 
maple Acer campestre, common hawthorn Crataegus monog{;na, elder 
Sambucus nigra, and hazel Corylus avellana. We also set up seven wine- 
ropes on the sallows by the river. One of these wine-ropes attracted our 
only Agrochola nitida. Other species absent from Britain encountered by 
us here included Rhodostrophia vibicaria, a central and southern 
European geometrid, the larvae of which are reported to feed on broom 
C\;tisus scoparius and sloe Prunus spinosa. This moth has a delicate pink 
band running over its otherwise fawn wings (Plate 95H, Fig. 9). There 
were also several Hypenines or "Snouts". These included the Shaded 
fan-foot Herminia tarsicrinahs and the related Polypogon tentacularius, 
another small fawn "Fan-foot". The latter has not been recorded in 
Britain but is common in much of Europe, except the north-west, and 
extends into Asia. The Shaded fan-foot was first discovered in Britain in 
1965 in Suffolk, where it is closely associated with bramble thickets Rubus 
fruticosus agg.. It was interesting to see the Scarce dagger Acronicta 
auricoma in this habitat. We took one at light. This species was found in 
woodlands in East Kent and East Sussex in the nineteenth century and 
has occurred as occasional suspected immigrants in these counties since. 
The Cream-bordered green pea Earias clorana was present, just as might 
be expected in similar habitat in eastern England. Nycteola asiatica and 
Eucarta virgo were two more species not present in Britain but seen here. 
Both are south-eastern in distribution and the latter may be a migrant 
here from Hungary (Z. Lastuvka, pers. comm.). Ivo Novak had a number 
of additional species not seen by us to his light on an embankment by the 
river, including the Four-spotted moth Tyta luctuosa, the Spotted sulphur 
£. trabealis, the Buttoned snout Hypena rostralis, the Kent black arches 
Meganola albula and Athetis lepigone, an interesting local species related 
to our Marsh moth A. pallustris. 

The night was also memorable for the hornets Vespa crabro which 
came to the lights. One of these usually docile insects stung PW in the 
throat when it got caught up in his collar. The following few hours were 
spent wondering if the throat would swell up until breathing became 
difficult. Fortunately the injured party does not react badly to wasp stings 
and the like and, in the event only a slight red swelling developed though 
it felt like fire had been injected! 



70 



APRIL 1995 



The evening of 9th September saw us back in the above woodlands. 
This time we set up the trap on a track at the main entrance to the wood 
and put up three wine-ropes along the wood edge, several hundred 
metres from the river. The weather conditions seemed favourable. It was 
calm, dry, muggy and dark. On the same night some other delegates from 
the Congress saw many moths on the Palava Hills but once again the 
woodlands proved quiet in terms of moth activity. The night was notable 
for the appearance soon after dark of a single specimen of the yellow and 
black geometrid moth Therapis (Epione) flavicaria (D. & S.) (Plate 95H, 
Fig. 10) which is a speciality of south-eastern Europe, where the larvae 
are said to feed on white dead-nettle Lamium album. Barry Goater 
informs us that he has never seen this moth in his numerous trips around 
western Europe and did not see it at the Czech sites he visited during the 
Congress. Ivo Novak informs us that this species is a rarity in Moravia, 
has not yet been recorded from Bohemia and that according to Hruby's 
Prodromus Lepidopterorum Slouaciae, the normal flight period is from 
June to August. The individual we saw was in fresh condition so it was 
either a very late emergence or an unusual second generation specimen. 

Mala Fatra National Park and High Tatra Mountains 

At the end of the Congress we drove 250km east to see the High Tatra 
Mountains, which are the western end of the Carpathian mountain range. 
The scenery was certainly spectacular in the region of the High Tatras, 
which are acid, granitic rocks, with conifer plantations in the foot-hills. We 
chose to spend both the nights before and after our day-time drive 
through the Tatras in the limestone formations of the Mala Fatra National 
Park. The nights were cold. On 10th September three moths came to an 
actinic light we were using for illumination by our tent on the campsite at 
Trusalova on the edge of the Park. These moths comprised a Large thorn 
Ennomos autumnaha and two Feathered gothics Tholera decimalis. A 
Dark chestnut moth Conistra ligula came to a wine-rope, accompanied by 
two Angle shades Phlogophora meticulosa. The temperature was 10°C at 
dusk, falling to a minimum of 7°C during the night and there were 
clearskies and a heavy dew. We were camped by a stream, amongst birch 
saplings Betula sp. with ash, hornbeam, elder and spruce (Picea) present. 
The evening of 11th September was spent searching unsuccessfully for 
the Butterbur moth H\;draecia petasitis among the huge beds of butterbur 
Petasites h\^bndus which we found growing along the riverbanks of the 
valley running south from Terchova to Vratna. This valley has been 
described as the most beautiful in Slovakia and the limestone pillars were 
impressive (Plate 95G, Fig. 5). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



71 



Prokop's Valley, Prague 

We stopped off in Prague on our return drive back to the UK. The first of 
two entomological sites we visited was the Research Institute of Crop 
Production where Ivo Novak has operated a light trap consistently for 26 
years since 1967 and has recorded the effects of the increased 
urbanisation of the surrounding land (Novak, in press). 680 species of 
macro-lepidoptera have been recorded in the trap during this time. The 
trap consists of a high voltage grid mounted behind a 200w mercury 
vapour bulb. Any moths flying past the light are electrocuted instantly and 
fall into a big funnel leading to a large jar with a chemical killing agent. 
The trap is operated on the balcony of an upper storey of the main 




Map 2. Location of the Prokop Valley ^ Prokop Valley 



72 



APRIL 1995 



building complex and is a one-off design. The catch is recorded every day 
and a collection of reference specimens has been accumulated at the 
Institute for teaching purposes. 

From the Institute we went with Ivo to see Prokop's Valley, the site 
where the Sandhill rustic L. nickerlii was first described. This is an 
extensive limestone gorge on the south-west edge of Prague (Plate 95H, 
Fig. 12 and Map 2). Ivo had brought Barry Goater to this site about two 
weeks previously and the moth was seen in numbers. A series of about 
thirty specimens had been collected for comparison with the four British 
subspecies of this moth and some of these were exhibited at the annual 
exhibition of the British Entomological and Natural History Society the 
following month. The site is well-known among Czech lepidopterists and 
is frequently visited by light- trappers from Prague, consequently the fauna 
is well-monitored. A list of the Lepidoptera has just been compiled by 
Mares and Skyva (1993). In addition to L. nickerlii, many noteworthy 
species have been recorded. These include no less than four of the moths 
which are protected in Britain by the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981 
and amendments) - the Viper's bugloss Hadena irregularis, the Essex 
emerald Thetidia smaragdaria, the Barberry carpet Pareulype berberata 
and the Black-veined moth Siona lineata. Of special note in a Czech 
context are Polia serratilinea, Euxoa vitta and Ashworth's rustic Xestia 
ashworthii. C. margaritacea, which we saw in the Palva Hills, is also in 
Prokop's Valley and other resident species of this warm dry habitat 
include the Silky wave Idaea dilutaria, the Tawny wave Scopula 
rubiginata, the Bordered gothic Heliophobus reticulata and various of the 
Sharks Cucullia spp. On our visit the Carthusian pink Dianthus 
carthusiana was in flower amongst the grasses, along with the common 
blue chicory Cichorium inti;bus. The site is currently open to public access 
and is much used and valued for informal recreation. The natural history 
interest of the site is appreciated locally - at least in general terms and it is 
sincerely hoped that the site will be spared from the building development 
which is already taking place on the surrounding land. Copies of this 
article are being distributed to the relevant national conservation 
authorities as a record of the conservation value of this site, which has an 
international interest in the case of L. nickerlii and which is every bit as 
important as the fine buildings we had the pleasure of visiting in Prague 
itself. 

Concluding observations: 

Although we saw evidence of the environmental pollution for which parts 
of eastern Europe have an unenviable reputation, such as factories 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



73 



belching out choking vapours, and we experienced thick smog on 
leaving Prague, there are many attractive natural features and 
traditionally managed landscapes supporting much wildlife in the Czech 
and Slovak Republics. Efforts are evidently being made to conserve these 
and to raise awareness of their special interest. This paper is a small 
contribution and a memento of a most enjoyable visit. Motoring is a joy 
in these countries because the roads are good, but not crowded with 
traffic. We drove round in our Skoda, overland from Britain, and got 
waves from the public and caused much amusement when the right- 
hand-drive and British number-plates were noticed! The people are 
friendly and we had no difficulty obtaining fuel for the car, good food and 
accommodation. There are many ways in which foreign tourists can help 
in the survey and monitoring of wildlife in eastern Europe, from bears 
and birds to butterflies, moths and other insects. SEL delegates were 
supplied with the necessary permits and the good relationship established 
between SEL and the conservation authorities is encouraging for the 
future. British moth recorders will find that a good proportion of the 
species are familiar. This was evident not only from our own experience 
but also from examining year-round site lists such as those produced by 
Ivo Novak. But each night's work is likely to be spiced up with a few 
species you will not see in Britain, and some of the species of the south- 
eastern European fauna which you will not encounter nearer to home. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank the Congress organisers Professors Dalibor 
Povolny and Zdenek Lastuvka and all their helpers at the Lednice Faculty 
of Horticulture and from the Department of Zoology and Beekeeping, 
University of Agriculture, Brno; also Dr Ivo Novak of the Research 
Institute of Crop Production, Prague and Dr Karel Spitzer of the Institute 
of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences and all the SEL delegates 
who made the Congress such an interesting and rewarding experience. 
We would also like to thank Professor E. Klimo of the Faculty of Forestry, 
University of Agriculture, Brno, who organised and led us on a guided 
tour of the riverine forest on the banks of the River Dyje just north of 
Lednice and Dr Josef Chytil of the Czech Institute of Nature 
Conservation, Mikulov office, for taking the time to explain to us the 
current programme of nature conservation in Czechia. Paul Waring 
received a Travel Grant from the Royal Society to help meet his travel 
costs in attending the Congress to deliver a paper entitled Strategic moth 
recording for conservation purposes, to be published in the Congress 
proceedings. 



74 



APRIL 1995 



REFERENCES 

Lastuvka. Z. (1993). Catalogue of Morauian-Silesian Lepidoptera. University' of Agriculture. 
Brno. 

- , (1994). Lepidoptera of the Protected Landscape Area Palava. University of Agriculture, 
Brno. 

Novak, I. (in press). Some changes in Lepidopteran fauna as a consequence of enlargement 
of the capital Prague. Proceedings of the IX. European Congress of Lepidopterology. 
Lednice 5th-9th September 1994. 

Mares, S. and Skyva. J. (1993). The Lepidoptera of Prokop's Valley in Prague. Natura 
Pragensis 10: 52-84. Prague. 



Table 1 

Species list for visit to the Czech and Slovak Republics. 4th - 11th September. 1994 

Sept. 4 5 9 10 

Vernacular name Scientific name Sites P R W M 



Orange swift 



Wax moth 

Oak hook-tip 
Buff arches 
False mocha 
Blood-vein 
Tawny wave 
Mullein wave 
Riband wave 



Garden caipet 
Royal mantle 
Common carpet 
Yellow shell 
Lime-speck pug 
Treble bar 
Scorched carpet 
Latticed heath 

Large thorn 

Willow beauty 
Bordered grey 
Light emerald 
Annulet 
Straw belle 
Convolvulus hawk 
Ruby tiger 
Square-spot dart 



Hepialus s[;luina (Linnaeus) P R 

Celypha striana (D. & S.) R 
Pyrausta purpuralis (Linnaeus) R 
Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) R 
Oncocera semirubella (Scopoli) P R 

Drepana binaria (Hufnagel) P W 

Habrosx^ne p\,ritoides (Hufnagel) R 
C];clophora porata (Linnaeus) R 
Timandra griseata (Petersen) P R 

Scapula rubiginata (Hufnagel) R 
Scopula marginepunctata (Goeze) P 
Idaea auersata (Linnaeus) R W 

Rhodostrophia uibicaria (Clerck) R 
Catacl\;sme riguata (Hiibner) 
Xanthorhoe fluctuate (Linnaeus) 
Catarhoe cuculata (Hufnagel) 
Epirrhoe alternata (MuUer) P W 

Camptogramma bilineata (Linnaeus) P R 
Eupithecia centaureata (D. & S.) PR 
Aplocera plagiata (Linneaus) 
Ligdia adustata (D. & S.) 
Serniothisa clathrata (Linnaeus) 
Therapis (Epione) flauicaria (D. & S.) 
Ennomos autumnaria (Wemeburg) 
Artiora euon^maria (D. & S.) 
Pehbatodes rhomboidaria (D. & S.) 
Selidosema brunnearia (Villers) 
Campaea margaritata (Linnaeus) 
Gnophos obscuratus (D. & S.) 
Aspitates gilvaria (D. & S.) 
Agnus conuolvuli (Linnaeus) 
Phragmatobia fuHginosa (Linnaeus) R W 

Euxoa obelisca (D. & S.) P 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



75 



Vernacular name 

Turnip moth 
Dark swordgrass 
Plain clay 

Large yellow underwing 
Lesser yellow underwing 
Broad-bordered yellow underwing 
Lesser broad bordered yellow u. grp. 
Setaceous Hebrew character 
Square -spot rustic 

Pale stigma 
Nutmeg 
Campion 
Hedge rustic 
Feathered gothic 
White-point 
Common wainscot 
L-album wainscot 
Beautiful arches 
Dark chestnut 
Brick 

Centre-barred sallow 
Pink-barred sallow 
Scarce dagger 
Copper underwing 
Svensson's copper underwing 
Angle shades 
Frosted orange 
Vine's rustic 
Bordered sallow 
Scarce bordered straw 
Spotted sulphur 

Cream-bordered green pea 

Dewick's plusia 
Silver Y 
Snout 

Shaded fan-foot 



Scientific name 



Sept. 4 5 9 10 
Sites P R W M 



Agrotis segetum (D. & S.) 
Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) 
Eugnorisma depuncta (Linnaeus) 
Chersotis margaritacea (Villers) 
Noctua pronuba (Linnaeus) 
Noctua comes (Hubner) 
Noctua fimbriata (Schreber) 
Noctua janthina (D. & S.)t 
Xestia c-nigrum (Linnaeus) 
Xestia xanthographa (D. & S.) 
Eucarta uirgo (Tr.) 
Mesogona acetosellae (D. & S.) 
Discestra trifolii (Hufnagel) 
Hadena riuularis (Fabricius) 
Tholera cespitis (D. & S.) 
Tholera decimalis (Poda) 
Mi^thimna albipuncta (D. & S.) 
Mythimna pallens (Linnaeus) 
Muthimna l-album (Linnaeus) 
Blepharita satura (D. & S.) 
Conistra ligula (Esper) 
Agrochola circellahs (Hufnagel) 
Agrochola nitida (D. & S.) 
Atethmia centrago (Haworth) 
Xanthia togata (Esper) 
Acronicta auricoma (D. & S.) 
Amphipi!ra pyramidea (Linnaeus) 
Amphipijra berbera Rungs 
Phlogophora meticulosa (Linnaeus) 
Gortxjna flavago (D. & S.) 
Hoplodrina ambigua (D. & S.) 
Pyrrhia umbra (Hufnagel) 
Heliothis armigera (Hubner) 
Emmelia trabealis (Scopoli) 
Pseudeustrotia candidula (D. & S.) 
Earias chrana (Linnaeus) 
Nycteola asiatica (Krul.) 
Macdunnoughia confusa (Stephens) 
Autographa gamma (Linnaeus) 
Hypena proboscidalis (Linnaeus) 
Herminia tarsicrinalis (Pvnoch) 
Polypogon tentacularius (Linnaeus) 



R 
R 

R 

R W 
R W 
R 
R 

R W 

R 

R 

R W 



W 

W M 



W 



t Of the three possible janthina-Wke spp. this was definitely janthina (det. Lastuvka) 

Key to sites: P = Palava Hills; R = Riverine scrub north of Lednice; W = Riverine woodland north 
of Lednice; M = Mala Fatra campsite 
See text for further details. 



76 



APRIL 1995 



Footnote 

The Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (SEL) organises a Congress on 
a biennial basis and the next will be held near Madrid, Spain, in 1996. 
SEL is the society for all lepidopterists interested in the butterflies and 
moths of Europe in its widest sense. SEL publishes a journal and an 
address list of its members. One of the primary objectives of the 
organisation is to promote the recording and conservation of the 
Lepidoptera on an international basis. Details of membership rates etc. 
can be obtained from Barry Goater, 27 Hiltingbury Road, Chandlers 
Ford, Hampshire S05 ISR. 

A FURTHER NOTE ON THE PIGGY-BACK FLY 

by Jan Kori;szko (6089) 

Since my note in Bulletin 53: 33, of a fly piggy-back riding on a Narrow- 
bordered five-spot burnet (Zygaena lonicerae latomarginata) , Mr Steven 
Falk of the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Coventry, informed me that 
the fly appears to be a species of Bellardia (Onesia of the Kloet and 
Hincks checklist). It is a member of the Blowfly family (Calliphoridae). 
These flies are apparently predators or parasites of earthworms (see 
Fauna Ent Scand. 24). 

It is a fairly common fly in rough grassland, woodland and marshes, 
where they are found sitting on foliage and flowers, looking like rather 
dull greenbottles, the abdomen being a dull metallic green. 

I guess the fly felt that a Burnet moth on a thistle was a good perch 
from which to survey its surroundings; such flies are often loyal to 
perches. 

I would like to thank Mr Steven Falk for writing to me with this most 
useful and interesting information. 

1994 - A VAPOURER MOTH YEAR IN STAFFORDSHIRE 

by Jan Kori;szko (6089) 

On the evening of 5th September 1994, after heavy rain, I found a male 
Vapourer moth (Org\;ia antiqua) on my window-sill. 

It has been some years since I have encountered this species in the 
Meir area. Mr R.G. Warren, the county Lepidoptera Recorder tells me he 
has had reports from all over the county during 1994 and that it has not 
been this common for many years in the county. 

I also recorded this species at Park Hall Country Park, Weston Sprink 
and Barlaston Rough Close Common. Other sightings came from 
Trentham and Moddershall. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



77 




60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 
Part II. 1945-54 

by Wai;ne Jarvis (9899) 

With the war close to an end, the activities of the Society began to 
increase. The first Bulletin under the Temporary Wartime Organisation 
was published in December 1944 (Volume 6 Number 66) under the 
editorship of Beowulf Cooper. The first Wartime General Meeting took 
place in London on 3th December 1944 and the first exhibition since 
1939 was held in the capital on 5th May 1945. The Society continued to 
grow at a fast rate with membership reaching 562 by July 1945. 
However, with this growth came an increase in workload, particularly in 
producing Bulletins, and the Society appealed to its members for help. 

With the end of the War, the Society could then begin to wind up the 
temporary organisation. To do this, all pre-war members of the Society 
had to be informed of a Special General Meeting to "reform" the Society. 
This meeting was held at Buckingham Palace Gate Central Schools, 
Wilfred Street, London on 1st December 1945. Here it was decided to 
amalgamate the two organisations' funds with the Society reverting to its 
peacetime formation. The new Council was elected and the Society's 
constitution amended. 

The first "peacetime" Bulletin was published in February 1946 
(Volume 7 No. 73). The editor Beowulf Cooper was finding it 
increasingly difficult to find time to edit all Society matters, and so he 
appealed for an assistant. In July 1946 (Volume 7 No. 76) this help was 
forthcoming in the form of Brian Gardiner. Brian joined Beowulf as an 
assistant editor, and his job was to edit the Bulletin. Meanwhile, Beowulf 
would concentrate on more general editorial matters. The job of editor 
was an arduous task (and still is!) and the Society was always on the look 
out for helpers to type copy etc. At the 1947 AGM Trevor Trought agreed 
to take over the editorship of the Bulletin, and he duly did with Volume 7 
No. 92, July 1948. Membership by now had reached the 1000 mark 
(1071 Vol 7 No. 90). 



78 



APRIL 1995 



Volume 8 was published during 1949, and in this year came the 100th 
edition of the Bulletin. Trevor Trought wrote thus: 

We feel that something has been accomplished, but even more, that 
something has been well begun. The Society; and its Bulletin are 
now firmly established and we hope, on their u;ay to a greater and 
expanding usefulness. 
Membership of the Society had, however, fallen slightly to 904 (Vol. 7 

No. 107), the reason for which was given as officers of the Society not 

having time to carry out their tasks effectively. 

Finance became a worry for the Society in the 1950s. The monthly 
Bulletin was absorbing the whole of the Society's income and, therefore, 
it was decided at the 1950 AGM to stop publishing the Society's Journal. 
Longer items, usually published in the latter, would now be incorporated 
into the Bulletin. The size of the eight-page Bulletin would also now be 
limited by the funds which were available to produce it. To end 1950 on 
a poor note, the exhibition was poorly attended, perhaps due to a late 
change in date, but the lack of support that it received put the event's 
future in doubt. 

Trevor Trought continued his editorship into Volume 10 (1951) but his 
appointment to an overseas post as Scientific Adviser to Jordan meant 
that he was compelled to relinquish his duties. The April 1951 issue was 
his last. His replacement was W.J.B. Crotch. Unlike the 1950 exhibition, 
the 1951 event was a resounding success, being "perhaps the most 
successful in the Society's history" (Vol. 10 No. 132 December 1951). 
Attendance was very good and the day's highlights were talks given by 
Major Maxwell Knight on Entomologij in relation to other branches of 
natural history, Cynthia Longfield on Dragonflies (a synopsis of which can 
be found in Vol. 10 No. 132) and by Mr E.E. Syms on Entomology and 
the camera. Membership by the end of 1952 was 943. 

Financial concerns were a major problem for the Society, but Bulletins 
were continued to be published monthly. The exhibition was once again 
a resounding success being "better than ever" (Vol. 11 No. 144). The 
main attractions were the overseas exhibits, the silk moth group, the new 
mercury vapour trap and latest breeding cages and lectures on Uses and 
abuses of entomological names and terms, Burying beetles and Insect 
migration. Membership levels still hovered disappointingly around the 
900 mark and hence the financial concerns of the Society did not 
diminish. 

The groups of the Society formed over the previous few years were 
going strong. There were ten in all by 1952: the Diapause study group, 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



79 



the Elephant hawkmoth group, the microscopy group, the Silkmoth 
group, the pupal emergence group, the blues (Lycaenidae) group, the 
insect galls group, the larval colours group, the Orthoptera group and the 
weevil group. Two other groups, the ecology of ponds and the cockroach 
groups, were not supported fully enough for them to exist. 

Volume 13 of the Bulletin saw another change in editorship. W.J.B. 
Crotch persuaded Mr B.R. Stallwood to take over the reins, whilst Mr 
Crotch became general editor of handbooks and leaflets. Practical hints 
for the month of Bulletin publication became a regular feature. During 
1954 with a few exceptions the groups began to falter. The Orthoptera 
group became defunct and the weevil group obtained no support. 
However, a new group - the London meetings group - was formed 
during the year and held regular meetings. 

The 1954 exhibition drew tremendous support in September, but 
membership still only hovered around the 900 mark to the 
disappointment of many. 

Articles from the second decade of the Society follow: 

From Volume 6, Number 68, April 1945. Page 47. 
THE BLACK HAIRSTREAK 

by Victor Bascombe (574) 

24th June, 1944, was a beautiful day and I thought I would try for late 
palaemon (Chequered skipper) and possibly for pruni (Black hairstreak) 
in a favourite collecting ground in Northants. After half-an-hour's walking, 
I reached what seemed to be a likely spot, and whilst waiting, primarily 
for palaemon, I thought I detected a hairstreak flying round an oak tree. I 
watched for some time and saw several obvious hairstreaks on the wing, 
away out of reach. Eventually, I moved away to a cross-ride some forty 
yards away, and after watching there for some five minutes saw a small 
butterfly alight on a guelder rose. It turned out to be a male pruni in 
poorish condition. 

I returned in the afternoon and waited at this spot. By then the sun was 
pouring on to one side of the ride and all along the top of the sloe hedges 
pruni were flying. They were in very great quantity. I had to await my 
chance to take them at low levels, but in the space of three and a half 
hours I caught 21 - the majority of them in excellent condition. A 
fortnight previously I took two albino Wood whites (L. sinapis) in perfect 
condition. One had rather ill-defined wing tip markings, but in the other 
they were very well defined. 



80 



APRIL 1995 



From Volume 7, Number 91, March - May 1948. Page 192. 
COLOURED LIGHTS IN A LIGHT TRAP 

by A.L. Capener (6) 

In order to see if lights of different colours had different powers of 
attraction for insects I attempted a simple experiment with my light trap 
here at Cleveland, Johannesburg, South Africa. Although the results are 
too few to be statistically significant, I feel, after about seven weeks (in the 
summer) of changing the colours in sequence each night, that results are 
so definite it is unnecessary to carry on any longer. Here is a summary of 
the totals caught: - 



Watt Nights Catch 



Red 


40 


7 


4 


Green 


40 


8 


56 


Orange 


40 


7 


11 


Blue 


40 


7 


57 


Ordinary 


60 


10 


289 



One night about 100 ants were caught, which are included in this latter 
total. Of course all the bulbs used were the incandescent filament type, 
which means that the colours were obtained by the coloured glass filtering 
out the colours not seen (but in fact still being radiated by the filament 




AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



81 



within). The result, of course, was that, although all the tinted bulbs were 
rated as 40 watt bulbs, the actual candle-power emitted by the red bulb 
was a mere fraction of that emitted by any other colour, and the other 
colours were much less than a "white" bulb of equivalent wattage. 

From Volume 9, Number 118, October 1950. Page 91. 
PET MANTIS 

byW.J.B. Crotch (1181) 

Why not keep a mantis for a pet? An American businessman who brought 
a parcel of wild woodland for the sole purpose of studying and 
photographing its insect population found that a female mantis became 
an amusing companion. She would walk over his desk and watch him 
typing with all the appearance of absorbed interest and would practically 
sit up and beg when feeding time came round! 

A mantis will eat any other insect of whatever size and is a good 
gardener's friend. When the supply of live prey is reduced in autumn it 
can be given (pace Mr Webb) corned beef or breakfast sausage to 
prolong its life until perhaps November. 

From Volume 10, Number 122, February 1951. Page 14. 
AN UNCOMMON GRASSHOPPER 

by T.B.Poole (1681) 

On 14th September [1950] I was looking for grasshoppers at St. Ives, 
Bingley, Yorkshire, in a marshy field, and I found a fully-winged female of 
Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt. The macropterous form of this species 
appears to be rare in Great Britain, as, according to M. Burr (1936) in his 
British Grasshoppers and their Allies, only one British specimen has been 
recorded at that time, and I should be interested to know if any more 
have been recorded since. 

From Volume 11, Number 144, November 1951. Page 115. 
A CHIRPING BEETLE 

by CM. Idle (2118) 

I have not seen or heard it mentioned before that Cychrus rostratus Linn, 
has the ability to chirp; however, while "bug-hunting" in Fisher's Wood, 
Bromley, I came across one chirping in a manner not unlike that of a 



82 



APRIL 1995 



grasshopper in sound. It had only about half the volume of the 
grasshopper chirping, was of a higher pitch, and of a smoother quality. 
The beetle was lying still under a rotting log. I could not see from what 
organ the chirping was coming, but it was not any of the legs. I would like 
to hear other members' experiences of this and in what circumstances the 
beetle does "chirp". 

From Volume 12, Number 161, My 1953. Page 59. 
A WASP NEST IN JANUARY 

bxjB.R. Stallwood (1547) 

A note in Bee Craft 36: 39 (1954) describes the finding of a "wasp nest 
the size of a football, complete with queen, workers and brood in all 
stages of development from eggs to young wasps ready to emerge from 
their cells" on 17th January 1954. 

The nest was found in the vicinity of the apiary of the Enfield (Middx.) 
Beekeepers' Association. The exceptionally mild winter coupled with easy 
access to food from beehives evidently encouraged the queen to continue 
laying. 

From Volume 12, Number 168, December 1953. Page 115. 
NEW ZEALAND STICK INSECT IN DEVON 

by Peter G. Taylor (719) 

I should like to suggest a possible means whereby the New Zealand Stick 
Insect (Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 12: 92-94) could have reached the Scilly 
Isles. It is quite possible that a single parthenogenetic female could start a 
whole colony of these insects, so that numbers do not really enter into the 
problem. Also, stick insects as a group are noted for their longevity, and 
are moderately cryptic in form. It would be quite easy, therefore, for an 
adult female to have been brought to the Scilly Isles with the New 
Zealand plants, and even for the Paignton colony to have been started in 
a similar manner by one of her offspring. 

As the members of both colonies would be nearly, or quite, all females 
able to produce parthenogenetic female offspring, their numbers would 
increase as a geometrical progression, especially in the absence of natural 
enemies. Available food and adverse weather conditions would, 
therefore, be the controlling factors. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



83 




Diary Dates 



Abbreviations 
BEHNS 
LCES 
RES 

RES(QG) 

BBONT 

BC 

I: 



British Entomological and Natural History Society. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 
Royal Entomological Society of London. 
RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 
Berks, Bucks and Oxon Naturalists' Society. 
Butterfly Conservation. 
Information from: 



To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. Any 
relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is made for 
entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 

APRIL 

22nd AES Annual General Meeting. 

At the RES, 41 Queen's Gate, London. 
I: Wayne Jarvis 01582 485820. 

LCES Field Meeting 

Lytham St. Annes Nature Reserve, Lanes. (SD 310305). Meet at 

ll.OOhrs by the Information Centre. 

I: Simon Hayhow 01253 876621 (work). 

BEHNS and Somerset Moth Group Field Meeting. 

Prior's Park, and Adcombe Wood SSSI, Somerset. Meet at 10.30hrs and 
19.00hrs at Forest Enterprise car park (ST 228163) off the B3170. 
Ancient woodland, mainly Ash. One aim is to record the White-marked 
moth. Please book if you wish to attend. 
I: Keith Brown 01963 32763. 

29th Identifying Ants. 

BEHNS (Workshop) Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, 
Reading. 10.30hrs - 16.00hrs. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, Indoor Meetings Secretary, 109 Miller Way, 
Brampton, Huntingdon PE18 8TZ. 



84 



APRIL 1995 



MAY 

3rd Medical and Veterinary Special Interest Group lecture. 

Title to be arranged. RES(QG). Tea 17.00hrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 581 8505. 

6th BEHNS Field Meeting - Hampshire. 

Rye Common. (SU 784503). Meet at ll.OOhrs and 21.00hrs. Turn right 
at east end, sign-posted to electricity sub-station and park on roadside. 
Mainly Oak, Ash and Beech woodland. Sparse invertebrate data. 
I: Tony Davis 01252 874346. 

7th Durham Entomological Fair. 

Equestrian Centre, Stag Lane, Newton Aycliffe, Dadington. lO.OOhrs - 

16.00hrs. Admission 50p all. 

I: James Houlihan 01388 721449 or 720503. 

10th RES East Region Meeting - Sugar Beet Pests. 

Broom's Barn Experimental Station. 

I: Dr R.C. Welsch, ITE, Monk's Wood Experimental Station, Abbots 
Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambs PE17 2LS. 

13th BEHNS Field Meeting - Berkshire. 

Several Wokingham District Council Reserves. Meet lO.SOhrs at Dinton 
Pastures Pelham Clinton Building (SU 784718) or ll.OOhrs at car park 
entrance to Aldermoors (SU 773738). 
I: Peter Chandler 01628 664111. 

14th Entomological Livestock Group Spring Entomological Fair. 

Pattishall Parish Hall, Pattishall, Towcester. ll.OOhrs - 16.00hrs. 

Admission £1 & 50p. 

I: Paul Batty 01909 550272. 

20th LCES Field Meeting. 

Ainsdale National Nature Reserve, Lanes. (SD 302111). Meet at car park 
in Pinfold Lane at ll.OOhrs. 

I: Steve Cross 0151 920 5718 (home) 0151 207 0001 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting - Dunhartonshire/Strathclyde. 

Blackhill Mire, Helensburgh. Meet 14.30hrs and 20.00hrs at car park by 
reservoir (NS 305838). Mire with cotton-grass, heather, bilberry, gorse 
and birch. 

I: Richard Sutcliffe 0141 3052660. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



85 



27th BEHNS Field Meeting - Berkshire. 

Dinton Pastures. Meet at ll.OOhrs and 20.00hrs at the Pelham Clinton 
building (SU 784718). Range of terrestrial and aquatic habitats and 
chance to see the Loddon lily in flower. 
I: Andrew Halstead 01483 489581. 

29th Butterfly Walk. 

Walk around Neumann's and Ashton's Flashes and Marbury No. 1 Tank, 
Northwich, Cheshire to see early summer butterflies. Meet Marston 
entrance along Ollershaw Lane at ll.OOhrs. Bring packed lunch. Witton 
Conservation Group meeting. 
I: Paul Hill 01565 722928. 

JUNE 

3rd BEHNS Field Meeting - Hampshire. 

Alice Holt Forest. Meet at 10.40hrs at the Lodge Enclosure car park on 
Gravel Hill Road (SU 802435). Beetles (incl. aquatic spp.) will be main 
interest of the day but rich site for Lepidoptera and other orders. 
I: David Lonsdale 01420 83742 (home) 01420 22255 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting - Dorset 

Yellow Ham Wood, Dorchester. Meet at lO.SOhrs and 20.00hrs at lay-by 
on minor road signposted Troytown (SY 730934). Rare Diptera. 
I: Mick Parker 01305 788380. 

4th Creepy Crawlx; Show IV. 

Queen Elizabeth Hall, Oldham. 12.00hrs - 17.00hrs. 

Admission £1 & 50p. 

I: Oldham Museum 0161 678 4649. 

7th RES Annual Meeting and President's Invitation Lecture. 

RES(QG). Tea 17.00hrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. 
I: RES 0171 581 8505. 

10th Joint LCES and Underwings Field Meeting. 

Millers Dale, Derbyshire. Meet at car park (SK 139733) at ll.OOhrs. 
I: Jon Delf 01829 250411. 

23rd BEHNS Field Meeting - South London. 

Nunhead Cemetery. Meet ll.OOhrs at the cemetery gate in Linden 
Grove (2 mins from Nunhead Station) (TQ 353737). MV Session at 
21.00hrs. 

I: Richard Jones 0171 732 2440. Please contact if wishing to attend 
MV session. 



86 



APRIL 1995 



24th The West of England Creepy Crawly Show. 

Newton Abbot Racecourse, Devon. Major Herpetological and 
Entomological Show for captive breeders and conservationists in the 
West Country. 

To book space or I: 01626 332775. 

JULY 

1st LCES Field Meeting 

Little Budworth Common, Oulton, Cheshire (SJ 588655). Meet ll.OOhrs 
in car park (with toilets) near to the Lodge Corner gates of Oulton Park 
race track. 

I: Bill Hardwick 01606 594778. 

5th RES Annual Meeting and the President's Invitation Lecture. 
RES Queen's Gate (QG). 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

15th LCES Field Meeting. 

Whixall Moss, Shropshire (SJ 496365). Chance to visit this famous 
entomological site, now taken over by English Nature. Meet ll.OOhrs at 
grid reference, just over the canal swing bridge. 
I: David Poynton 01625 829189. 

21st/ Grand Moth and Butterfly Event. 

22nd Warburg Reserve, Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Moth trapping 
overnight on Friday 21st - meet at Warburg Reserve car park (SU 
720880) at 22.30hrs. Saturday meet at 10.30hrs at car park to see the 
catch from the previous night, followed by a guided walk led by the 
reserve warden to look for butterflies and day-flying moths. Joint meeting 
with BC and BBONT. 
I: Martin Harvey 01635 550380 (work). 

28th Moth trapping at Thatcham, Berkshire. 

Looking for the Scarce burnished brass and others at Thatcham 
reedbeds. Meet at Thatcham Nature Discovery Centre at 20.30hrs. Joint 
BC and BBONT meeting. Please book in advance. 
1: Thatcham Discovery Centre 01635 874381. 



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"Caribana", Silver Street, Misterton, 
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Tel: (01460) 73586 
Fax: (01460) 78444 



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BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL 
AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Registered charity number: 213149 
Founded in 1872, the Society holds regular lecture meetings in London and the well- 
known ANNUAL EXHIBITION will be held at Imperial College, London SW7, on 
Saturday 28th October 1995; this will be followed by the ANNUAL DINNER. 
The Society maintains a library and collections at its headquarters at Dinton Pastures, 
which is open to BENHS members at various times each fortnight. Frequent field 
meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all 
meetings. 

The current programme card can be had on application to: the Secretary: R.F. 
McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth Devon TQ14 8NR. 

The Society publishes British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, a 

quarterly journal of entomological articles, short communications, meeting reports, book 
reviews, etc. The Journal is free to BENHS members. For a sample copy contact: the 
Editor, Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. Tel: 0171-732 
2440. Fax: 0171-277 8725. 

The Society has published several books including: A field guide to the smaller British 
Lepidoptera, edited by A.M. Emmet (288pp, paperback £18, hardback £22.50, + £1.80 
p.&p.); British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide, by A.E. Stubbs and S.J. 
Falk (270pp, 12 col. plates, hardback, recently reprinted, £26 + £2.80 p.&p.). BENHS 

For further details contact: 

the Sales Secretary: R.D. Hawkins, 30d Meadowcroft Close, Horley, Surrey RH6 9EL. 
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A NEW REPRINT FROM THE 
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AES ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 



Saturday 22nd April 1995 
at the Royal Entomological Society of London, 41 Queen's Gate 

HOW TO GET THERE 

There is no car parking facility at the R.E.S. and it is therefore strongly advised that public 
transport is used. 

By Train: The nearest mainline station is London Victoria from which the under- 

ground or bus systems should be used. 

By Underground: South Kensington Station is served by Piccadilly, Circle and District 
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By Bus: The following services serve the area: 

To South Kensington Station 

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45A Peckham, Camberwell, Brixton, Stockwell, Clapham, Battersea, South Kensington. 
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To Queen's Gate 

9 Aldwych, Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly, High Street Kensington, Hammersmith. 
9A Kensington, Hammersmith, Mortlake. 

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Kings Cross. 

52 Victoria, Knightsbridge, Notting Hill Gate, Ladbroke Grove, Wilsden. 




Royal Entomological Sodety 
41 Queen's Gate 



Queen's Gate Place 





Sdenc* 
Museum 


- 




Ceologica 
J Museum 



Victoria and 
Albeit Museum 




CONTENTS 



R.A. Jones. Mate-guarding in ClusiafJaua (Meigen) (Diptera: Clusiidae) 38 

RA. Jones. Feigned death in the Wolf spider Pisaura mirabilis (Clerk) 41 

T.B. Larsen. Butterflies in Kakum National Park, Ghana. Part II. Nymphalidae and 

Hesperiidae 43 

F. Seow-Choen. Two more gynandromorphs of the Malayan jungle nymph, 
Heteropteryx dilatata (Phasmida) with notes on captive behaviour 49 

Huang Hao. Erection of a new genus for the "dubernardi-group" and a new species 

of Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in China 53 

Huang Hao. A new subspecies Dabasa hercules (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Wuyi 

Mountains, China '. 63 

P. Waring and R.C. Thomas. Moth recording in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 4th - 

nth September 1994 66 

W.J. Jarvis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. Part II. 1945-54 77 

Short Communications 

R. Goff. Cannibal Ladybirds 35 

G. Hancock. Handkerchiefs in Trinidad and Tobago (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) 36 

C. Raper. Moth sightings in 1994 37 

H. Kay. A Migration puzzle 40 

J. Koryszko. A visit to Whixall Moss 42 

D. McNamara. Discovering Newnham-on-Severn: The Scarlet tiger (Callimorpha 
dominula L.) 47 

R. Frost. Another Midlands Monarch 48 

J. Koryszko. Late emergence 48 

M. Ashworth. Hilltopping behaviour of the Swallowtail butterfly {Papilio machaon) in 

the Lechtaler Alps, Austria 52 

J. Koryszko. The Latticed heath in Staffordshire 58 

J. Badmin. A request for froghopper records 59 

J. Koryszko. Small yellow wave record 62 

F. Rayment. Nests too dry for fleas? 65 

J. Koryszko. A further note on the piggy-back fly 76 

J. Koryszko. 1994 - A Vapourer moth year in Staffordshire 76 

Book Reviews 

Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens [Butterflies of north-west Asia] 60 

The butterflies' fly-past 61 

Scuttle flies: The Phoridae 62 

British butterflies: Vernacular names incl. forms, subspecies and aberrations 62 

Diary Dates 83 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal are solely those 
of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or informa- 
tion, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held 
responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 10th April 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close. Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. 



ISSN 0266-836X 



'''09 

Volume 54, No. 400, June, 1995 



w 



The Bulletin 
of the Amateur 
Entomologists' 
Society 




EDITOR 

WAYNE JARVIS BSc. 



The Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Founded in 1935 



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Andrew Locke 

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Mark Colvin 

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Wayne Jarvis 

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Worldwide Batferflies^ 

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Cover illustration by Sally Goodden, BA (Hons), lUustrastor 



CATALOGUES OF 

SPECIMENS 
FOR COLLECTORS 

We will be pleased to send any 
of the following. 50p in stamps 
would be appreciated and 
please mention the AES. 



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collection in exceptionally 
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BRITISH ENTOMOLOGICAL 
AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

Registered charity number: 213149 
Founded in 1872, the Society holds regular lecture meetings In London and the well- 
known ANNUAL EXHIBITION will be held at Imperial College, London SW7, on 
Saturday 28th October 1995; this will be followed by the ANNUAL DINNER. 
The Society maintains a library and collections at its headquarters at Dinton Pastures, 
which is open to BENHS members at various times each fortnight. Frequent field 
meetings are held at weekends in the summer. Visitors are welcome at all meetings. 
The current programme card can be had on application to: the Secretary: R.F. McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth Devon TQ14 8NR. 

The Society publishes British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, a quarterly 
journal of entomological articles, short communications, meeting reports, book reviews, 
etc. The Journal is free to BENHS members. For a sample copy contact: the Editor, 
Richard A. Jones, 13 Beliwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. Tel: 0171-732 2440. 
Fax: 0171-277 8725. 

The Society has published several books including: A field guide to the smaller British 
Lepidoptera, edited by A.M. Emmet (288pp, paperback £18, hardback £22.50, + £1.80 
p.&p.); British hoverflies: an illustrated identification guide, by A.E. Stubbs and S.J. 
Falk (270pp, 12 col. plates, hardback, recently reprinted, £26 + £2.80 p.&p.). BENHS 
members qualify for special discounted prices. 

For further details contact: 
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For membership application details contact: 
the Membership Secretary: A. Godfrey, 10 Moorlea Drive, Baildon, Shipley, 
West Yorkshire BD17 6QL 




AES BULLETIN 



No. 400 




EDITORIAL 

The AES reaches it's first milestone of the year with this issue of the 
Bulletin, the 400th edition. Over the years the Bulletin has played a major 
role in the Society's history, and hopefully, will continue to do so in years 
to come. 

The AGM was once again a very enjoyable event, and thanks must go 
to Colin Hart for his organisation as well as our two speakers Richard 
Jones and Michael Majerus who gave us an amusing and fascinating 
insight into their work! It was disappointing that so few members 
attended, this will hopefully be rectified next year! 

Of course the AGM saw the departure of Brian Gardiner and Simon 
Fraser from Council. Both have contributed substantially to the Society 
and we thank them for their hard work over the years. The Secretary 
position is temporarilyheld by myself and all correspondence should be 
forwarded to me at the address on the inside front cover. 

Best wishes for the bug-hunting season! 



Wayne Jarvis 



AES 



Annual Exhibtion 

Saturday, 7th October, 1995 
at Kempston Park Racecourse 



Open ll.OOhrs to 16.30hrs. 



88 



JUNE 1995 



GREY SAND-COVERED BUG: A REQUEST FOR HELP WITH 
IDENTIFICATION 

by Michael G. Guye (10024) 

1 rouie d-.. Gz: ^-'c'-. 'v':''r.c^r.;':5. 33650 Czbzrzc s: V:''zp-z:rs. r'-ance. 

Plate 951. Fig. 1. depicts a gi-ey-coloured insect, resembling a bug. which 
is occasionally found here during ihe summer momhs. It is approximately 
one centimen-e long and its body (including legs and antennae' is covered 
with very fine sand gi"ains and other minute panicles of debris. Some of 
these particles appear to rub off if the insect gets wet. It moves in shon 
rapid bursts of one to two centimen'es in length and is found amongst the 
roofing tiles iold Roman tiles made of baked clay) of a dilapidated barn 
which adjoins our house. 

The "roof habitat", where the above is found, heats up considerably in 
summer. It contains an abundance of humus and unrotted material, 
composed mainly of oak leaf litter, twigs and acorns, due to the presence 
of nearby pedunculate oak ti'ees. During the wener periods of the year 
this humus suppons a "lawn" of shon green vegetation, though it dries up 
completely in summer. Other invertebrates in this habitat include an 
abundance of woodlice itwo species'', springtails. centipedes, and a small 
snail species with a cone-shaped shell. The common wall lizard ^Podarcis 
niuralis^ and the western whip snake ^Coluber viridiflavus^ also frequent 
this habitat. 

Jones '1983^ illusti-ates the haivestman. Anelasmocephalus cambridgei 
(Arachnida: Opiliones: Trogulidaei. which has a similar habit of covering 
its body with particulate matter. I assume that the function of this 
behaviour is either to provide camouflage against predators and or to 
conceal itself more efficiently from potential prey. The latter interpretation 
assumes that my find may be a type of assassin bug (Heteroptera: 
Redui'iidae I look foiivard to hearing fi'om any readers who may be able 
to identify this insect. Any additional details would also be greatly 
appreciated. 



REFERENCE 

Jones. D. (1983). Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Country Life Books, Hamlyn. 
Middlesex. England 1994. 320pp. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



89 



SOME CRICKET SPECIES (ORTHOPTERA: 
TETTIGONIIDAE, GRYLLIDAE AND GRYLLOTALPIDAE) 
FOUND IN SOUTH-WESTERN FRANCE: OBSERVATIONS 
UNDER FIELD AND CAPTIVE CONDITIONS 

by Michael G. Guye (1 0024) 



Warm summer nights, here in the village of Villagrains, are often 
associated with the enchanting hypnotic sound of churring crickets. For a 
while it is easy to forget the surrounding monotony of maritime pine 
plantations and to imagine that I am in some far-off exotic tropical 
location. If one listens carefully several different "signatures" may be 
discerned. The experience led me to investigate this insect order which 
resulted in some rather unexpected observations. 

Species identification 

Most of the observations reported here were made during the period 
1993-94, though some casual unrecorded observations began back in 
1991. Species were identified with the aid of the field guides of Bellmann 
(1985) and Chinery (1993). In cases where identification was not straight- 
forward, reference was made to a much more comprehensive guide on 
orthopteran taxonomy (Chopard, 1951). Three different families were 
identified, i.e. the Tettigoniidae (bush-crickets and cone-heads), the 
Gryllidae (true-crickets) and the Gryllotalpidae (mole-crickets). I found all 
species in my garden with the exception of a field-cricket and two mole- 
crickets which were brought to me by children from the village. The 
species identified were as follows: 



1 route du Gat Mort, ViUagrains, 33650 Cabanac et ViUagrains, France. 



TETTIGONIIDAE 

Conocephalus discolor (Thunberg) 
Leptoph\;es punctatissima (Bosc) 
Meconema thahssinum (De Geer) 
Phaneroptera falcata (Scopoli) 
PhoHdoptera griseoaptera (De Geer) 
Platycleis sp. (Fieber) 
Ruspolia nitidula (Scopoli) 
Tettigonia uihdissima (L.) 



long-winged cone-head 
speckled bush-cricket 
oak bush-cricket 
sickle-bearing bush-cricket 
dark bush-cricket 
grey bush-cricket group 
large cone-head 
great green bush-cricket 



90 



JUNE 1995 



GRYLLIDAE 



Gr\;llus campesths (L.) 
Nemobius syluestris (Bosc) 



field-cricket 



wood-cricket 



GRYLLOTALPIDAE 



Gr\;Uota}pa gr[;Uotalpa (L.) 



mole-cricket 



FRENCH COMMON NAMES 

The bush-cricket and cone-head family are rather confusingly translated 
into French as "les sauterelles" which means "grasshoppers". French 
common names, where they occur, are as follows (in parentheses): R. 
nitidula (le conocephale gracieux), T. uiridissima (la grande sauterelle 
verte), G. campestris (le gril, riqueu or cricri) and G. gr{;llotalpa (la 
courtiliere or le grillon taupe). 

Brief description of habitats where captures were made 

The habitats where the species were found may be divided into three 
broad categories and reference has been made to these under the 
discussion of individual cricket species. The habitats are as follows: 

(a) shrub/hedge habitat - composed of rose, bramble, elm (Ulmus 
carpinifolia) , laurel, and yew hedge mixtures which are shaded or 
semi-shaded by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), sweet chestnut 
and some coniferous trees (spruce and cedar). This habitat is 
located, along with the house, at street level at a crossroad junction. 

(b) dry-slope habitat - represented by dry south-west and west facing 
sunny banks at the back of the house. Characteristic plant species are 
white campion (Silene alba), greater celandine(Che//don!um majus). 
dwarf mallow (Malua neglecta) and bracken (Pteridium aquihnum). 
Following the removal of several large false acacia trees {Robinia 
pseudoacacia) , the stumps, which in most cases are hollow, have 
been left in the ground to increase habitat diversity. The sunny banks 
have moderate to steep gradients and slope down to the damp 
meadow habitat. 

(c) damp-meadow habitat - represented by an open sunny to shaded 
damp/marshy meadow located on a slight gradient of about 25 
metres in length. The lowermost part is located approximately five 
metres below street level. Characteristic plant species are great 
horsetail {Equisetum telmateia). sedges (Carex spp.). buttercup 
(Ranunculus spp.), and a mint species (possibly Mentha suaveolens). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



91 



One of the sunniest areas contains a carpet of bugle [Ajuga reptans) 
in association with cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis) and ragged 
robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi). A small stream, known locally as La 
Gravette, traverses the lowermost part of the damp-meadow habitat 
alongside of which is a dominant mixture of willow (Salix aurita and 
S. cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra) and alder [Alnus sp.). 

Both the dry-slope and damp-meadow habitats are managed by 
occasional scything to prevent the more invasive species (i.e. bracken, 
brambles, false acacia, horsetails and nettles) becoming predominant, 
thereby encouraging plant (and consequently insect) diversity. Nettles 
(Urtica dioica) are abundant in all three habitats. A wide range of grass 
species is found in both the dry-slope and damp-meadow habitats. 

Climate and soil 

The regional climate is predominately oceanic with an annual 
precipitation of around 800 to 900mm. Snow is very rare, occurring 
perhaps once every ten years (e.g. the last time was winter 1985/86). 
Summers can be very hot (30° to 35 °C) and a drought occurs most years 
during July and August: during this period the damp-meadow habitat 
generally remains moist and the stream stops flowing, though the latter 
may dry up completely some years (e.g. Summer 1991). Winter frosts are 
common in the Bordeaux area, though the microclimate peculiar to 
Villagrains (located, as the crow flies, approximately 30km south of 
Bordeaux and 50km east of the Atlantic coast) means that such frosts can 
be both later (i.e. mid-May) and more severe (i.e. some nights at -6° to 
-8°C every winter) than neighbouring areas. However it is extremely rare 
that winter daytime temperatures descend below 0°C, with the result that 
the activity of some insect species can be observed throughout winter 
during sunny weather. 

The soil is predominately a sandy acidic type (podsol). However 
outcrops of clay or limestone do occur in the region. Though a podsol is, 
in agricultural terms, an extremely poor soil, maritime pine (Pinus 
pinaster) grows well here. In south-western France this forestry crop 
occupies an area of 900,000 hectares extending over the departments of 
the Gironde, Landes and Lot-et-Garonne. This represents the largest area 
of artificial forest in Europe. The "poor" soil is however host to a 
relatively rich variety of plant-life in the few relatively undisturbed areas 
which are not over-managed by man, and this may in turn be expected to 
support a relatively rich insect fauna. 



92 



JUNE 1995 



Climate and species distribution 

The eleven cricket species I found appear to occur throughout France 
(Chinery, 1993: Chopard, 1951). In Britain R. nitidula and P. falcata 
appear to be absent, while the others listed above are generally rare and 
restricted to the coastal areas of southern England (Bellmann, 1985) 
suggesting a requirement for a mild climate. However P. ghseoaptera 
appears to be an exception being found as far north as southern Scotland 
(Bellmann, 1985). 

Despite the occurrence of late spring frosts in Villagrains, the species I 
found are generally common here. Chinery (1993) catalogues 36 species 
of Tettigoniidae and ten species of Gryllidae for France and Western 
Europe. Since ten of these species were found with relative ease it is 
suggested that a more comprehensive search, particularly in milder 
neighbouring areas (i.e. areas without regular late spring frosts), such as 
the dune areas of the Atlantic coast, may reveal the presence of further 
species. 

In France, R. nitidula is now protected in the Ile-de-France region 
(Anon, 1994), while in Britain G. campestris and G. gr^llotalpa are 
protected (Fry, 1991). 

Observations under field and captive conditions 

Conocephalus discolor 

C. discolor is found occasionally in the damp-meadow habitat associated 
with sedges. The nymph is easily recognisable by a black dorsal stripe. 

Leptophyes punctatissima (Plate 951, Fig. 2) 

I often observe L. punctatissima on rose or bramble in the bush/hedge 
habitat. Armed with a torch one summer night at around 11pm, I 
discovered a group (more than six) feasting on the green unripe seeds of 
nettle plants growing around a rose bush. On two occasions I saw a 
female feeding on the reproductive organs (stamens and stigmas) of 
flowers of some cultivated ornamentals of the Compositae family (see Fig. 
1). It may be that the high protein content of these plant organs provides 
an important source of nutrition for egg production? Comments please. 

I have particularly enjoyed keeping L. punctatissima in captivity, partly 
because it is not overactive (unlike T. uiridissima) and its food 
requirements are simple, feeding readily on bramble and rolled oats. Two 
males and two females were placed in an aquarium which already 
contained a culture of local stick insects [Clonopsis gallica). the latter also 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



93 



being fed on bramble. Both insect species appeared to cohabit without 
any problems. 

In captivity the mating behaviour of L. punctatissima was easily 
observed, being particularly amusing to watch. The female always 
appeared to make the initial move, and could be very insistent in the case 
of a non-obliging male, who either simply ignored the female or turned 
away in the case of excessive "sexual harassment" . 

L. punctatissima has an extremely faint chirp, whose song can only 
really be heard if you are standing within very close range and in the 
absence of other interfering background sounds. In captivity this species 
survived long after the last sightings were observed outdoors. 

Meconema thalassinum 

M. thalassinum was found by chance in the shrub/hedge habitat resting 
on the underside of leaves of an old elm hedge growing near a 
pedunculate oak tree. Another time, late at night, one flew through an 
open kitchen window, no doubt attracted by light. Attraction to light at 
night has also been reported by Chinery (1993). 

Phaneroptera falcata 

P. falcata was seen less frequently than most of the other species. Found 
on taller vegetable cover (e.g. false acacia re-growth) in the slope habitat. 

Pholidoptera griseoaptera 

P. griseoaptera was found mainly amongst low-growing vegetation in the 
damp-meadow habitat. I found this species easy to keep in captivity, 
though a word of warning - don't keep it the bedroom: its monotonous 
chirping will keep you awake all night! Fed readily on rolled oats though 
also preyed on small grasshoppers in its aquarium. Stridulates both day 
and night, males often replying in alternation with each other. 

During late July, a captive P. griseoaptera was observed attempting to 
oviposit into a thin covering of bark on a small branch of false acacia. It 
was obviously having difficulties and after several attempts gave up. False 
acacia bark from large trunks is a thick and fairly soft corky type of 
material and so I thought that this might provide a more suitable substrate 
for egg-laying. Indeed ovipositor insertion into a small thick piece of false 
acacia bark (approximately 2cm^) was subsequently observed. The 
ovipositor was inserted and then withdrawn either partially or completely, 
and then immediately re-inserted, the process being repeated several 
times over a period of approximately five minutes. Insertion of the 
ovipositor occurred in an orientation which was parallel to the natural 



94 



JUNE 1995 



plane of cleavage of the bark. Following ovipositor insertion the base of 
the abdomen was seen to make rhythmic pumping movements, 
presumably to aid egg deposition into the bark. The bark sample was 
later cut open and an oval flat-shaped egg was found measuring 4.8mm 
(length) x 1.4mm (width) x 0.7mm (thickness). It had a colour best 
described as pale (somewhere between white and a light sandy-brown 
colour). 

Plafycleis sp. - possibly P. intermedia (Plate 95J. Fig. 3) 

A Platycleis species was found only once in the four years that I have 
been living here. It was a female with one hindleg miissing (Plate 95J. Fig. 
3) found on the south-east-by-east facing wall of the house in dappled 
morning sunlight (14th August 1994) near the bush hedge habitat. Exact 
species identification was uncertain. It fed on rolled oats in captivity. 
From head to abdominal tip (excluding ovipositor) my find measured 
27mm, the ovipositor an additional 14mm. The wings were 31mm long, 
extending beyond the ovipositor tip by approximately 5mm. The dorsal 
side of the head and pronotum were reddish-brown. Overall body 
coloration was brown. 

Chinery (1993) identifies the female of three species oi Plat\;cleis by the 
shape and length of the ovipositor. Ovipositor lengths (in parentheses) of 
these species are as follows: P. albopunctata (8-1 1mm). P. tessellata 
(4-6mm) and P. affinis (13-16mm). Chinery also states that P. affinis 
(20-25mm body length) resembles a large P. albopunctata. the latter 
quoted elsewhere as having a body length of 18-22mm (Bellmann 1985). 
though with the difference that in the former the vein running along the 
sharp fold of the forewing. just behind the pronotum. is distinctly yellow. 
The large ovipositor (14mm) and body length (27mm) of my specimen 
suggest that it may have been a P. affinis. However an examination of the 
forewing. following mild sedation with diethyl-ether. did not reveal the 
yellow coloration mentioned by Chinery. Following release of the 
specimen I discovered a very detailed book on orthopteran taxonomy by 
Chopard (1951). He describes seven species and six sub-species of 
PIat\;cieis. Unfortunately 1 no longer had the specimen for reference, 
though based on the measurements and photograph I had taken it 
appears that I may have possibly captured a P. intermedia (Serv.). 
Chopard (1951) cites this species as being found in south-western France. 

Ruspolia nitidula 

Both green and sandy-brown coloured forms of R. nitidula were found in 
the dry-slope habitat, each form corresponding with the colour of the 
background vegetation. Very abundant during summer 1994. I was 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



95 



surprised to find a nymph of 20mm in length in September. Searches for 
this species on the 5th October, and thereafter during 1994, yielded no 
specimens. 

R. nitidula appears to prefer an undisturbed relatively tall low-growing 
vegetation (i.e. 30-50cm in height) to a shorter managed cover. For 
example, a dry slope on the west-facing side of the house which had only 
been scythed in May showed an abundance of R. nitidula adults in 
August amongst a cover of bracken and tall grasses. Towards the end of 
August, a second scything was carried out. Within 24 hours of this 
scything, which reduced the cover to a height of approximately 50mm, R. 
nitidula had migrated to the surrounding uncut cover. In general I found 
this species by walking through low-growing vegetation in areas where 
they were known to be abundant, the disturbance causing them to jump 
and consequently be spotted with relative ease. 

Tettigonia viridissima 

A very impressive cricket owing to its large size. Appears to be very 
common and found in a wide range of habitats (damp-meadow and dry- 
slopes) on either low-growing vegetation, bushes or trees. Found by 
disturbing low-growing vegetation as described above for R. nitidula. 
Alternatively you can patiently stalk a chirping adult: I have succeeded in 
doing this on a few occasions and have managed observations from as 
close as 30cm without disturbing it. 

During 1992 and 1994 adults of T. viridissima were noticed from the 
8th July and the 26th June onwards, respectively. I was particularly 
surprised to find a nymph of this species on the 29th March 1994 on a 
grass stalk exposed to early evening sunshine on a south-west facing 
slope. Reference to the colour plates of Bellmann (1985), illustrating the 
life-cycle of T. viridissima, suggested that this nymph was either in its first 
or second instar. Bellmann depicts first and second instar nymphs, found 
during May in Pfullingen (Saxony, Germany). Pfullingen is at a latitude 
which is approximately 450km further north than Villagrains and, 
considering its geography, would be expected to have a typically 
continental climate. Nevertheless the difference of two months in the time 
of first appearance of the nymphs between Pfullingen and Villagrains 
would appear to be considerable. However, I should add that there were 
only two nights of frost in Villagrains during spring 1994, both being 
about -2°C (early March and again in mid-April). In addition, winter 
1993/94 was particularly mild, e.g. during this period our wood-stove 
only consumed two-thirds of the normal winter fuel provision for 
domestic heating. Therefore the unusually mild weather of winter 



96 



JUNE 1995 



1993/94 and spring 1994 may have accounted for the appearance of a T. 
uiridissima nymph in March. 

In general I found this species too difficult to keep in captivity. Two 
males and two females were captured during July 1993 and placed in a 
relatively large cage (an aquarium of about 50cm height x 50cm length 
and 25cm width, with netting as a cover) which contained branches and 
some potted plants. However, the species proved to be too active for 
confinement. Its incessant and rapid walking movements would be 
interrupted by random jumps which would frequently result in collisions 
with the glass sides. The only time I had some success was with a female 
found in late autumn. This specimen was relatively slow-moving as it was 
probably near the end of its life. For the few days it was kept in captivity, 
prior to its release, it showed none of the "hyper-activity'' observed in the 
previous specimens captured in July and appeared to settle down quietly. 
It fed readily on rolled oats and white "fishing" maggots (bluebottle 
larvae), the latter bought from a local fishing tackle suppliers. 

Gryllus campestris 

A dead G. campestris was bought to me for identification by local 
children. 

Nemobius s\jluestris 

N. syluestris was very common, found moving in short rapid bursts across 
the surface of leaf litter around pedunculate oak and sweet chestnut trees 
in open sunny, dappled and shaded dry areas. Kept in captivity for a 
short while where it was supplied with oak litter (a mixture of leaf, bark 
and acorn litter) and fed on rolled oats. However, it was rarely seen in 
captivity since it hid most of the time within the litter though its 
continuous gentle "purring" could be heard both day and night. 

Grijilotalpa gr\;llotalpa 

G. gryliotalpa was found and brought to me on two occasions by local 
children. In captivity it refused to feed on rolled oats. The first specimen 
died within 24 hours of capture and was subsequently preserved in a jar 
containing 70% ethanol. Its death was not due to desiccation since a 
damp tissue was placed in its plastic container to maintain a relatively 
high humidity, since it was assumed that a soil-dwelling cricket would 
need this environmental condition to survive. While in its plastic container 
it made digging movements with its large mole-like front legs despite the 
absence of soil. The second specimen was released within an hour of 
capture since I did not want a repeat of the previous unfortunate incident! 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



97 



Unexpected observations 

(a) An "albino" L. punctatissima? 

One evening a female cricket was found feeding on unripe green seeds of 
nettle plants in the shrub/hedge habitat. However, I was unable to make 
an identification based on either general body colour or form. It had all 
the general external characteristics of L. punctatissima except for two 
things: first, the mottled green colour was replaced with a mottled pale- 
white coloration; and second, the base of the ovipositor was not located 
at the abdominal tip but arose from slightly beneath the abdomen. The 
result was that walking for this individual looked an awkward and clumsy 
affair with the outer lower curve of the ovipositor dragging on the surface 
on which the insect was walking. Could this be a mutant of L. 
punctatissima? Since its colour did not reflect that of its foodplant or 
general background it would appear to have been fortunate to have 
survived to adulthood since its light coloration would make it conspicuous 
to potential predators. In addition its slow and clumsy walking 
movements, due to the dragging of its ovipositor, would make it an easy 
target. It was kept in captivity from September to February of the 
following year. It fed on brambles. My one regret was that no photograph 
was taken of this oddity! 

(b) Stick-insect eggs - an unusual food source? 

M. thalassinum and R. nitidula were kept for a few days in the cage 
containing both the stick-insects and L. punctatissima (including the 
"albino'Torm) and then released. During cleaning and removal of the 
frass and stick-insect eggs the following year a curious observation was 
made. The majority of stick-insect eggs had been eaten into from one side 
and the contents removed. On noting this I searched the cage for an 
invertebrate, that may have been introduced inadvertently, which might 
have been responsible for this egg predation. In the absence of any such 
intruder I can only conclude that either M. thalassinum, R. nitidula or L. 
punctatissima, or any combination of these species, predated the eggs. 
Bellmann (1985) mentions that L. punctatissima feeds almost entirely on 
plants while M. thalassinum is entirely predaceous, feeding nocturnally on 
small insects, suggesting that this cricket is a possible candidate. Neither 
Bellmann (1985) nor Chinery (1986) mention the food source of R. 
nitidula: I did not observe this species feeding in captivity. Do any readers 
know of any cases of stick-insect egg predation by crickets or by any other 
insect species? 



98 



JUNE 1995 



(c) Unusual egg-laying behaviour 

Under captive conditions curious egg-laying behaviour was found for 
three cricket species, though this was only observed directly in one of 
these, namely P. griseoaptera. 

(i) Attempted oviposition into silicone rubber 

A female P. griseoaptera was seen walking up and down a length of 
the silicone rubber sealant (a transparent type of adhesive used for 
constructing aquariums) on the inside of the aquarium attempting to 
oviposit into the sealant! The mechanical resistance of the sealant 
would foil its efforts and, in apparent frustration, the cricket would 
repeatedly bite and attempt to pull chunks out of the sealant with its 
mandibles. The elastic sealant would make a ''pinging" sound as it 
resisted the tugging. Though this failed it would repeat this cycle of 
attempting oviposition and biting/tugging. 

(ii) Egg-laying in paper-towel (Plate 95J, Fig. 4) 

At the time of cleaning out the aquarium (used also for the stick- 
insects) a further unusual observation awaited me. 1 routinely use 
kitchen paper-towel (the highly absorbent double-thickness type) to 
line the bottom of the cage to facilitate cleaning operations since frass 
and stick-insect eggs can simply be removed with the towel. Inserted 
into the paper-towel were several eggs of which there were two 
different types. The most numerous (62 eggs counted) were oval flat- 
shaped brown eggs of about 3.6mm (length) x 1.7mm (largest width) 
X 0.2mm (thickness). The second type was smaller, best described as 
a cigar-shaped egg (19 eggs counted) of 2.8mm (length) x 0.9mm 
(largest diameter). These two egg types are illustrated in Plate 95J, 
Fig. 4. An examination of the egg-laying patterns revealed two types 
of egg-laying behaviour, and, together with the shape and size of the 
eggs, may provide a clue to the possible species which were involved 
given that the inhabitants that cohabited with the stick-insects over 
time were L. punctatissima, the "albino" L. punctatissma, M. 
thalassnium and R. nitidula. The oval flat-shaped eggs were inserted 
laterally into the paper-towel with the flat side horizontal . They were 
distributed in a circle which corresponded to the peripheral point of 
contact of the bottom qf the water-filled jar (containing the 
foodplant) with the paper-towel. The eggs appeared to have been 
laid preferentially in this location since no eggs were found outside 
this circular area. In contrast, most of the cigar-shaped eggs were laid 
away from this circular area and were inserted at random 
orientations into the paper-towel. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



99 



The eggs were not given an artificial diapause during winter 1993/94 
though the room temperatures where they were stored did fall to 
10 °C during mid-winter. The eggs did not hatch in spring 1994. 
However, a "late diapause" was given in May 1994 by placing the 
eggs in a refrigerator at 5°C for one month, though no hatching was 
subsequently observed for the rest of 1994. Squashing one of the 
cigar-shaped eggs between thumbnail and forefinger revealed a 
yellow/orange internal fluid suggesting that failure of this egg type to 
hatch was not due to desiccation under indoor incubation 
conditions. The eggs will be kept until the end of 1995 to see 
whether any hatching occurs, following a second diapause at 5°C 
during winter 1994/95. 

Other details 

The rolled oats given as a food-source was of the type commonly known 
as the brand name of "Quaker Oats". It was used in its dry uncooked 
form. The photographs were taken under natural daylight conditions 
(without flash) with a hand-held Nikon EM camera fitted with a 35-70mm 
zoom lens set at 70mm (f3.3; 1/60 to 1/125 s) at the minimum focussing 
distance (22cm approx.). A standard 100 ASA film was used. 

Request to readers 

I am particularly interested to hear from any readers who may have 
identified other Tettigoniidae or Gryllidae in south-western France (please 
indicate approximate location of find). I would welcome any comments 
concerning the "albino" L. punctatissima, unusual food sources and egg- 
laying behaviour, or indeed any other matters concerning this article. 

REFERENCES 

Anon (1994). Protection de I'environment. Arret du 22 juillet 1993 relatif a la liste des 

insectes proteges en region Ile-de-France completant la liste nationale. Insectes, 92: 9-10. 
Bellmann, H. (1985) A field guide to grasshoppers and crickets of Britain and Northern 

Europe. Collins, London 1988, 213pp. 
Chinery, M. (1993). Insectes de France et d'Europe Occidentale (translated from the Collins 

Guide to Insects of Britain and Western Europe). Les Editions Arthaud, Paris, 1993. 

320pp. 

Chopard, L. (1951. Faune de France, Volume 56 - Orthopteroides. Paul Chevalier, Paris 
(VF). 359pp. 

Fry, R. (1991). Habitat conservation for insects - a neglected green issue. Eds. R. Fry and D. 
Lonsdale. AES publication vol. 21, page 238. The Amateur Entomologists' Society, 
London, 1991, 262pp. 



100 



JUNE 1995 



MEADOWS, MOUNTAINS AND BUTTERFLIES: 
AUSTRIAN TYROL, AUGUST 1993 

by Ted Benton 

13 Priori; Street. Colchester. Essex COl 2PY. 

On 5th August 1993, I set off with my wife and two sons for our much- 
anticipated holiday in the Austrian Tyrol. Our destination was the village 
of Westendorf (Plate 95K, Fig. 5), a few kilometres to the west of the busy 
resort of Kirchberg. We had chosen Westendorf as a convenient location 
for a gentle walking holiday, and not for any entomological attractions it 
might have. Nevertheless I had managed to secrete a small selection of 
field guides and my camera into our luggage, "just in case". In fact, 
having already visited some of the well-known Alpine "hotspots" for 
butterflies, 1 was hoping this area would yield some comparable delights. 

In fact, recurring heavy rain and generally cool and overcast weather 
precluded much in the way of entomological activity over the first few 
days of the holiday. However, we did manage a few local walks, and I 
was able to do a little "botanising", and "prospecting" for likely-looking 
habitats. Westendorf is situated in the valley of the Brixentaler river, and 
is connected by a network of pleasant footpaths and cycle tracks to the 
nearby settlements of Brixen (about 3km) and Lirchberg (about 8km) to 
the east along the valley. About 6km to the west lies Hopfgarten, along 
the same valley. Around and between these settlements are fine, flower- 
rich sub-alpine meadows. To the north the ground rises to a series of 
minor peaks, the highest of which is the Hohe Salve, accessible by ski-lift 
from Hopfgarten. The valley levels are at altitudes of 750 to 800 metres, 
whilst the Hohe Salve rises to a little over 1,800 metres. To the south of 
the valley lie some more impressive mountains, the most accessible of 
which is the Brechorn, at 2,032 metres. This is a fairly easy walk from the 
top of the Alpenrose gondola lift out of Westendorf. 

Fortunately the weather did eventually clear up and we were treated to 
a prolonged spell of fine, warm weather. My first surprise, on searching 
the local meadows in perfect weather conditions, was how few butterflies 
were on the wing - such a contrast with my earlier experiences in the 
Alps. True, it was relatively late in the season, and the altitudes relatively 
low, so that many of the early summer species could well have finished 
their flight periods. Set against this as an explanation was the fact that 
even those common species that were present were in very small 
numbers. Over the course of our two weeks, repeated searches of these 
lower meadows, and the patchwork of light conifer woodland and 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



101 



meadows along the nearby Windau valley (up to Rettenbach, at 800 
metres), gradually yielded sightings of only nineteen species: 



Lijcaeides idas (Plate 95K, Fig. 6) 

Of these species only M. jurtina could be said to be common, though, 
C. hxjale was widespread in the meadows, and breeding A. leuana and A. 
paphia were found at these lower altitudes, but generally confined to 
woodland clearings and edges, where they were both found nectaring on 
the abundant blossoms of the Umbellifer, Angelica s^luesths, along with 
the familiar longhorn beetle, S. maculata, numerous Eristalis hoverflies 
and solitary bees. For me, perhaps the most significant find was a strong 
colony of L. idas along the edge of a culvert bordering hay meadows at 
Westendorf. Some of these were in fine condition, and they were flying 
together with (much smaller numbers of) P. icarus. 

Some of the meadows were pink with bistort flowers, whilst others had 
the more typical mix of common meadow plants - several species of 
plantains, hawkbits, knapweeds, thistles, clovers, cranebills, campions and 
vetches. Among the most striking plants here were the tall yellow cabbage 
thistles (Cirsium oleracium). Given this floristic richness, the paucity of the 
butterfly fauna was really puzzling. I was reminded of my searches for 
dragonflies in the arable deserts of north-west Essex during the 1980s. My 
friends and I had maintained miorale through days of fruitless searching 
by telling ourselves that recording the absence of species was just as 
scientifically important as recording their presence! In this case, however, 
there was no obvious explanation. Moreover, other insect orders, so far 
as I was competent to tell, seemed to be doing well. Most noticeably, the 
meadows teemed with Orthoptera. There were several species of 
grasshoppers, including Gomphocems rufus, the rufous grasshopper, with 
their long, clubbed antennae. But, most inescapably, the large, loud bush 
cricket, Tettigonia cantans (Plate 95K, Fig. 2). This species is very similar 
to our own T. uiridissima but it has shorter wings. 



Papilio mnachaon 
Pieris brassicae 
Pieris napi 
Pieris rapae 
Leptidea sinapis 
Gonepteryx rhamni 
Colias croceus 
Colias hyale 
Lycaena phlaeas 



Polyommatus icarus 
Aglais urticae 
Aroschnia levana 
Argynnis paphia 
Maniola jurtina 
Coenanympha pamphilus 
Lasiommata maera 
Ochlodes uenata 
Hesperia comma 



102 



JUNE 1995 



So. the puzzle deepened. I set about getting information about the 
local agricultural methods. Cattle were grazed on the higher meadows 
during the summer months, while hay was grown and cut for winter feed 
on the lower meadows in the Brixentaler valley. Many of the meadows 
were cut when we amved in the area and cutting continued throughout 
our stay. I presume two or more crops are taken from each meadow in a 
season, and apparently no artificial fertilisers are used. The level 
meadows were invariably cut mechanically, using a tractor with trailer. 
After a day or so of dry weather, the cut hay was turned over by means of 
a trailer with downward-pointing prongs on a rotating horizontal arm. 
Subsequentiy the cuttings were aligned into discrete strips along the field, 
using the same machine, presumably in a different setting. Finally, a 
ti'actor with a rear container and a vacuum device sucked up the cuttings, 
and they were ti-ansfeiTed to field barns for storage. 

My speculation was that this highly mechanised method of harvesting 
might explain the poverty of the butterfly fauna in the meadows. 
Intuitively it seems likely that the much less mobile early stages of the 
butterflies would suffer high mortality rates compared with the 
Orthoptera. which generally lay their eggs below the ground surface, and 
have much more active nymphs. It would be interesting to know if there is 
"hard"" evidence on this or whether other AES members have relevant 
experiences. 

Since my main interest was in the Erehia genus of "ringlet" bunerflies. I 
spent the majority of the time available for fieldwork at the higher 
altitudes, up 2.000 metres or so. Even here, however, the area was 
somewhat disappointing. To the north of the valley, we explored the 
areas between the top of the ski-lift above Brixen (1.240m) and 
Holzalmjoch (1.680m). and on the slopes of the Hohe Salve. In the 
former area we found a few rather worn specimens of £. liqea nectaring 
at scabious along the track through conifer woodland. On more open 
grassy slopes were many E, euryale. feeding on marsh thistles and 
scabious. Though they can be easily confused with each other (especially 
the females) these two Ereb'ia species are distinctive in having chequered 
outer margins to the wings. Also in these grassy areas were several 
Mesoacidalia aglaja (Plate 95K. Fig. 8) in fine condition. H. comma. A. 
unicoe. and C. croceus (including one female helice). Among the more 
interesting plants were globeflower [Trollius europoeus) . dark red 
helleborine [Epipactis atrorubens) . and sticky sage [Salvia glutinosa). The 
fine flowei-y meadows on the slopes of the Hohe Salve yielded the same 
butterfly species as the lower meadows, with the addition of Th\;melicus 
s\;luestris. The sti'iking bush cricket. Decticus uerruciuorus. the "wart-biter"' 
was also present. 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



103 



The higher pastures to the south of Westendorf yielded more species. 
Several routes between the top station of the Alpenrose gondola lift at 
1,766 metres and the Brechorn, at 2,032 metres were explored between 
the 10th and the 15th August. Two colonies of Erebia manto (Plate 95L, 
Fig. 9) were located at altitudes between 1,600 and 1,700 metres. They 
were quite worn, and as is usual for this species, were flying close to 
boggy ground on the mountain slopes. E. euryale (Plate 95L, Fig. 10) 
was common here, as it had been at similar altitudes to the north of 
Westendorf. Other species noted on these sorties were M. aglaja, A. 
urticae, Mellicta athalia, and Pyrgus (alueus?). The presence of 
Sphagnum moss in the wet areas, and Ericacious shrubs suggested 
predominantly acidic conditions, but a route which took us down the 
mountain to Brixen, a few kilometres to the east, cut through limestone 
outcrops, and the pastures here were noticeably richer in flowers and 
insects. Lysandra coridon was added to a meagre total of "blue" species 
here. A length of track below the Wiege Gasthof (between 1,350 and 
1,500 metres) harboured another two Erebia species - pronoe (Plate 
95L, Fig. 11) and meolans. The former species, many examples of which 
appeared to be freshly emerged, was abundant, the males imbibing salts 
and moisture from damp spots on the track. As we sat among them, they 
transferred their attention to the sweat on our skin and clothes. As we 
descended towards the Brixenbachalm Gasthof (at just over 1,000 
metres) we encountered many of the species of the lower meadows, 
including M. jurtina and L. idas. On one occasion a fine male Apatura iris 
was observed imbiding spilt beer on one of the Gasthof tables! Also in this 
area we noticed the bright red "flashes" of the red-winged grasshopper 
(Oedipoda germanica). 

A little further to the east, above Kirchberg, we were able to search 
another area of calcareous grassland, with rocky outcrops. This was much 
the most entomologically interesting site of the holiday, but, unfortunately 
I was only able to spend a couple of hours there. In open patches in light 
woodland were numerous specimens of yet another Erebia - aethiops. 
The skippers Pyrgus alueus and P. carlinae (the only sighting of this 
species on the trip), also L. sinapis, L. coridon and Cupido minimus were 
also seen. The altitude was a little below 1,500 metres. 

An interesting comparison with the area around Westendorf was 
provided by an organised coach excursion to the Grossglockner. 
Predictably enough this was quite a frustrating experience: about 20 
minutes out of the coach on the long haul up the high alpine road, and 
then a lunch stop at the dramatic view-point above the glacier. The coffee 



104 



JUNE 1995 



stop at about 1900 metres yielded H. comma. Pi^rgus (alueus?). C. 
minimus. E. manto. and the splendid "copper" Heodes uirgaureae. on 
the roadside verge. Much higher up. near the car park and the foot of the 
glacier, were many more characteristic alpine species. In the very brief 
time available I noted the Shepherd's fritillary. Boloria pales (Plate 95L. 
Fig. 12). and the "Alpine argus"" Albulina orbitulus. Interestingly, the 
specimens of £. manto which were abundant here were quite different in 
appearance from those seen lower down on the same mountain and back 
at Westendorf. The latter were referable to the nominate "manto" sub- 
species, with red post-discal bands on the uppersides and yellow spots on 
the undersides. The form flying at high altitude on the Grossglockner had 
much-reduced markings, and a vei-y dark appearance, especially in the 
males (E. manto p^rrhula) . 

Thus ended a very enjoyable, if somewhat frustrating, alpine holiday. 
For me. it was a reminder that, despite appearances, changing farming 
methods and other threats to wildlife habitat persist even in the seemingly 
inexhaustible Alps. Perhaps if we confined ourselves to the noted butterfly 
localities we might be less aware of how special they are. and so take for 
granted the continued existence of the very localised rarities. Still, there 
was plenty to keep me occupied for much longer than the two weeks 
allowed by our package holiday! 



RARE SYRPHID FOUND IN GWYNEDD, WALES 

bv M.O. Hughes (3612) 

I have been recently sorting out some of the more "difficuk" species of 
Diptera and after checking and double checking Coe and Stubbs & Falk 
have come to the following conclusion: 

Female Paras\^Tphus malinellus taken on 16th May 1992 in Bodysgallen 
Woods. Deganwy. Llandudno. Gwynedd. Wales. The area is mixed 
coniferous and deciduous woodland. This is the fist time in over thirty 
years of collecting that I have encountered this species and it may well 
prove to be a new record for the area if not for the whole of North Wales. 

REFERENCES 

Coe. R.L. (1953). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol. X. Part 1. 
Stubbs. A.E. & Falk. S.J. (1983). British Hoverflies. 



JUNE 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




Fig. 1. An unidentified bug covered in particulate debris. 
Villagrains (Gironde, France). 




Fig. 2. Leptoph\;es punctatissima eating the reproductive parts of an ornamental plant of the 
Compositae family. Villagrains (Gironde, France). 



PLATE 951 



COLOUR SECTION 



JUNE 1995 





Fig. 4. Eggs (oval flat-shaped and cigar-shaped) laid in kitchen paper lowel by two cinerer.: 
cricket species (Tettigoniidae). The cigar-shaped eggs are indicated by arrows. 
Villagi-ains (Gironde, France). 



PUKTE 95J 



JUNE 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




COLOUR SECTION 



JUNE 1995 




AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



105 



BRITISH DRAGONFLY SOCIETY NATIONAL SURVEY 

by Stuart Irons (10299) 

69 GHnton Road, Helpston, Peterborough PE6 7DG. 

The British Dragonfly Society is currently collating as much information 
as possible about British dragonflies and damselflies, with an aim to 
understanding more about the ecology and behaviour of these insects. I 
have volunteered to collate information on Aeshna grandis (Brown 
hawker) and have outlined a number of ideas which may be worth 
pursuing. 

Distribution - A. grandis is widespread and common in central and 
southern England, but it would be interesting to know whether this range 
is expanding or contracting. Any records from south-west England, 
Wales, north England and Scofland would be valuable, especially proven 
breeding sites, also any sites where breeding has not been observed 
previously, or indeed absence from former breeding sites. 

Larvae - I would be interested to know of any larvae discovered when 
pond-dipping, along with as much information as possible concerning the 
site (e.g. still or flowing water, any aquatic or emergent plants or 
waterside trees; the substrate, gravel, mud, dead leaves etc; water 
chemistry, pH, hardness, turbidity, oxygen content, etc; density of larvae, 
i.e. the number found per square metre). 

Egg-laying - The females are known to oviposit alone, often into dead 
wood in the water. Details of these egg-laying sites would be very useful 
(e.g. height above or below the water line; approximate size of wood, 
conditions of wood etc). Using this information ovipositing habitat may 
be constructed to try to attract A. grandis to new breeding sites. Occasions 
where wood is not used as an egg-laying site would be equally interesting. 

Flight times - Dates of early- and late-flying adults are always worth 
noting. A. grandis has also been recorded as frequently flying after sunset, 
so times (in relation to sunset if possible) and dates when observed on the 
wing and activity (feeding, holding territory, mating, etc.). This 
information will help to build up a picture of the habits of the adult 
dragonfly. 

These are just a few ideas of interesting lines of enquiry for A. grandis but 
I would love to hear of any other observations, theories or discoveries 
concerning this insect. Any information relating to other species of 
Odonata may also be sent to me and 1 will pass them on to the relevant 
collator. 



106 



JUNE 1995 



Book Review 

The Butterflies and Moths of Berkshire by B.R. Baker, xxxi + 368pp. 
Hedera Press, Uffington, Oxfordshire, 1994. Price £25.00. 

In his introduction Brian Baker pays tribute to William Holland and his 
collaborator Albert Hamm for their listing, in 1906, of 1260 species of 
Lepidoptera in the Victoria County History of Berkshire, until now the 
only list of the county's butterflies and moths. 

The chapter on early collectors shows vividly how those early workers 
were prepared to walk 12 miles to favourite grounds, eat their sandwiches 
whilst examining tree trunks, and take the long slog home. 

Because of his activities Holland had the distinction of having a notice 
erected by an irate landowner stating that anyone found disfiguring trees 
(sugaring) for the purpose of taking moths would be prosecuted. (Runge, 
1944, J. Amat. Ent. Soc. 8: 21.) 

There follows a chapter on the surface geology, vegetation and habits 
before the main part of the book, a list of both the Micro- and Macro- 
Lepidoptera. 

Each species has a list of recorded localities arranged chronologically, 
larvae foodplants in some cases, and relative frequency on a scale from 
very scarce to dominant. There is also an index to place names, with 
four-figure grid references, that are mentioned in the text. 

The author is to be congratulated on producing a very comprehensive 
survey of Berkshire Lepidoptera which I am sure will encourage us all to 
add new records in the future. Rob Dyke 

HELP WANTED CURING A PROBLEM WITH A CABINET 

bij Dave Norris (9175) 

91 Shanakill, Tralee, Counti; Kerr[j, Eire. 

I have noticed a small problem in one of the drawers in my cabinet. One 
of my specimens has a growth of fungus or a similar looking furry 
substance growing on its antenna. This alarms me as I do not know what 
has caused it or how to cure it. The cabinet is sealed tightly and the 
specimens have been in it for about three years. My fear is that the furry 
growth will spread to other more uncommon specimens. 

If there is anyone out there who has had a similar problem in the past 
or suspects they know what the problem might be, I would be grateful for 
some advice. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



107 



60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS SOCIETY 
Part III. 1955-64 

by Wayne Jarvis (9899) 

Membership at the beginning of 1955 was 929, where it seemed to have 
stabilised. B.R. Stallwood was editor of the Bulletin which was now in its 
14th volume. The Bulletin began to take on a slightly different look with 
longer articles, which would previously have appeared in the Society's 
Journal, beginning to be included much more. One such article, by K.C. 
Side (2140), A study of insects living on the Wayfaring tree (Viburnum 
lantana) appeared in numbers 169-174 (Volume 14 January to June). 
Many other articles appeared in subsequent issues, some of which were 
made into leaflets and sold by the Society. 

The Silkmoth Rearer's Handbook was published in 1956 and sold very 
well. The Bulletin however, began to find itself with a lack of copy, and as 
a result the October issue was reduced in size. The problem was 
encountered again in 1957 when the September issue suffered similarly. 
It was therefore decided that from Volume 17 (1958) there would be only 
eleven issues of the Bulletin per year, the August and September issues 
being combined. The exhibition of 1957 was, as had come to be 
expected, a success. There was a great interest at this time in Silkmoths 
and this was reflected in the exhibits. In 1958 membership fell alarmingly 
to 737, causing the society some concern. 

The editorial of the January 1959 Bulletin (Volume 18 Number 217) 
gave an indication that the publication was to change. The General 
Secretary, D. Ollevant, took on the Assistant Bulletin editor role as well, 
and B.F. Skinner was appointed as an Assistant General Secretary to help 
with clerical matters. The Junior newsletter which had been published for 
the previous eleven years ceased but was replaced with Junior sections in 
the Bulletin. A printing dispute caused the amalgamation of the 
August/September and October Bulletins (Volume 18 Numbers 224- 
226). Despite a necessary increase in the Society's subscriptions in 1959, 
membership levels rose slightly, to 786. 



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JUNE 1995 



W.N. Lawfield took over as Bulletin editor in 1960 (Volume 19) which 
was the Silver Jubilee of the Society. A special issue of the Bulletin in 
August (Number 236) celebrated by publishing six aracles: On the First 
25 years of the Societ\; by the Society's founder L.R. Tesch. Studying the 
commoner insects by C.B. Williams. Butterfly botany by H.K. Airy Shaw. 
Communicating amongst social insects by A.N. Brangham.. Some 
observations on taxonomy by W.H.T. Tarns and Distribution, range and 
the British fauna by R.W.J. Uffen. The exhibition held at Buckingham 
Gate Schools was a success, but n'aders were now beginning to dominate 
the event, and as a result Council decided that some changes were 
needed. Membership continued to recover slowly, with 815 paid-up 
members by the end of the year. From September 1960. the Bulletin 
consisted of twelve pages rather than eight as had been the case for many 
years. 

The 1961 exhibition venue v.-as changed to the Hugh Myddleton 
School where more space was available. The e\'ent was a much greater 
success as a result. The Bulletin also changed in 1962. under the new 
editor. P.G. Taylor. W.N. Lawfield resigned due to ill health and 
subsequently died in June. Mr Taylor gave the publication a new 
structure and new typeface. The new-look Bulletin, however, faced 
numerous problems in its production. Royal van Gorcum^ in Assen. 
Holland took over from T. Buncle and Co. Ltd. as the Bulletin printers, 
but survived for only the January issue before their services were 
dispensed with. They were replaced by a Croydon firm. Roffey and Clark 
Ltd. The Januaiy. Febmaiy and March issues were all very late in arriving 
on members' door mats due to bad weather and as a result the April and 
May issues were combined as a 16 page rather than 12 page issue, and 
the June to October issues were similarly combined to give a 28 page 
Bulletin. The December issue was the production of the third printing 
company of the year. Ellis and Phillips Ltd from Bishop s Stortford. who 
continued to publish the Bulletin for several years. 

After so many troubles, the Bulletin went to a quarterly format for 
1963. consisting of 32 pages per issue. May 1963 saw Peter Taylor edit 
his last issue and he handed over to H.V. Danks. Peter Cribb became 
President of the Society. Membership was. however, still lower than it had 
been previously, with only 790 members enrolled at the end of 1964. 

A few articles follow fi'om the decade and in particular an item from 
the 1960 Silver Jubilee Bulletin. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



109 



From Volume 15, Number 191, November 1956, Page 107. 
OVIPOSITION AFTER DEATH 

by W.J. Tilsbury (2717) 

With reference to the letter by R.H. Benson (antea p. 100) concerning 
oviposition after death of the White ermine moth {Spihsoma lubricipeda 
Linn.), on 25th July I found two imagines of S. lubricipeda "in cop.", the 
female being a fresh specimen, the male a very worn one. The female 
was stunned in the killing bottle with ethyl acetate and then killed with 
oxalic acid. (This, incidentally, is my usual method of killing when 
circumstances allow, as it dispenses with the relaxing box.) 

The moth was then laid on its back in a small tin box to await setting. 
Five hours later I opened the box to pin the specimen, and found it had 
laid fifteen eggs. I immediately checked up, but found the moth was quite 
dead, and so set it. The ova were left in the tin and hatched ten days 
later. The ethyl acetate certainly had no effect on the ova, and the oxalic 
acid may not have reached the abdomen as it was injected into the 
thorax. 

I frequently stuff the abdomens of large moths, and prefer to slit the 
underside of the abdomen in order to remove contents. This gives a good 
opportunity of studying the internal organs. On opening the abdomen of 
the fem.ale moth the ova will be found to occupy the majority of the 
space. Each egg is connected to its fellow by a thin transparent thread 
which, I presume, is the means of distributing the male sperm necessary 
to fertilise each egg. The ova are hard and semi-transparent and with the 
exception of a few small ones near the thorax wall, are full size. In 
addition, there is a dark reddish bladder-like organ in the centre of the 
mass of ova, and near the thorax wall a transparent bladder of 
membrane. I cannot explain the function of these two organs as I have no 
idea of their use or purpose, but doubtless a more experienced 
lepidopterist will be able to help. Also it may be as well to add that the 
above observations refer to Actias selene Huebn. (Indian moon moth), 
this being a large species and comparatively easy to dissect. Ova have 
been present, however, in every female moth I have opened, and, apart 
from colour, fully formed. 

Finally, the question as to why a moth can oviposit after death. My 
theory is that the purpose of life of the imago is to ensure a further 
generation and the female sexual organs appear to be capable of 
involuntary action even after death. An injection of oxalic acid in the 
thorax kills instantly and even the sensitive antennae will be incapable of 



110 



JUNE 1995 



movement. The rear of the abdomen will, however, continue to move for 
some time afterwards, and in the case of a fertile female oviposition can 
take place. 

From Volume 1 7, Number 214, October 1958, Page 59. 
CYANIRIS SEMIARGUS ROTT. IN SUSSEX 

by A.D. Barker (2379J) and G.MA. Barker (2380J) 

It may be of interest to members to know that a male Mazarine blue 
(Ci;aniris semiargus) was caught in our orchard (near Rogate, Sussex) by 
A.D. Barker (2379J) on 30th July. This specimen presumably was a 
migrant, probably an unwilling one, carried over by the recent winds. 

When it was captured we thought immediately that it was a Mazarine 
blue but almost in the same instant dismissed it as a variation of a Holly 
blue. However, examination left no room for doubt as to its real identity, 
as it conformed in every way with the descriptions of Kirby, South and E. 
Newman. 

From Volume 18, Numbers 224-226, August/ October 1959, Page 71. 
PAIRING BRIMSTONES 

by John H. Drake (2967) 

Although this event occurred quite a few years ago, the nature of it 
seemed to me so unusual that I decided an account of the incident might 
be of interest to other members. 

One day in the middle of May I was wandering through a small wood 
near my home when I saw what I thought was a Brimstone (Gonepteryx 
rhamni Linn.) butterfly settled on the ground. I crept closer to investigate 
and discovered to my surprise a pair of Brimstones sitting there in cop. 
They were not at all disturbed by my presence, the sky being overcast at 
the time. I took out a small box and closed it around the two insects and 
they walked in without fuss to be transported safely home. The weather 
continued to be dreary for several days: cold, rainy, and without sun. 

I always thought that the pairing time for most species of butterfly was 
quite short compared with that of moths, say several hours at the most, 
yet although you may not believe this, it is the absolute truth: those two 
butterflies paired continuously and immobile not for one day, not for two 
days, but for five da\;s\ On the sixth day of observation the weather 
brightened considerably and then only did the couple part. Have any 
other members records such as this? 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



111 



From Volume 19, Number 229, January) 1960, Page 3. 
CRICKETS AT LARGE 

bxj R.W.J. Uffen (1660) 

The house cricket, Gri^Uus domesticus (Linn.), is a domesticated alien 
from a warmer climate than our own, and as such lives out of doors only 
in areas such as rubbish dumps which have other sources of heat than the 
sun. Burr (British Grasshoppers and their Allies, London, 1936) remarked 
that crickets do however venture out of doors in particularly warm 
seasons. In the second week of September 1959 I found three such 
specimens. The first spent the whole of one night sitting on the top of a 
lamp standard outside my home in London stridulating. It sounded as 
though the lamp had reverted to being an old gas lantern swinging and 
creaking in a non-existent wind. Two nights later the insect reappeared 
on a fence across the road,whence it was plainly audible inside my home 
with the windows shut. After chasing it around the gate-post several times 
I succeeded in trapping it. The other two examples were heard in St. 
Helens, Lancashire. One was stridulating after dusk in a public garden, 
the other doing likewise in a deep crack between the pavement and 
garden wall of a house. 

From the Silver Jubilee issue, Volume 19, Number 236, 
August 1960, Page 66. 

COMMUNICATION AMONG SOCIAL INSECTS 

by A.N. Brangham 

Fully social insects are confined to bees, wasps and ants among the 
Hymenoptera and termites (Isoptera). According to O.W. Richards, "a 
truly social insect may be defined as one in which the female tends or 
helps to construct a brood-chamber for an egg (or larva) laid by another 
female". 

Hymenopterous social insects may have emerged from solitary Scoliid 
wasps which burrowed or built cells and supplied their eggs with food to 
last through the growing stages. At some phase in evolutionary time it 
must have happened that females of these solitary species came into 
collective association. The transition from solitariness to complete social 
integration is illustrated by the primitive social European wasps of the 
genus Polistes. 

In southern Europe a number of fertile females may come together 
(whereas in the north this is not the case) to found a nest. By virtue of 



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JUNE 1995 



those slight differences in genetic inheritance common to all living 
organisms, one female emerges from among her peers as a more robust, 
more aggi'essively constituted dominant. This superiority is shown in her 
pre-eminence as the egg-layer, spending most of her time on the carton 
nest: her ovaries remain active and well developed. Those of the others 
degenerate, and they become auxiliaries, using up energy in flying off for 
food, building, feeding the dominant queen and the brood. Yet at the 
outset they had all shared the tasks of laying, building and feeding. The 
superior aggression of one emerges gradually: she sustains her authority 
as queen by butting and buzzing at the others from time to time. She 
intimidates them to the extent of inhibiting them from laying eggs, and 
reduces them to the status of workers. 

Between themselves the auxiliaries develop a "pecking order" in which 
a senior accepts food from a subordinate. After the true workers have 
hatched, the auxiliaries leave the nest to lead a solitary existence for the 
rest of the summer. Workers are also inhibited from egg-laying by the 
presence of the queen until she leaves the nest, when the w'orkers lay 
eggs which become males. 

Here is a rudimentary type of communication, all the more so since it 
seems to be largely a psychological influence, that is. the pattern appears 
to be a function of behaviour and neither of selective feeding nor of 
glandular excretion as in higher social organisations among insects. This 
behaviour not only controls that of the other wasps, it governs the 
reproductive rate and sex-determination of offspring. 

This kind of communication is made possible by the relatively simple 
social structure and small size of a Polistes colony. 

Social complexity' increases in proportion to the numerical size of the 
community, and there arises a need to evolve a more efficient means of 
communication. This is particularly the case in insects able, through flight 
mobility, to travel considerable distances from the nest. A distinctive nest- 
aroma binds a colony together in mutual recognition, and distinguishes it 
from others of the same and other species, a primary mode of 
communication through a physiological agency. 

Ants possess the most flexible social organisms when compared with 
bees or wasps, but their methods of communication are probably less 
refined than those of the hive-bees. The ants are eanh-bound. covering 
comparatively short distances from their nest in search of food or slaves, 
or else they are entirely nomadic. They are thus able to rely on the 
methods ants use to find their way about - through laying scent ti-ails. by 
sun-compass reaction, by memory and sight, or orientation by polarised 

light. 



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113 



How these forms of orientation dovetail into the ants' ability to 
communicate information about supplies of food to their fellows is not 
really known. That they do so is obvious, and it seems likely that the 
tapping of antennae holds the key to the sign language employed. The 
speed with which a raid is organised by workers of the slave-making ant, 
Formica sanguinea Latreille, on colonies of F. fusca Linnaeus, 
demonstrates the efficiency of their co-ordination. 

The special sense in which the term communication has been used in 
connection with the special organisation of Polistes may be used to 
understand some of the complexities of termite communities. Termites 
have the most involved caste system of all social insects, in spite of their 
lowly place in the evolutionary scale. As there is no helpless grub stage all 
individuals in the colony are almost immediately available for duties. 
Unlike other social insects, males are always present in the colony and 
play a fuller part in its life. 

Changes from one caste to another occur. Whether these are brought 
about by special feeding, by ecto- or social-hormones, or by what P. -P. 
Grasse calls "group effect", is still in debate. 

The group effect hypothesis is full of interesting possibilities to account 
for the multiplicity of phenomena manifested by termites. Its application 
need not be confined to them, nor merely to the social insects. It is a 
theory which may be valid for explaining behaviour in other gregarious 
but non-social (in the sense that Richards has defined the word) insects 
such as grasshoppers and cicadas, and to all other animals showing some 
degree of sustained communal cohesion. The group effect, in all 
probability, operates to its greatest intensity among locusts in their mass 
migratory phase. 

The idea of the group effect is based on the belief that the sensory 
system of an individual is stimulated through the proximity of others of its 
kind, and plays some part in determining behaviour and physical 
development in all insects living, at some stage of their existence, in 
crowds. Precisely what visual, tactile, or olfactory principles are involved 
is not known, nor is it always easy to distinguish between physiological 
effects of proximity, but experiments by Grasse and others supply 
evidence in support of the hypothesis. Removal of a given number of 
sexual castes in termites brings about the production of the same number 
of substitutes, unless the egg-laying capacity of these substitutes is lower 
than that of the original sexual forms. In such an event, enough 
substitutes are permitted to maintain the optimal supply of eggs. Removal 
of a single soldier gives rise to one other soldier to replace it. 



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JUNE 1995 



In a now celebrated experiment, Grasse and Noirot found that if two 
fourth-stage nymphs of the same sex of Calotermes were isolated, only 
one became sexually mature after the next moult. If both were of different 
sexes, both matured after the following moult. 

Of the way in which termites pass messages little is known, although 
the antennal play and "nuptial promenade", in which the female searches 
for a suitable nesting site after swarming, closely followed by the male she 
has accepted, has been observed in many species. This, too, is a special 
aspect of communication. But the kind of communication demanded 
among hunting and foraging social insects is needed to a far smaller 
degree by termites. There is little individual initiative; most termites subsist 
on ample food supplies not eaten by other creatures, notably wood, for 
the digestion of which parasitic protozoa in the intestines are essential. 

The discoveries of K. von Frisch have revealed methods of 
communication among hive-bees that represent the most intricate way of 
passing complicated information among any of the social insects. The 
language of the "dancing bees" has been largely written about, and the 
basic findings of von Frisch are confirmed by others, so that only the 
briefest resume is necessary here. 

When a foraging bee discovers a source of food, she emits a scent from 
abdominal glands, on or around it. On returning to the hive, the bee 
performs ritual motions which have been described as a dance, either at 
the entrance to the hive or within it. Food found at a short distance from 
the hive is indicated by the round dance, while that found at distances 
greater than about 100 yards radius is communicated by a tail-wagging 
dance in the rough form of two joined loops. Distance is indicated by the 
speed with which the movement is executed, together with the number of 
times the abdomen is waggled along the straight line before she performs 
the looping movements. 

When this dance is performed outside the hive in full daylight, the bee's 
straight course points to the source of the food. But when the dance is 
carried out on a vertical comb within the darkness of the hive - as is most 
commonly the case - the straight run is executed at an angle to the sun, 
this angle corresponding to the angle at which the food lies from the sun. 
An upward run along the straight indicates that the food is to be found in 
the direction of the sun's position, and a downward run indicates the 
reverse. If the sky is totally obscured, bees do not dance. As long as there 
is some blue patch of sky, the bee's response to polarised light allows the 
direction to be indicated in relation to the actual position of the invisible 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



115 



sun. Thus, both distance and direction are indicated to the bees in the 
performer's proximity. 

The efficiency of their language is not absolute. Bees which have 
received the communication from the forager fly off in the general 
direction of the food, and only a minority of them fly unerringly to it. The 
rest will have deviated in their angle of flight, and proceed to fly in 
increasing circular sweeps, making use of their sense of smell, vision, and 
topographical memory to find the correct place. 

Slight variations in the dance pattern - dialects, as it were - have been 
detected in Asian races closely allied to the European honey-bee. 

Maternal care plays no part in the lives of grasshoppers (Acrididae), yet 
these members of the Orthoptera deserve consideration in a special 
category of social insects. The same may be said of crickets (Gryllidae) 
and bush-crickets (Tettigoniidae). Their aggregation in smaller or larger 
communities reflects more than a haphazard coming together of a 
number of insects in a favourable ecological locality, and more than a 
mere assem.blage of males and females for mating. This applies also to 
the cicadas (Cicadidae). 

The complicated song patterns of the grasshoppers are a form of 
expression and a means of communication sustained throughout adult 
life. Females have some powers of stridulation, but these are insignificant 
compared with those of their males. In the past, this fact has been 
interrupted as having purely sexual significance, but this does not account 
adequately for the whole behaviour of those Orthoptera leading some 
kind of communal existence. 

Male acridians stridulate as soon as the last moult has been completed, 
but larvae occasionally execute soundless stridulatory movements in 
response to the adults surrounding them, such is the deeply ingrained 
phylogenetic urge to stridulate. 

Stridulation is simultaneously an expression of sexual maturity, of 
social cohesion within an appropriate biotope, and of individual well- 
being. The evidence to support these contentions may be briefly 
presented. 

Provided general environmental conditions of warmth, moisture, and 
suitable herbage are available, male grasshoppers stridulate for most of 
the day-light hours (many bush-crickets and crickets perform at night), 
vigorously when these conditions are optimal, feebly when less so. The 
basic song pattern of the male is the ordinary song, a kind of generalised 
range-finder, a way of informing the world at large of his presence. This 
song is modified through a rich variety of phrasing and intensity, 



116 



JUNE 1995 



modulated through transitions to the rivalry song when males meet, or to 
the courtship song when females approach within range of sight and 
hearing. Males stridulate in varying degrees of harmony while moving 
backwards and forwards in endless ritual. A little evidence has been 
produced to suggest that young adults need to learn the specific song. If 
this can be further substantiated the importance of social solidarity is 
emphasised still more. 

Sexual selectivity is involved in stridulation, but the fact that copulation 
results less frequently than might be expected suggests strongly that 
aggression, usually associated with sexual rivalry, is displaced, or toned 
down to an amicable contest. Rudiments of sociability are implied in such 
behaviour, in which crude impulses have been deflected into 
compromise. 

Social cohesion is made necessary by virtue of the grasshopper's 
leaping or flying potential, which exceeds the range of sight and hearing. 
Without restraint, the colony is threatened with disintegration through 
scattering. The song helps to inhibit dispersal of individuals at various 
stages of development, and allows favourable biotopes to be exploited as 
feeding grounds and places for cryptic protection against predators. 

An analogy between grasshoppers and bees can be drawn. Bees 
possess the means for dispersal to great distances from the hive. They 
have evolved complex methods of communicating to the nest what has 
been found outside it. Grasshoppers, too, are able to wander from the 
centre of their mobile community, which has no constructed fixed point. 
They also require a method of communication to preserve it, though what 
has to be imparted is essentially of a defensive or conserving nature. 

It is significant that grasshoppers are unwilling to leap or fly unless 
disturbed; they try to make their way back when this happens, aided by a 
recognition of the species song, and guided by sight to a lesser extent. A 
biological balance between immobility and diffusion is maintained partly 
by the general behavioural characteristics of the species, partly by fecund 
females who show a tendency to wander in search of egg-laying sites, and 
partly by the imm.ature forms, which are much more addicted to 
spontaneous leaping than are the adults. 

REFERENCES 

von Frisch, K. (1954). The Dancing Bees. Methuen & Co.. London. 
Grasse, P.-P. (1949). Traite de Zoohgie. 9. Masson & Cie.. Paris. 
Richards, O.W. (1953). The Social Insects. Macdonald, London. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



117 



Diary Dates 

Abbreviations 



BBONT Berks, Bucks and Oxon Naturalists' Society. 

BC Butterfly Conservation. 

BEHNS British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

"I: Information from: 

LCES Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

LNU Lincolnshire Naturalists' Society. 

LSL Linnean Society of London. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 

RES(QG) RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 



To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. Any 
relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is made for 
entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 

JUNE 

from Draqonfly Mill 

8th The only dragonfly museum outside of Japan opens its doors at Ashton, 
near Oundle, Northamptonshire. Its central theme will be the 
conservation of dragonflies. Exhibition panels, information, videos and 
live larvae in tanks will be some of the many attractions. Outside there 
are observation platforms and a dragonfly trail. Open from 8th June to 
1st October on Thursdays and Fridays (M.OOhrs to IV.OOhrs) and on 
Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays (lO.SOhrs to 17.00hrs). 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 

24th The \Mest of England Creepy Crawly Show. 

Newton Abbot Racecourse, Devon. Major Herpetological and 
Entomological Show for captive breeders and conservationists in the 
West Country. 
I: 01626 332775. 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Dawlish Warren, Devon. Evening meeting for light trapping. Meet 

20.30hrs at car park. 

I: Roy McCormick 01626 779543. 



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JUNE 1995 



JULY 

1 St LCES Field Meeting. 

Little Budworth Common, Oulton, Cheshire (SJ 588655). Meet ll.OOhrs 
in car park (with toilets) near to the Lodge Corner gates of Oulton Park 
race track. 

I: Bill Hardwick 01606 594778. 

BEHNS/Dyfed Invertebrate Group Field Meeting. 

Dinefwr Deer park, Llandeilo, Dyfed. Meet at 14.00hrs and 20.00hrs at 
the car park (SN 615225). One of the most important sites in Wales for 
dead wood invertebrates, with a range of rare beetles and flies recorded. 
I: Ian Morgan 01558 882111 (am only). 

BENHS /Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Field Meeting. 

Hatfield Moors, Yorkshire. Meet at 14.00hrs and 20.00hrs. Contact 
leader for further details. 

I: Brian Eversham 01487 3381 ext. 229 (work); 01480 411376 (home). 

5th The Knapweed Gall Fix; Revisited: 

New evidence on the population dynamics of this famous insect. 

RES (QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. Dr J.P. Dempster (University 

of Cambridge). 

I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

8th BEHNS/BC Field Meeting. 

Pretsbury Hill, Gloucestershire. Meet at ll.OOhrs and 20.00 hrs at 
SO 993245 opposite Upper Hill farm buildings. Records of moths and 
other invertebrates needed to help guide management on this Butterfly 
Conservation reserve. 
I: John Brock 01242 675890. 

BEHNS/BC/LNU Field Meeting. 

Southrey Wood, Lincolnshire. Meet at 14.30hrs and 20.00hrs at TF 
132685 at the entrance off the Bardney to Horncastle road. Records of 
moths and their larvae needed in particular. 
I: Rex Johnson 01724 763349. 

11th Changes in the flora and fauna of Broadland dykes. 

BEHNS indoor meeting. Rob DriscoU from Norwich Castle Museum 
talks of his work on the Broads and how this has revealed more changes 
in both flora and fauna due to the development of more intensive 
agriculture. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, 
Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



119 



1 5th LCES Field Meeting. 

Whixall Moss, Shropshire (SJ 496365). Chance to visit this famous 
entomological site, now taken over by English Nature. Meet ll.OOhrs at 
grid reference, just over the canal swing bridge. 
I: Dave Poynton 01625 829189. 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Maidscross Hill, Suffolk. Meet at 14.30hrs and 20.00hrs at TL 725826 on 

track from road to site. 

1: David Young 01734 415520. 

m 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Castle Bottom SSSI, Eversley, Hampshire. Meet at ll.OOhrs and 
20.00hrs on the B3016 at the entrance to Redlands quarry (SU 788594). 
I: Tony Davis 01252 874346. 

16th Entomological Livestock Group Summer Livestock Fair. 

At Pattishall Parish Hall, Pattishall, Towcester. 12.00hrs to 15.00hrs. 
Admission £1 & 50p. 

I: Paul Batty 01909 550272 or Mike Bailey 01327 830853. 
21st/ Grand Moth and Butterfly Event. 

22nd Warburg Reserve, Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Moth trapping 
overnight on Friday 21st - meet at Warburg Reserve car park (SU 
720880) at 22.30hrs. Saturday meet at 10.30hrs at car park to see the 
catch from the previous night, followed by a guided walk led by the 
reserve warden to look for butterflies and day-flying moths. Joint meeting 
with BC and BBONT. 
1: Martin Harvey 01635 550380 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Richmond Park, Surrey. Meet at 14.00hrs and 20.00hrs at Pembroke 

Lodge car park (TQ 187729). 

I: Mark Parsons 0181 947 2250. 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Dungeness, Kent. Meet at 20.00hrs at the Britannia pub car park 
(TQ 187729). 

I: Sean Clancy 01797 321458. 
22nd/ Dragonfly Sanctuary Open Day. 

23rd At Ashton, near Oundle, Northamptonshire. From 10.30hrs until 
16.00hrs with a guided tour at 14.15hrs. 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 



120 



JUNE 1995 



28th Moth trapping at Thatcham, Berkshire. 

Looking for the Scarce burnished brass and others at Thatcham 
reedbeds. Meet at Thatcham Nature Discovery Centre at 20.30hrs. Joint 
BC and BBONT meeting. Please book in advance. 
I: Thatcham Discovery Centre 01635 874381. 

29th BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Dinton Pastures. Berkshire. Meet at ll.OOhrs and 20.00hrs at the 
Pelham Clinton building. A range of habitats and particularly interesting 
for coleopterists. 

I: John Muggleton 01784 464537. 
BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Shortheath Common SSSI. Oakhanger. Hampshire. Meet at ll.OOhrs 
and 20.00hrs at SU 775369. 
I: Tony Davis 01252 874346. 

29th/ Dragonfly Sanctuary Open Day. 

30th At Ashton, near Oundle. Northamptonshire. From lO.SOhrs until 
16.00hrs with a guided tour at 14.15hrs. 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 

AUGUST 

3rd/ Natural enemies of whiteflies; collection and identification. 

5th Short course at International Institute of Entomology. 
I: HE 0171 584 0067 or Fax 0171 581 1676. 

5th BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Snelsmore Common. Berkshire. Meet at 14.00hrs and 20.00hrs at the 
main car park off the B4494 (SU 463708). 

I: Brian Baker 01734 477809 or Martin Harvey 01635 550380 
(work). 

12th JCCBI Field Meeting. 

New Forest, Hampshire. Meet at ll.OOhrs and 19.30hrs at car park by 
woodland through Furzey Lodge (SU 366027). At this meeting the 
Nature Conservation Bureau plan to demonstrate an infra-red 
illumination system which allows moths to be observed without 
disturbance. 

I: Paul Waring 01733 571917. 
12th/ Dragonfly Sanctuary Open Day. 

13th At Ashton. near Oundle. Northamptonshire. From 10.30hrs until 
16.00hrs with a guided tour at 14.15hrs. 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 




AES BULLETIN S 



No. 400 




EDITORIAL 

The AES reaches it's first milestone of the year with this issue of the 
Bulletin, the 400th edition. Over the years the Bulletin has played a major 
role in the Society's history, and hopefully, will continue to do so in years 
to come. 

The AGM was once again a very enjoyable event, and thanks must go 
to Colin Hart for his organisation as well as our two speakers Richard 
Jones and Michael Majerus who gave us an amusing and fascinating 
insight into their work! It was disappointing that so few members 
attended, this will hopefully be rectified next year! 

Of course the AGM saw the departure of Brian Gardiner and Simon 
Fraser from Council. Both have contributed substantially to the Society 
and we thank them for their hard work over the years. The Secretary 
position is temporarilyheld by myself and all correspondence should be 
forwarded to me at the address on the inside front cover. 

Best wishes for the bug-hunting season! 



Wayne Jarvis 



AES 



Annual Exhibtion 

Saturday, 7th October, 1995 
at Kempston Park Racecourse 



Open ll.OOhrs to 16.30hrs. 



88 



JUNE 1995 



GREY SAND-COVERED BUG: A REQUEST FOR HELP WITH 
IDENTIFICATION 

by Michael G. Guye (10024) 

1 route du Gat Mort. ViUagrains. 33650 Cabanac et ViUagrains. France. 

Plate 951, Fig. 1, depicts a grey-coloured insect, resembling a bug, which 
is occasionally found here during the summer months. It is approximately 
one centimetre long and its body (including legs and antennae) is covered 
with very fine sand grains and other minute particles of debris. Some of 
these particles appear to rub off if the insect gets wet. It moves in short 
rapid bursts of one to two centimetres in length and is found amongst the 
roofing tiles (old Roman tiles made of baked clay) of a dilapidated barn 
which adjoins our house. 

The "roof habitat", where the above is found, heats up considerably in 
summer. It contains an abundance of humus and unrotted material, 
composed mainly of oak leaf litter, twigs and acorns, due to the presence 
of nearby pedunculate oak trees. During the wetter periods of the year 
this humus supports a "lawn'" of short green vegetation, though it dries up 
completely in summer. Other invertebrates in this habitat include an 
abundance of woodlice (two species), springtails, centipedes, and a small 
snail species with a cone-shaped shell. The common wall lizard (Podarcis 
muralis) and the western whip snake {Coluber vihdiflavus) also frequent 
this habitat. 

Jones (1983) illustrates the harvestman, Anelasmocephalus cambhdgei 
(Arachnida: Opiliones: Trogulidae), which has a similar habit of covering 
its body with particulate matter. I assume that the function of this 
behaviour is either to provide camouflage against predators and or to 
conceal itself more efficiently from potential prey. The latter interpretation 
assumes that my find may be a type of assassin bug (Heteroptera: 
Reduviidae). I look forward to hearing from any readers who may be able 
to identify this insect. Any additional details would also be greatly 
appreciated. 

REFERENCE 

Jones. D. (1983). Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe, Country Life Books. Hamlyn, 
Middlesex. England 1994. 320pp. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



121 



19th LCES Field Meeting. 

Brown Moss, Shropshire. Meet ll.OOhrs at the car park (SJ 562398). 
I: Carl Clee 0151 356 1050 (home) 0151 207 0001 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Decoy Heath SSSI, and Silchester Common SSSI, Berkshire. Meet at 
ll.OOhrs and 20.00hrs at SU 614635 at Decoy Heath and at 14.00hrs at 
SU 626622 at Silchester Common. 
I: Stephen Miles 01784 252274 
or Martin Harvey 01635 550380 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Mission MOD Training Area, Nottinghamshire. Meet at 14.30hrs and 
19.30hrs at access point (SK 701972). Limited moth trapping indicates a 
rich moth fauna. 

I: Sheila Wright 01602 281333. 
19th/ Dragonfly Sanctuary Open Day. 

20th At Ashton, near Oundle, Northamptonshire. From 10.30hrs until 
16.00hrs with a guided tour at 14.15hrs. 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 

26th BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Wandsworth Common, London. Meet at 14.30hrs and 19.30hrs at car 
park at Wandsworth Common Nature Study Centre. Please contact 
leader in advance. 
I: Colin Plant 01279 507697. 



SEPTEMBER 

2nd BEHNS Field Meeting 

Snettisham RSPB Reserve, Norfolk. Meet at 12.00hrs and IS.OOhrs at 

car park (TF 647335). 

I: Ken Saul 01493 369021. 

9th BEHNS Field Meeting 

Dungeness, Kent. Meet at IS.OOhrs at Britannia pub car park (TR 
092168). 

I: Sean Clancy 01797 321458. 

13th Some contributions towards a Red Data list of Lepidoptera and 
other invertebrates in the London area. 

Joint BEHNS and LSL meeting. Colin Plant, well known for his detailed 
reviews mapping the distribution of invertebrates in the London area 



122 



JUNE 1995 



threatened. At Linnean Society's rooms, Burlington House, Piccadilly 
from IS.OOhrs. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, 
Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

14th/ Forests and Insects. 

15th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London to be held at 
the Natural History Museum, London. 

To Register or for I: Mr G.G. Bentley at RES 0171 584 8361. 

1 6th LCES Field Meeting. 

Cil-Y-Groeslwyd, Clwyd. Daytime meeting in conjunction with the Clwyd 
Entomological Society. Meet at grid reference (SJ 126553) at ILOOhrs. 
I: Rob Whitehead 01824 704507. 

Leafhopper Workshop. 

BEHNS Workshop at Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst 
Reading. (SU 784718). Starting at lO.SOhrs. Please book places prior to 
event. 

To book or for I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, 
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

BEHNS Field Meeting and Genitalia Workshop. 

Natural History Museum Gardens, London. Day to be split between 
insect survey and tuition in the preparation and drawing of the genitalia 
of Lepidoptera. Contact leader in advance please. 
I: Malcolm Scoble 0171 9389200. 

1 7th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Review of the 1995 season. At Liverpool Museum , 19.00hrs. 

1 9th LCES Field Meeting 

Talk to be held at Liverpool Museum 19.00hrs - subject and speaker to 
be finalised. 

I: Ken Saul 01493 369021. 
OCTOBER 

7th AES Annual Exhibition. 

Kempton Park Racecourse. Doors open ll.OOhrs until IG.OOhrs. 
I: Roy McCormick, 

36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8WR. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



121 



1 9th LCES Field Meeting. 

Brown Moss, Shropshire. Meet ll.OOhrs at the car park (SJ 562398). 
I: Carl Clee 0151 356 1050 (home) 0151 207 0001 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Decoy Heath SSSI, and Silchester Common SSSI, Berkshire. Meet at 
ll.OOhrs and 20.00hrs at SU 614635 at Decoy Heath and at M.OOhrs at 
SU 626622 at Silchester Common. 
I: Stephen Miles 01784 252274 
or Martin Harvey 01635 550380 (work). 

BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Mission MOD Training Area, Nottinghamshire. Meet at 14.30hrs and 
19.30hrs at access point (SK 701972). Limited moth trapping indicates a 
rich moth fauna. 

I: Sheila Wright 01602 281333. 
19th/ Dragonflx; Sanctuary Open Day. 

20th At Ashton, near Oundle, Northamptonshire. From 10.30hrs until 
16.00hrs with a guided tour at 14.15hrs. 
I: British Dragonfly Society. 

26th BEHNS Field Meeting. 

Wandsworth Common, London. Meet at 14.30hrs and 19.30hrs at car 
park at Wandsworth Common Nature Study Centre. Please contact 
leader in advance. 
I: Colin Plant 01279 507697. 



SEPTEMBER 

2nd BEHNS Field Meeting 

Snettisham RSPB Reserve, Norfolk. Meet at 12.00hrs and IS.OOhrs at 

car park (TF 647335). 

I: Ken Saul 01493 369021. 

9th BEHNS Field Meeting 

Dungeness, Kent. Meet at IS.OOhrs at Britannia pub car park (TR 
092168). 

I: Sean Clancy 01797 321458. 

13th Some contributions towards a Red Data list of Lepidoptera and 
other invertebrates in the London area. 

Joint BEHNS and LSL meeting. Colin Plant, well known for his detailed 
reviews mapping the distribution of invertebrates in the London area 



122 



JUNE 1995 



threatened. At Linnean Sociea-'s rooms. Burlington House. Piccadilly 
from IS.OOhrs. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, 
Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

14th Forests and Insects. 

15th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Societi,' of London to be held at 
the Natural Histori,' Museum. London. 

To Register or for I: Mr G.G. Bentley at RES 0171 584 8361. 

16th LCES Field Meeting. 

CilA'-Groeslwyd. Cluyd. Daytime meeting in conjunction with the Clwyd 
Entomological Society-. Meet at grid reference (SJ 126553) at ILOOhrs. 
I: Rob Whitehead 01824 704507. 

Leafhopper Workshop. 

BEHNS Workshop at Dinton Pastures Country- Park. Davis Street. Hurst 
Reading. (SU 784718). Staning at lO.SOhrs. Please book places prior to 
event. 

To book or for L Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, 
Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

BEHNS Field Meeting and Genitalia Workshop. 

Natural History Museum Gardens. London. Day to be split between 
insect sun^'ey and tuition in the preparation and drawing of the genitalia 
of Lepidoptera. Contact leader in advance please. 
I: Malcolm Scoble 0171 9389200. 

17th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Review of the 1995 season. At Liveipool Museum . 19.00hrs. 

19th LCES Field Meeting 

Talk to be held at Lii'eipool Museum 19.00hrs - subject and speaker to 
be finalised. 

I: Ken Saul 01493 369021. 
OCTOBER 

7th AES Annual Exhibition. 

Kempton Park Racecourse. Doors open ll.OOhrs until 16.00hrs. 
I: Roy McCormick, 

36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth. Devon TQ14 8WR. 



BEE 
RESEARCH 
ASSOCIATION 

18 NORTH ROAD 
CARDIFF 
CFl 3DY 

For Scientific and Technical 
information on Bees (Apoidea) 
especially Honeybees (ApisSP). 



Please write to the above address for 
details of publications and membership. 
A specimen copy of "Bee World" is 
obtainable for 50p. 



MICROSCOPES 



Specialist suppliers of stereo 
microscopes and compound 
microscopes for Entomology 
studies. 

All instruments suitable for 
photography and drawing 
attachments. 

Large stocks of used 
laboratory instruments. 



Books, slides, stains, equip 
ment - the complete service. 

30 page illustrated catalogue 
(stamp appreciated). 



Telephone helpline for 

enquiries and viewing 

appointments 

01272 591551 

open until 10pm daily. 



BRUNEL MICROSCOPES LTD 

Dept. AES, 113 Henbury Road 
Bristol BS10 7AA 





Everything changes. . . 
. . .except his jumper 

Since this photo was taken, 
back in 1969, a lot has 
changed in the printing trade. 
Cravitz Printing has changed 
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So isn't it time Norm bought a 
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Tel: 01 277 22461 0 Fax: 01 277 26281 5 




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Full page £60.00 

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Apply to R. Dyke 
26 Ridings Avenue, Winchmore Hill, 
London N21 2EL. 



SUMMER EI¥TOMOLOGICAL 
FAIR 



16 th JIL¥ 1995 



PATTISHALL llLLAttE HALL. PATTISHALL. 
\i .TOn€ESTER. \ORTILA>IPTO\SHIRE 

* MAIN LIVESTOCK DEALERS ATTENDING * 
*BUTTERFLY/MOTH LI\T:ST0CK & SPECIMENS * 

* INSECTS, SPIDERS, NETS & EQUIPMENT * 

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* OPE\ 12.00 - .^.OOpin * 
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Tel: 01909 330272 (Paul Bally) 




PATTISHALL 
VENUE 



I TOWCESTER 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION, 1995 

Saturday, 7th October 

11 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

KEMPTON PARK RACECOURSE, 
STAINES ROAD, SUNBURY, MIDDX. 

MAPS on the reverse of the leaflet show the location of the hall. 
ACCESSIBILITY: The Racecourse is easy to reach by road and rail, and 
there is adequate free car parking. The M25 is very near and is linked 
to Kempton Park by the M3, which is less than a mile away. Sunbury 
Railway Station with trains from Waterloo, is a short walk away. The 
site is served by two bus routes. Green Line No. 290, and Red bus No. 
216. Both these buses stop right outside. 

ADMISSION: by Programme at the door, 50p. In addition, sticky 
badges will be issued. These are to be worn while at the show. 
PARKING: in the free car parks only. NOT outside the Grandstand. 
Keep all entrances clear. 

EXHIBITORS AND DEALERS ONLY will be admitted between 8 am 
and 11 am. 

TROLLEYS are not provided and provision should be made for heavy 
loads. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL DEALERS are attending. 

REFRESHMENTS: Full facilities are available. All food and drink to be 
consumed in the Refreshment Area. 

SURPLUS MATERIAL: will be welcome for sale on behalf of the 
Society's funds. 

ANSORGE BEQUEST: Cash prizes and certificates to Junior Members 
for exhibits at the Exhibition. 

LIVESTOCK: It is the duty of both dealers and buyers to ensure that all 
livestock is kept in containers which are roomy, hygienic and secure 
against any possible escape. 

EXHIBITS which show long series of wild-caught, rare or endangered 
species will not be allowed. 

ALL ENQUIRIES: Roy McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR 



CONTENTS 

M.G. Guye. Grey sand-covered bug: A request for help with identification 88 

M.G. Guye. Some cricket species found in south-western France: Observations 

under field and captive conditions '. 89 

£. Benton. Meadows, Mountains and Butterflies: Austrian Tyrol, August 1993 100 

M/.J. Jarvis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. Part ill. 1955-64 107 

Short Communications 

M.O. Hughes. Rare Syrphid found in Gwynedd, Wales 104 

S. Irons. British Dragonfly Society National Survey 105 

D. N orris. Help wanted curing a problem with a cabinet 106 

Editorial 87 

Book Review 

The Butterfleis and Moths of Berkshire 106 

Diary Dates 117 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal are solely those 
of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or informa- 
tion, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held 
responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 20th June 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close. Orpington. Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd.. 1 Tower Hill. Brentwood. Essex CM14 4TA. 



The Bulletin of the 
Amateur 
Entomologists' 



2S oer „ 
Society j PREserv I 

i ENTQMOIQC;^ j: 

dl Jiiiilljilee Edition 



Volume 54, No. 401, August. 1995 



'mm 




ISSN 
0266-836X 



EDITOR 
WAYNE JARVIS BSc. 



The Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Founded in 1935 



President: 
Secretarx;: 

Treasurer: 
Registrar: 
Bulletin Editor: 
General Editor: 

Advertising Secretarx;: 
Exhibition Secretary;: 
Youth Secretarv: 
ICN Editor: 
Wants & Exchange: 

Habitat Conservation Officer: 



Rob Dyke 

26 Ridings Avenue. Winchmore Hill. London N21 2EL. 
Wayne Jarvis 

9a Brook Street. Luton. Bedfordshire LU3 IDS. 
e-mail: jar\.'isw(a bbsrc.ac.uk. Tel: (01582) 485820. 

Andrew Locke 

150 Sheen Road. Richmond. Surrey TW9 lUU. 
Mark Colvin 

5 Oakfield. Plaistovw Billingshurst. West Sussex RH14 OQD. 
Wayne Jarvis 

9a Brook Street. Luton. Bedfordshire LU3 IDS. 
Mike Bonsall 

Centre for Population Biology. Imperial College at Silwood 
Park. Ascot. Berkshire SL5 7PY. e-mail: mbonsall(a ic.ac.uk. 

Rob Dyke 

26 Ridings Avenue. Winchmore Hill. London N21 2EL. 
Roy McCormick 

36 Paradise Road. Teignrnouth. Devon TQ14 8WR. 
Darren Mann 

c o The Registrar, address as above. 
David Lonsdale 

33 King's Road. Alton. Hampshire GU34 IPX. 
Owen Lewis 

School of Biological Sciences. University of Birmingham. 
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT. 
e-mail: o.t.lewis(a bham.ac.uk. 

Martin Harvey 

10 Kiln Ride. Upper Basildon. Berkshire RG8 8TA. 



Subscriptions: First subscription (including entrance fee) £11. or £8 under 
18. Renewals £9 or £6 under 18. Overseas members £12. 
Subcription due on the 1st January each year. 

Advertising Rate: The following charges apply to adverts in the body of the 
Bulletin. Full page £60. Half page £40. Quarter page £25. 
Insert charges available on request to Advertising Secretary, 
address as above. 

Cover illustration by Phil Wilkins 



Worldwide Butterflies 

Sherborne, Dorset dt9 4qn. tgi 01935 74608 Fax 01935 29937 



Colour Catalogue 1995/6 

A wide range of butterfly and moth 
livestock, colour illustrations on every 
page. Books, entomological 
equipment and specimens. 



Superb ENTOMOLOGICAL 
CABINETS. Over 30 items. 
List on request. 




Cover Illustration by Sally Goodden 
BA (Hons). Illustrator 

CATALOGUES OF SPECIMENS FOR 
ENTOMOLOGICAL STUDY 

We will be pleased to send 
any of the following. 
50p in stamps would be appreciated. 
Please mention The AES. 

1. The Allcard Collection 

8000 superb European butterflies. Very 
important collection in exceptionally fine 
condition. Fine mahogany Hill Cabinets. 

2. British Butterfly Aberrations. Colour 
catalogue of rarities and licenced 
protected species from old collections. 

3. British Moths. 

4. A Hundred and One Exotic Butterflies 

in colour. 

5. Exotic Set and Papered Specimens 

Illustrated in colour. 





Cabinet Drawers and Antique Books 



? : r : : ; There h^i oiuseives 1:7 : 7. 

Tnis 15 no: :r ^ : ? ~: 3 I esfer drs?~-- :: " 'n ?-i—:.z' 

entomolo^sts ~ r : : : . : ? the dire i" : r - ; - : : : : : : : ^ i ? 

your larvae anc 7 policies. 

For subseqi-c : f : : : :: - r: the undermeniioned items please : 

local pdice ster : . : - - :: ^ t: :: Pesding Police (017S- 

Details of draaers of Lepidoptera and Antiquarian Books 
stolen betueen 29th July and 3rd July 1995. 



Type 






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Author 

D:sT3ni. W.l_ 
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Bsrreti. C.G. 

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: JAV. 
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Markings 



Title 

Compleiie Boofc of Brifish 

BuMerfBes 1934 
INaiinal H^lcxy &iii^ Butleiffi^ 

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and Modis 8 of the 9 vob 
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AES BULLETIN 



%9 S^-^^" 



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No. 401 

the1\!ati^l 

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Editorial 

The AES reaches its 60th Anniversary this month, and I am sure that the six 
original members of the Society, in 1935, never thought that it would grow 
and flourish as it has. Over the years many people have given their free time 
to the Society, all having played their part in the Society's history. I feel that it 
would be wrong to name people individually, as I would most probably leave 
some names out. The Society has provided its members with publications, 
the Bulletin, field meetings, and of course the exhibition. All have been 
successful and will hopefully continue to be so in the future. 

The Annual Exhibition takes place at Kempton Park racecourse this year 
on Saturday 7th October. Doors open at 11am and entrance is only 50p. 
Further details can be obtained from the advert in this Bulletin. At the 
exhibition, there will be a Special General Meeting to propose some 
amendments in the Society's constitution, relating to conservation issues. The 
time for this meeting still has to be finalised, but can be obtained by ringing 
me nearer the event or by looking for the notices at the exhibition. 

Wayne Jarvis 



124 



AUGUST 1995 



MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES OF THE FRENCH PYRENEES, 
22nd -31st JULY 1994 

by Paul Waring (4220) and Rachael Thomas 

From 22nd to 31st July 1994 we were fortunate enough to have the use 
of a farmhouse, or gite, in the foothills of the French Pyrenees, from 
which we operated a Robinson pattern light trap most nights, recording 
over 150 species of larger moths. "Wine ropes" (Goater 1986, Waring 
1995) were also used with success in the woodland around the gite and 
at campsites on the return journey from the gite to the Channel ferry. We 
also made several trips from the gite further into the mountains, recording 
the moths and butterflies seen along the way. This article reports the list 
of species recorded and the more memorable events and observations 
which took place. A major aim was to encounter some of the Crimson 
underwing moths (Catocalinae) and in this we were successful. 

The habitat around the gite 

Our gite was situated among a small cluster of similar buildings at Les 
Aberes (42°57'16"N, 1°16'11"E, altitude 760 metres) just above the 
village of Rivierenert, near St. Girons in the Department of Ariege. The 
buildings of Les Aberes were all formerly occupied by members of an 
agricultural community who farmed the surrounding hillsides. Some of 
the buildings are still in use for this purpose and our neighbour was a 
cheese maker of local renown who continues to tend a small herd of 
cattle on hillside meadows by the gite. Some of the other buildings are 
second homes of French families or are let as holiday cottages. 
Immediately around the buildings were several vegetable gardens with 
potatoes, french beans, beetroot and various Brassicas, others were 
overgrown with wild plants. There were scattered pear trees P\;rus and 
the boundary hedges contained hazel Corxjius auellana, blackthorn 
Prunus spinosa, alder Alnus glutinosa, elder Sambucus nigra, ash 
Fraxinus excelsior, medlar Mespilus germanica. goat willow Salix 
capraea, common hawthorn Crataegus monog\;na, broom Cxjtisus 
scoparius, gorse Ulex sp., holly Ilex aquifolium, bramble Rubus fruticosus 
and ivy Hedera helix. 

The open grassy meadows by the gardens and down the slopes from 
the houses were herb-rich. Some of the herbs they contained were dark 
mullein Verbascum nigrum, scabiouses Knoutia Scabiosa spp.. plantains 
Plantago spp., buttercups Ranunculus sp., stinging nettles Urtica dioica. 
docks Rumex spp., angelica Angelica sxjuestris. fen bedstraw Galium 
uliginosum, mallow Malua syjiuestris, musk mallow Malva moschata. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



125 



wood sage Teucrium scorodonia, yarrow Achillea millefolium, red clover 
Trifolium pratense, imperforate St. John's-wort Hypericum maculatum, 
hemp agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum, bird's-foot trefoil Lotus 
corniculatus, mignonette Reseda lutea, vetches including Vicia cracca, 
basil Clinopodium uulgare, dandelion Taraxacum agg., pale toadflax 
Linaria repens, starry saxifrage Saxifraga stellaris and a wild barley 
Hordeum sp. 

The major part of the surrounding hillsides were covered in woodland 
extending down to Rivierenert. Trees, shrubs and the woody perenials 
noted included oaks Quercus spp., ash, hazel, false acacia Robina 
pseudacacia, Norway spruce Picea abies, sweet chestnut Castanea satiua, 
elders S. nigra and S. racemosa, silver birch Betula pendula, aspen 
Populus tremula, alder, beech Fagus s\;lvatica, dewberry Rubus caesius, 
alder buckthorn Frangula alnus, sallows Salix spp., holly, blackthorn, 
gean Prunus avium, ling heather Calluna vulgaris and traveller's joy 
Clematis vitalba. The non-woody climbing black bryony Tamus 
communis was also common. 

The moths at the gite 

The light trap was operated in the garden of our gite overlooking the 
woodland (Plate 95M, Fig. 1). It was operated from before dusk until after 
dawn on eight nights (22nd to 27th, 29th and 30th July) and produced 
the accompanying list of moths. The majority of species turned up on 
several nights and as several individuals per night. The list is divided into 
two parts - those species which are also resident in Britain and those 
which have only been recorded as migrants or which are unknown to the 
British Isles. Of the 155 species of moths we recorded at this site, 132 
species (85%) are resident in Great Britain. 

Of particular interest to the visitor from Britain are such British rarities 
as the Olive crescent Trisateles emortualis, several of which turned up 
most nights, the Clay fan-foot Paracolax derivalis and the Lace border 
Scopula ornata, which was frequent. There was a good selection of 
species which we associate with the larger semi-natural broad-leaved 
woodlands of Britain, such as the Festoon Apoda limacodes, Cloaked 
carpet Euph{;ia biangulata and August thorn Ennomos quercinaria and it 
was interesting to see the Gold spangle Autographa bractea, which is a 
species of northern Britain and evidently equally at home at the altitudes 
provided by the foothills of the Pyrenees. The Four-spotted footman 
Lithosia quadra was frequent, with as many as half a dozen in the trap 
per night. On several occasions mating pairs of this large, sexually 
dimorphic species were found in the trap in the morning. 



126 



AUGUST 1995 



Of the species not resident in Britain, some are on the British list as 
migrants, ranging from annual visitors such as the Silver Y Autographa 
gamma (practically a resident, could well breed continuously in some 
places) and Hummingbird hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum to 
rarities which once bred here like the Black V moth Arctornis l-nigrum 
and rare vagrants such as the Latin Callopistria juuentina. 

Only Odonestis pruni (Plate 95M, Fig. 2), Paida murina, Ephesia 
fulminea and Deltotes candidula appear never to have been recorded in 
Britain. P. murina is a southern European species, where it is widespread, 
D. candidula appears to be more widespread but somewhat local. O. 
pruni has been recorded widely in central and southern Europe but is 
reported to be rare in numbers. Five were seen at Les Aberes. all in the 
light trap, the first on 24th July, two more on 25th July and two on 27th 
July. The larvae are reported to feed on various species of Prunus, and 
the foliage of other trees including oak, birch, alder and elm Ulmus spp. 

Light trapping and wine-roping for Crimson underwings 

The light trapping got off to an exciting start with the discovery on the first 
morning of a single Ephesia fulminea in perfect condition in the trap. This 
moth is closely related to the Crimson underwings but has yellow and 
black hindwings instead of red and black. Reichholf-Riehm (1991) reports 
that the species is declining or has been lost from some parts of Europe so 
it was pleasing to record it here. However, this individual proved to be 
the only one we saw during our visit. The larva is recorded to feed on 
Prunus spp. and Kirby (1903) specifies that old bushes are favoured. As 
there were Prunus species around the gite, perhaps the moth is breeding 
here. 

We were greatly encouraged to see the above member of the 
Catocalinae so soon during our visit and hoped for others because the 
last week in July and early part of August is a good time to encounter this 
group. This was the main reason for using wine-ropes as extensively as 
we did. It is widely known that the Crimson underwings are more likely to 
come to food bait than to light traps - particularly in the early part of the 
flight season. The traditional method of bating for the group is "sugaring" 
which involves painting a potion based on black treacle in strips on ti-ee 
trunks, fence posts and other objects and which can be quite successful. 
The method works best if the same trees are "sugared" night after night 
on a regular beat. It becomes quite expensive if one wants to "sugar" in a 
different place each night and one can find oneself getting through 
several tins of black treacle in a week. "Wine-roping" is a technique 
introduced to Britain from Sweden (Goater 1986) and involves soaking 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



127 



cotton string or washing line in a saturated solution of white granulated 
sugar in cheap red wine and hanging up convenient one metre lengths on 
bushes and the lower branches of trees (Plate 95M, Fig. 3). The "wine- 
ropes" are stored in a tub of the solution when not in use and can be 
used over and over again. We used ten such ropes and a single eight 
franc (90p) bottle of red wine for the week. 

The first night (23rd July) we put the wine-ropes on bushes along the 
farm track by the gite and attracted a few moths but no Catocala spp. The 
moths comprised several White specks M\;thimna unipuncta, two Buff 
arches Habrosijne pi^ritoides, one Copper underwing Amphipijra 
p\;rannidea, one Common lutestring Ochropacha duplaris and one Dark 
arches Apamea monoglypha. The temperature was 16 °C. The second 
night (24th July) we repeated the operation along a forestry track (Route 
Forestiere des Embalisses) through the oak-dominated woodland lower 
down the hill side, just above Rivierenert. We hung the ropes on the low 
branches of oaks, beeches, birches and sallows along the track. The 
temperature was 20 °C, the air was dead calm. Most of the moths arrived 
between dusk (21.45 hrs) and one hour later. Moths on this second night 
included an Old lady Mormo mama at 22.20 hrs (Plate 95M, Fig. 4) but 
no Catocala spp. The other moths were much as on previous nights 
including several M. unipuncta and A. pyramidea, singletons of all the 
other species seen on the previous night and one Dun-bar Cosmia 
trapezina. We took the ropes away at 23.30 hrs by which time the 
temperature was 19 °C. The third night we set some wine-ropes up in a 
small copse of oaks before moving on to dine at a restaurant in Foix. We 
returned to inspect the wine-ropes after our meal and found an Old lady 
moth feeding along with other smaller moths and a large Catocala. 
Unfortunately we fumbled our attempt to box the latter for identification 
and it flitted off into the darkness, not to be seen again, in spite of our 
waiting around for half an hour afterwards. At least this result proved that 
Catocala moths were on the wing. 

On the morning of 28th July there was great excitement because a 
Crimson underwing was seen in the light trap at the gite as we 
approached to inspect the catch. The morning was mild and some of the 
moths were skittish, so the trap was brought indoors for emptying. We 
opened up the trap to find not one but three Crimson underwings. These 
all proved to be the Light crimson underwing C. promissa, despite some 
individual variation in markings. Spurred on by this result we returned to 
the forest track baited on 24th July. This time four Catocala moths came 
to the wine-ropes and again all proved to be C. promissa (Plate 95N, Fig. 
i 5). The first of these arrived at 22.15 hrs, which was just after it was 
properly dark, and the last arrived nearly an hour later. 



128 



AUGUST 1995 



Light trapping at Les Esquirottes 

On 30th July we recorded Crimson underwings at Les Esquirottes 
(42°55'N 0°57'30"E, altitude approximately 1000 metres). We visited this 
site with Terry HoUingsworth, who is currently based at Toulouse and 
runs light traps in the area. On this occasion we set up a 125W mercury 
vapour light on a tripod over a sheet on a forest track running through 
oak scrub and regenerating woodland (Plate 95N, Fig. 6). We chose a 
spot near mature oak trees and noted that there were more than one 
species of oak present, finding several Quercus pubescens along the track. 
There were also lots of herbs and forbs among the scrubby trees and 
bushes that covered most of the area in view but, because we arrived 
near dusk, left in the middle of the night and were fully occupied 
recording moths, it was not possible to make a plant list for the site. 

The first Catocala arrived soon after dusk and the last we saw was at 
23.30 hrs, just before we packed up at midnight. We actually saw this one 
arrive from out of the darkness and settle on a wine-rope, completely 
undistracted by the torch beam we used to view it. It is of interest to 
report that the nearest of the "wine-ropes" was only 25 metres from the 
mercury vapour light over a sheet and the furthest wine-rope was only 50 
metres away. The Crimson underwings came to both of these wine-ropes 
but none came to the light over the sheet, even though it was operated 
continuously, in view of the wine-ropes throughout the session. 

Other moths we were particularly pleased to see at Les Esquirottes 
included the Dark bordered beauty Epione paralellaria and Netted carpet 
Eustroma reticulata, the pyrale Uresiphita polxjgonalis, and the very large 
grey geometrid Gnophos fuluata. 

Other records from the St. Girons area 

The Great banded grayling Brintesia circe was seen frequently along the 
track to the gite at Les Aberes. The Piedmont ringlet Erebia meolans. 
Wood white Leptidea sinapis, Provengal short-tailed blue Eueres alcetus 
and the Holly blue Celastrina argiolus were also recorded here. 
Hummingbird hawk-moths Macroglossum stellatarum were seen every 
day visiting flowers around the entrance of the gite. While walking on the 
bracken-covered {Pteridium aquilinum) ridge above the gite, we saw a 
very worn Queen of Spain fritillary Arg\;ninis lathonia. Along the forest 
track between the ridge and the gite we saw male Oak eggar moths 
Lasiocampa quercus frantically searching for females in the sunshine. 
Driving down from the gite we encountered a group of butterflies feeding 
at the flowers of a large white umbel by a roadside ditch just before we 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



129 



reached Rivierenert. These included a Map butterfly Amschnia leuana, a 
Scarce swallowtail Iphiclides podalirius and several Small copper Lycaena 
phlaeas. 

On the way from the gite to Les Esquirottes with Terry Hollingsworth 
we stopped to inspect a small bridge, really only a culvert, where the road 
crossed a stream (Plate 95N, Fig. 7). A contact of Terry's had reported a 
"roost of Catocala moths" which he had found while searching the culvert 
for bats. We climbed down from the road and waded under the low 
culvert, crouching over the water to do so. There, crammed into crevices 
in the masonry, we found a communal roost of Old lady moths Mormo 
maura (Plate 95N, Fig. 8), as we suspected and as one sometimes finds 
along canals and in tunnels in Britain. 

(to be continued) 

ROESEL S BUSH-CRICKET IN SURREY 

by C. Martin (7962) 

While taking a walk around Hedgecourt Lake (Grid ref: 51/354405) on 
19th August 1994 I heard a loud and penetrating cricket song. There at 
the edge of a wheatfield I found a male Metrioptera roeselii F. diluta. I 
have not found any Roesel's bush crickets there before, although I often 
take this walk. As I had my camera I managed to take a photograph as 
illustrated in figure 1 . 




Fig. 1. Roesel's bush cricket, Metrioptera roeselii. 



130 



AUGUST 1995 



OBSERVING BUTTERFLIES IN AUSTRIA, JULY 1994 

by Toni; Steele (4106) 

97 Benares Road. Plumstead. London SEIS I Hi'. 

This is an account of the butterflies observed in Austria, with a short 
excursion into Germany, over a two week period. Base was in the 
lakeside resort of Zell am See. in the province of Salzburg. This busy little 
lakeside town, backed by the impressive 1965-metre high Schmittenhohe 
mountain, is ideally situated with regular train and bus services, and 
several cable-ways, thereby giving access to some very good butterfly 
habitats. One point to note is that the conservation laws in Austria are 
very strict, and nearly all species (except some pierids) are strongly 
protected. I applied to the government for a permit to use a net for 
recording purposes, but was refused. I have omitted the common species 
to be found in Britain. 

Mittelstation to Zell am See 

This walk started at an altitude of 1362 metres, and passed through 
several habitat types including coniferous woodland and alpine meadow. 
First species encountered was the Scarce copper (Lxjcaena virgaureae) 
which was very abundant, five seen on a flower head of Alpine ragwort 
{Senecio alpinus), and amongst them was a single Blue-spot hairstreak 
{Str\;monidia spini). At this altitude were several specimens of the 
mountain form of the Green-veined white (Piehs napi brijoniae). Despite 
the sunny and hot weather, there was a distinct scarcity of the Satyrinae 
family, only singletons of the Arran brown (Erebia hgea) and Large wail 
brown [Lasiommata maera). The woodland edges were rich in flora and 
provided some of the best places to observe such species as the Queen of 
Spain fritillary (Arg\jinnis lathonia). Black-veined white {Aporia crataegi) 
and Mountain argus [Aricia artaxerxes). 

Schmittenhohe to Zell am See via Sonnalm 

The first part of this three-and-a-half hour walk was through herb-rich 
alpine grassland, then into coniferous woodland which gradually changed 
to mixed woodland. The first species seen was a single Heath fritillary 
[Mellicta athalia) (Plate 950. Fig. 9) which settled on my camera bag as I 
admired the view! Several Titania's fritillaries [Clossiana titonia) were 
noted, as well as an abundance of Scarce coppers. Five species of the 
Satyrinae were recorded, some in large numbers. They were the Arran 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



131 



brown, Eriphyle ringlet (Erebia eriphxjie), Large wall brown and the 
Lesser mountain ringlet (Erebia melampus) . The only member of 
thePieridae identified, from many seen, was a specimen of the Southern 
small white (Pieris mannii). 

Krimml Gorge 

This tourist spot, with the highest waterfalls in Europe, was a 
disappointment. Only 14 imagines of six species were seen the whole 
afternoon, which could have been due to the large volume of people 
visiting this attraction daily. The "commonest" butterfly was the Arran 
brown with just six specimens noted, and it was at this location that I had 
my first sighting of the Large ringlet (Erebia euryale). 

Grossglockner (Plate 950, Fig. 10) 

This was the highest point visited at 2136 metres, and another 
disappointing locality. To say that it was commercialised is an under- 
statement, it had a multi-storey car park, supermarket and several gift 
shops. I had anticipated finding some interesting Erebias at this altitude, 
but it was not to be. The only example seen of this genus was the Lesser 
mountain ringlet. Other species recorded were the Green-veined white, 
form bryoniae, and a profusion of the Shepherd's fritillary (Boloria pales). 
This was the easiest place to observe Marmots (Marmota marmota) 
though - they had a particular liking for bread and chocolate! 

Hotel Garden 

A very lazy afternoon was had one day relaxing by the hotel pool, with an 
occasional swim. I was not giving much attention to the butterflies settling 
on the plants but one made me take note. It was large and orange-brown 
in colour, and on further investigation it proved to be a Large tortoiseshell 
(Nymphalis polychloros) , the only one seen over the two weeks. 

Kaprun, Upper Dam (Plate 950, Fig. 11) 

Set at 2040 metres and another major tourist spot, nevertheless it was 
quite good for Lepidoptera. The first species encountered was a couple of 
Bath whites (Pontia daplidice), these were followed by some Southern 
small white's. Three of the Erebias came next, the Blind ringlet (Erebia 
pharte), Lesser mountain ringlet and Eriphyle ringlet. The only member of 
the Lycaenidae recorded was a single specimen of the Alpine argus 
(Albulina orbitulus). There was a surprise sighting of a Brimstone 
(Gonepteryx rhamni), as they are rarely seen above 1800 metres. 



132 



AUGUST 1995 



Berchtesgaden 

This was the excursion into Germany referred to earlier, to visit "the 
Eagle's Nest"", a restaurant and viewpoint, set upon the Kehlstein 
mountain at 1834 metres. The paths were so well trodden, they consisted 
of bare rock, consequently butterflies were few in number. I recorded just 
nine Arran browns and a Large wall brown. A Painted lady [Cijnthia 
cardui) paused briefly to feed, before flying off in a northerly direction. 

Kitzbuhelerhorn 

A pleasant and gentle walk starting at the cable car station at 1996 
metres, down to Kitzbuhel. passing through the Alpine garden. Three 
species of Erebia were identified, the Blind ringlet. Eriphyle ringlet and 
Large ringlet. Some of the other species noted were the Alpine heath and 
Mazarine blue {Ci^'aniris semiargus). The Alpine garden is well worth a 
visit. It covered an extensive area of the mountain, with several habitat 
types and clearly labelled plants, which included Edelweiss 
(Leontop odium alpinum). many Gentian species and the Turks-cap lily 
{Liliuni niartagon). 

Zeller Moos Nature Reserve 

Situated on the southern shore of Lake Zell and consisting of mainly 
marshland, with some rough grassland and scrub on the drier parts. Being 
a resei-ve for ornithology, it was poor for Lepidoptera. The only species 
seen were several of the common Pierids. a single Clouded yellow {Colias 
crocea) and feeding on a Bramble bush a Silver-washed fritillary 
[Argynnis paphiQ). 

Schmittenhohe to Mittelstation 

This was undoubtedly the finest walk of my stay. 21 species in two hours! 
Starting from the summit at 1965 meti-es. the first section was through 
some recently grazed meadows, which were totally devoid of any 
butterflies. Then the habitat changed, with the path passing through uncut 
hay meadows, then woodland with particularly wide rides. The leading 
species was the Arran brown which was very abundant, then came the 
common Scarce copper and several Eriphyle ringlets. Along the herb-rich 
woodland rides were to be found the Niobe fritillary {Argijnnis niobe). 
Dark green fritillai-y {Arg\;nnis aglaja) and Silver-spotted skipper [Hesperia 
comma). A large dark butterfly was observed drinking at a mountain-side 
spring, and as 1 approached its wings opened to reveal the purple and 
cream colours of a Camberwell beauty {N\;mphalis antiopa). and on a 
flower nearby was a Queen of Spain fritillai-y. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



133 



Conclusion 

The Zell am See district is an excellant area in which to observe 
butterflies, with such a comprehensive range of habitat types, and 
excellent transport facilities. My total count was a surprising 43 species, 
and this would surely have been much more, but for the reluctance of the 
Austrian authorities to grant a permit to use a net for identification 
purposes. If you would like a full locality/species list, please forward a 9x7 
SAE, marked Austria, to the above address. 

REFERENCES 

Chinery, M. (1989). Butterflies and Day F/ying Moths of Britain and Europe. Collins, 
London. 

Higgins, L.G. & Riley, N.D. (1984). A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. 
Collins, London. 

Riickstuhl, T. (1994). Schmetterlinge und Raupen. Grafe und Unzer, Miinchen, Germany. 
Whalley, P. (1987). The Mitchell Beazley Pocket Guide to Butterflies. Mitchell Beazlcy, 
London. 

GLASGOW OBSERVATIONS 

by Frank McGann (6291) 

On a nice sunny autumn day a group of us went beyond Easterhouse 
towards Bargeddie Parish Church. We went along a road bordering the 
now filled-in Monkland canal, and leading to Hamilton's coal-yard. I was 
hoping to find a larva or two, especially Grey daggers which are common 
on the hawthorn hedges further along the road beyond the coal-yard. 
Before we got there, however, I found a White ermine caterpillar. It was 
on a thistle plant at the edge of the pavement. It was resting low down on 
the stem and was feeding on the leaves. Thistles were growing in 
profusion on the bank where the larva was found. I also pursued a moth 
which looked like a Silver Y, but it eluded me. 

Later on, we found a good number of Grey dagger larvae on the 
hawthorn hedges. They were of varying sizes - from second or third instar 
to almost full-grown specimens. I also searched the twigs of the hawthorn 
for Coxcomb prominent larvae but none were noticed. 

Meanwhile at home I am feeding the White ermine larva on leaves of 
thistle, sow-thistle, plantain and dandelion. It hasn't pupated yet, but I'm 
sure it is about full-grown. 

We didn't quite make the journey to Bargeddie Parish Church that day, 
but turned north towards Commonhead housing estate. The church lies 
to the south of that area. Nevertheless it was a good day out, and I've 
added another species to my collection. I released two Grey dagger 
caterpillars onto the birch tree in my garden. 



134 



AUGUST 1995 



EXHIBITION REPORT AND LIST OF EXHIBITORS AT THE 
1994 EXHIBITION, HELD AT KEMPTON PARK RACECOURSE 
ON 8TH OCTOBER 1994 

The day started dry for a change, with sunshine and clouds; a good 
queue formed about an hour before opening time and a couple of the 
committee members sold programmes to ease the rush when the doors 
were opened. It is certainly much better when the weather is on our side 
but this factor did not seen to make any difference to the numbers 
attending; only 1134 door receipts were collected which is 94 less than 
last year. 

There were 31 applications on the booking form for exhibit table space, 
with a further five verbal applications making a total of 36. I had 31 
exhibits and reports; a further six applications did not have a report and I 
had one exhibitor who did not send me the booking form but did hand in 
a report; if all the people who booked tables, verbally or otherwise, 
turned up with an exhibit (counting the ones who did not send me a 
booking form) we would have had a total of 37 exhibits. I know 1994 was 
not a good year but there were some good things about that were worthy 
of an exhibit. 

Forty-seven dealers attended selling a variety of goods including a 
much restricted trade in live- and dead-stock: also exhibiting were thirteen 
other Natural History Societies including the usual AES stands. A total of 
sixty stands were in operation. 

I found that the catering this year was not good: I had hoped that we 
had this side of our Exhibition sorted out but when I went for lunch the 
bar was staffed by an under-manager and one other and only one food 
counter was open; the food here was reasonable but the (frozen) 
vegetables had not been cooked properly. A large queue formed early on 
and I understand that certain items of food and drink ran out early in the 
afternoon; a sad state of affairs and one that engendered a letter of 
complaint from yours truly. I hope that the situation is resolved for this 
year. 

I would like to thank the following members for helping me to set up on 
Friday 7th October 1994: Sid and Jill Painter. Colin Hart. Bernard 
Skinner, Martin Love, Pat Cordell. John Muggleton. Andrew Halstead. 
Dennis O'Keefe, Peter Baker, Graham Collins and David Young. 

My thanks go to Andrew Halstead. David Young and Pat Cordell for 
helping me to clear up after the Exhibition: this is not forgetting the 
helpers who gave up their free time throughout the day. The Exhibition 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



135 



would not run without this valuable source of assistance. Carry on the 
good work. Just a small note, the helpers on the evening before and the 
people who help to clear up after are invited for a free pint in the local 
hostelry. Anybody who wishes to help please contact me nearer the date, 
which for this year is 6th October for setting up and 7th October 1995 for 
the Exhibition. I do hope that I did not leave anybody out of the helpers; 
if I have, I can only apologise for the omission. 




Member's exhibits: 

Paul Brock (4792). Exhibited two drawers of spectacular Australian 
Stick and Leaf Insects, as follows: Acroph[;lla titan (Macleay), Eur^cnema 
goliath (Gray), E. cercata Redtenbacher, Tropidoderus childrenii (Gray), 
Didymuria violescens (Leach), Extatosoma tiaratum (Macleay), Mesaner 
sarpedon (Westwood), Megacrania batesii (Kirby), Anophelepis sp., 
Pachymorpha pasithoe (Westwood), Sipyloidea filiformis Redtenbacher 
and Ph{jUium sp. 

Livestock exhibited included adults of Ctenomorphodes tessulata 
(Gray), a Eucal\;ptus feeding species, sometimes a pest in south-east 
Australia and large nymphs of E. goliath. From other countries - adults of 
the leaf-insect Phijllium bioculatum from Java, feeding on bramble and 
adult females of Datames oileus (Westwood) from Singapore feeding on 
Tradescantia sp. 

Alan Bulter (7903). This exhibit comprised natural examples of dwarfs 
and giants amongst British and European butterflies. Twelve species were 
shown along with typical examples for comparison. Wing dimensions, 
measured using callipers following the definition of Higgins & Riley 
(forewing tip to point of attachment of abdomen) are tabulated below. 
Note that insects are referred to as dwarfs or giants when the dimensions 
fall well outside the typical range given by Higgins & Riley. 

Of particular interest is the example of a male Clouded yellow showing 
assymetry, with the left-hand side being of typical dimensions and the 
right-hand side dwarf. 



136 



AUGUST 1995 



Tabls 1. Natural examples of dv^'arfs and giants amongst European butterflies. 







or rtlN 


n & rv 


1 o 


Clouded yellow 


Male 


27 


23-27 


Tj.'pical (large] 


C crocciis 


I^iaie 


ni-iii 


9'^ 97 


Itw - Typical rfw - dwan 




Male 


21 


23-27 


Dwarf 


Clouded yellou- 


Female 


26 


23-27 


Typical 


C. croceus 


Femiale 


1 Q 


9"^ 97 


an 


Clouded yellow 


Female 


27.5 


23-27 


Large 


C croceus \'ar helics 


Female 


1 Q 


9"^ 97 


uv^ an 


Orange tip 


Male 


21 


19-24 


Typical 


A. cardiwines 


i^iaie 


1 7 


1 Q 9^1 


\j\K an 




Male 


17 


19-24 


Dwarf 


Green-\'eined u'hite 


i^iaie 






Tv'pical 


P. napi 


Male 


20 




Dwarf 


Small white 


Female 




9'^ 97 


1 ypical 


P. rapae 


Female 


20 


23-27 


Divan 


opecrcled Vv ood 




91 


1 Q 99 
ly- 


1 ypical 


P. aegeria aegeria 


Male 


16 


19-22 


Divan" 


ooutnern gatekeeper 


remale 


1 ^ 

10 


iO- iO 


1 ypical 


P. Cecilia 


Female 


20 


15-16 


Giant 


Gatekeeper 


iviaie 


ly.O 


1 ~ 1 Q 


Typical i large 


P. lithonus 


Male 


14 


17-19 


Dwarf 


bmall fieath 


remale 


l-t 


H-- ID 


Typical 


C. pamphilus 


Female 


20 


14-16 


Giant 


Comma 




9^ ^ 
ZD.O 


99-94 


Giant 


P. c-album 




19 


22-24 


Dwarf 


r LJ. i p 1 c c 1 1 1 p t: I u I 


Male 


37 


31-37 


Ti rrs 1 {\7\xr\o\ 


A. ins 


Male 


29.5 


31-3" 


Dwarf 


Small tortoiseshell 




22 


22-25 


Topical (small 1 


.4. umcae 




27.5 


22-25 


Giant 


May 




18.5 


16-19 


Typical 


A. levana 




21.5 


16-19 


Giant 



Key; Span in mm. measured fw tip to attachment to abdomen. 

H & R = Higgins. L.R. & Riley. N.D. Butterflies of Britain & Europe. Typical spans. 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



137 



Steve Button (7649). Exhibited a few of the more interesting butterflies 
collected during 1994; the exhibit showed A. paphia ab. ocellata (Frings.) 
from Wiltshire - the only interesting paphia observed in three days of 
searching. Boloria selene ab. pallida (Spuler) from Perthshire - selene 
was very common this year in the Highlands. Lysandra corridon ab. 
tithonus (Meigen) collected on the north Wiltshire Downs in August; 38 
eggs were obtained from this specimen but it was eight years ago that he 
saw the last one. An unnamed ab. of female L. coridon and also the 
lightest and darkest forms seen in Wiltshire this year with a male and 
female type for comparison. 

Pat Cordall (8782). Local resident and vagrant Macro lepidoptera of a 
landfill site within the London area at Nutfield, Surrey. 

Histori; 

Nutfield lies on a ridge of Lower Greensand, 20 miles south of London, 
below the escarpment of the North Downs. The whole area, except close 
to the village, has been quarried over the past 40 years for Fullers Earth 
and landfill, including domestic waste, which ceased in 1990. The legacy 
for the village has been three quarters of a square mile of waste ground 
left, at our request, to natural regeneration. 

The site 

The site falls in a northern direction and incorporates water areas and 
dried-up lagoons. There are tracts of improved grassland used for grazing 
cattle and sheep, rough uncut grass, mature hedges, recent plantations of 
Norway spruce and larch and mature woodland around the perimeter of 
the site. 

The future 

Although the whole site is designated "Green Belt" there have been 
applications to develop the area in various ways. There has been one 
public inquiry which was won by the village but the owners Laporte 
Industries have other options in the pipeline. Hopefully, it will remain 
undeveloped and eventually return to the woodland that it was before 
quarrying started. 

Flora 

Although the site appears sandy many plants are typical of the chalk 
downs two miles to the north. On the bare earth early arrivals like weld 
and thistles have given way to bird's-foot trefoil and perforated St. Johns 
wort. The water areas include well-grown tracts of common reed and 
bulrush and other wetland plants. All over the area are young trees: 
mainly birch, sallow and aspen but also oak, hawthorn, ash, beech, yew. 



138 



AUGUST 1995 



sycamore, lime, maple, alder, willow and poplar, all seeded from the 
mature trees around the edge of the site. The woods are becoming very 
dense in places and fallen trees are being left to rot, or are cut up and 
stacked in piles for winter fuel. A good population of rabbits is preventing 
the site becoming too overgrown by long grass and young trees. 

Macro lepidoptera 

Over the past 39 years, 28 species of butterfly and 467 species of the 
larger moths have been recorded. Most records have been from my 
garden trap 100 yards from the edge of the area. 



Table 2 - Macro lepidoptera from Nutfield. Surrey displayed at Kempton Park. 



Orange undeiwing A. parthenias Linn. 
Cypress carpet 7. cupressata Gey. 
Red-green carpet C. siterata Hufn. 
Brussels lace C. lichenaria Hufn. 
Ruddy caipet C. rubidata D.&S. 

Golden-rod pug E. uirgaureata Doub. 
Royal mantle C. cuculata Hufn. 

Waved caipet H. sulvata D.&S. 
Waved black P. fuliginaha Linn. 

Scallop shell R. undulata Linn. 
Scarce tissue R. ceruinalis Scop. 
Double kidney /. retusa Linn. 
Neglected rustic X. castanea Esp. 
Pale pinion L. soda Hufn. 
Alder kitten F. bicuspis Bork. 
Olive /. subtusa Schif. 
Dusky sallow E. ochroleuca D.&S. 
Green arches A. prasina D.&S. 
Bordered sallow P. umbra Hufn. 
Dark spectacle A. trigemina Warn. 



Resident. Common every year. 

Vagrant. 1 record 13.10.90. 

Resident. 3 records 2.10.91. 28.10.91. 19.9.92. 

Vagrant. 1 record 3.7.94. 

Resident. 5 records 11.6.77. 21.6.77. 20.7.89, 

4.7.91. 5.7.91. 

Resident. 1 larva on Ragwort in August. 1993. 
Vagrant. 5 records 20.7.69 (2). 23.7.69. 5.6.81. 
25.7.89. 

Resident. 4 records 28.6.71. 25.6.90. 20.7.90 (2). 
Resident. Recorded every year. Larvae in Birch 
log stacks. 

Resident. Records every year. 

Resident. Regular records. Larvae on Berberis ssp. 

Vagrant. 1 record 29.7.93. 

Vagrant. 3 records. 23.8.68.. 6.9.77.. 29.8.89. 

Resident and increasing. 

Resident. Regular recordings. 

Resident. Larvae on Aspen. 

Resident and increasing. Larvae found. 

Resident. Records every year. 

Resident and increasing. Larvae found. 

Vagrant. 2 records. 25.6.89.. 5.7.91. 



Tony Davis (8931). The application stated that the launch of the 
Pyralid recording scheme with attendant newsletter would be shown but 
no exhibit note was handed in. 

J.L. Dyer (2319). The application stated that British macros (N. 
janthe/N. janthina) would be shown but no exhibit note was handed in. 

Chris Gardiner (5249). Exhibited was a selection from the collection 
of the late G.S. Kloet, purchased from a second-hand record shop in 
Stockport. Several orders including Hymenoptera. Hemiptera and 
Microlepidoptera were shown; they were arranged according to the 
taxonomic order in Kloet & Hincks with the labels typed and handwritten 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



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(in his own hand) or cut from the pages of the K.&H. book. Also shown 
were examples of his eclectic approach to collecting and meticulous 
setting technique. 

M. Gascoign-Pees (7468). Exhibited a case of butterflies collected on 
the Italian island of Sardinia between 1st and 15th June 1985. Apart from 
one day collecting in the Gennargentu Mountains, most collecting was 
carried out in the vicinity of Baia Sardinia. Butterflies seen included 
Pseudophilotes barbargiae, Hipparchia ahstaeus sardona, Aglais urticae 
ichnusa, Lasiommata megera paramegaera, Maniola nurag, 
Coenon\;mpha corinna and Plebejus argus corsicus. Several larvae of 
Papilio hospiton were observed and photographed feeding on Ferula 
communis in the Gennargentu Mountains. 

D. Hall (5239). Exhibited a form of the Large white butterfly found on 
the Canary Island of La Palma. This form has been named Pieris 
cheiranthi benchoauensis (Pinker 1968). Specimens showed that it is 
more lightly marked than the nominate form from Tenerife, with a more 
broken dark forewing band. Photographs showed the habitat in the laurel 
forests in the north-west of the island and also of the eggs and young 
larvae on the foodplant - a large endemic Cruciferae, Crambe 
gigantefolia. 

A. Halstead (6346). Exhibited two boxes displaying the good and bad 
side of beetles. One box contained 23 species of beetle pests likely to be 
found in gardens, plus a specimen of the foreign potato pest, the 
Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata) . The other box contained 
examples of beneficial beetles such as ladybirds, Carabid or ground 
beetles and Staphylinid or rove beetles. 

James Hereward (9928J). The application stated that South African 
Arachnids and scorpions would be shown but no exhibition note was 
handed in. 

Andrew Hinit (9093). Showed a small exhibit of specimens from 
northern Greece collected in April, June and July 1994. Included were 
local and rare species such as Pontia chlohdice, Colias balcanica, 
Sxjrichtus tessellum, Po!\;ommatus eroides and Heodes ottomanus. 

Robin James (5005). Exhibited specimens of Long-tailed blue 
butterflies Lampides boeticus Linn. These were bred from larvae found in 
the Algarve in April 1994. Subsequent pairings proved to be easy with the 
butterflies housed in a 14-inch diameter black netting cage inside a 
greenhouse. Eggs were laid on the flowers and leaves of various 
leguminous plants but the preferred plant was Colutea arborescens; eggs 
were also laid on thistles provided for Painted lady butterflies. The eggs 



140 



AUGUST 1995 



were removed to plastic boxes as they hatched, the larvae were placed 
individually inside sugar-snap pea pods through a dorsoventral slit. The 
pods were then placed in a propagator at 25 °C. the larvae feeding up in 
just over two weeks with a 70% success rate being obtained. 

Neil Jones (8037). The application stated that a series of photographs 

and computer-processed images demonstrating variation in the Marsh 
fritillary and related species: also a series of photographs and newspaper 
cuttings illustrating the problems of conservation would be shown. No 
exhibit note was handed in. 

Mark Johnson (3464J). Exhibited fossil insects from the Pleistocene 
(38 million years ago) to the Tertiary period (80,000 years ago). The 
exhibit also had a short description of all the insect orders, including 
spiders, and how they all evolved. 

Gareth King (8585). Exhibited set specimens and live imagines of 
Estigmere perotteti (Everin) which were originally identified by the British 
Museum (Natural History) as E. nigricans (Mare 1872). Progeny from the 
original female; and show remarkable variation with four forms 
identified. The exhibit also showed notes on the various larval foodplants 
for this Indian Arctiid. 

Alex Kolaj (9141). Exhibited variation in moth species which included 
the Mottled umber, E. defoHaria: Dotted border, A.marginaria, type and 
ab. fuscata; Spring usher, A. leucophaearia; Garden carpet. X. fluctuata; 
Northern spinach, E. populata: Scalloped oak, C. elinguaha: Pale tussock. 
C. pudibunda, type and ab. obscura; Bulrush wainscot. N. typhae, type 
and ab. friaterna: Heart and club, A. clauis: Fenn's wainscot, P. 
breuihnea, type and ab. sinelinea and Nut-tree tussock. C. coryli. type 
and ab. meianotica. Also shown were moths reared from larvae taken in 
and around Aviemore, Scotland, which included the Yellow-ringed 
carpet, E. flavicinctata, beaten from saxifrage; Grey mountain carpet. £. 
caesiata, beaten from bilberry and Chestnut-coloured carpet. T. cognata, 
beaten from juniper. Two migrants from Warwickshire were exhibited, 
these were a Hummingbird hawkmoth. M. stellatarum. taken at 
Charlecote on 27.8.94 and a Bordered straw, H. peltigera taken at Tile 
Hill on 26.8.94. The final two parts of Mr Kolaj's exhibit showed 
comparison of a Fisher's estuarine moth, G. borelii and the Frosted 
orange. G. flauago: (since the Victorian County History until 1968 borelii 
was thought to be a form of flauago): and a comparison of the Dotted 
footman. P. muscerda and the Small dotted footman. P. obtusa both 
taken on the Norfolk Broads on 24.7.94. 

Keith C. Lewis (3680). Showed examples of the longhorn beetle 
Arhophalus rusticus, some bred from larvae. This insect was confined to 
Scotland about the turn of the last century but with the planting of 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



141 



conifers by the Forestry Commission in the 1950s it spread southwards. 
Before this time Mr Lewis had only found the odd record from the south 
of England and he now needs records of this beetle, especially from 
museums. 

R.F. McCormick (3375) 

New species bred or captured in 1993/94. 

0376 Sijnanthedon scohaeformis (Borkh). Welsh clearwing. 
Bred from a larva dug out of birch at Loch Rannoch. 

0383 Bembecia muscaeformis (Esp.). Thrift clearwing. 
Bred from larvae collected at Start Point, Devon. 

1774 Colosfygia ohuata (D. & S.). Beech-green carpet. 
One caught at Babbacombe, Devon. 

1780 Coenocaipe lapidata (Hb.). Slender-striped rufous. 

Found commonly, despite the weather, at Trinafour, Tayside. Scotland. 

1833 Eupithecia expallidata (Doubl.). Bleached pug. 
Caught at light at Holne Chase, Devon, and also seen at Dawlish Warren. 

1863 Anticolhx sparsata (Triet.). Dentated pug. 
Bred from larvae collected at Farnborough, Hampshire. 

1942 Aids jubata (Thunb.). Dotted carpet. 
Caught at light at Holne Chase, Devon. 

2346 Photedes morrisii (Dale). Morris's wainscot. 
Several seen at light at Charmouth, Dorset; none seen on the tall fescue grass. 

2478 Hypena obsitalis (Hb.). Bloxworth snout. 
Three specimens bred from larvae collected from three different sites; the species now 
occurs from Dartmouth through to Watcombe, Devon and is probably colonising new sites 
in this area. 

Unusual species captured in Devon or near borders. 

1323 Pediasia contaminelh (Hb.). 
Found commonly on Dawlish Warren. 

1399 Dolicharthha punctalis (D. & S.). 
One caught at a garden in Teignmouth. 

1441 Oncocera semirubelh (Scop.). 
One caught at Charmouth, Dorset and probably resident in Devon. 

1779 Hxjdriomena ruberata (Freyer). Ruddy highflyer. 
One caught in a garden in Teignmouth and another seen at Dawlish Warren. 

1781 Horisme uitalbata (D. & S.). Small waved umber. 
Several seen at Dawlish Warren, Devon. 

2043 Eilema sororcula (Hufn.). Orange footman. 
One caught in a garden in Teignmouth, Devon. 

2076 Meganola albula (D. & S.). Kent black arches. 
Seen commonly at Dawlish Warren, Devon. 

2204 Mythimna obsoleta (Hb.). Obscure wainscot. 
Found at Exminster Marshes, Devon. Recorded previously in 1973 by Dr B. Henwood at 
Colyton, Devon; a new county record as yet unpublished. 

2350 Photedes pygmina (Haw.). Small wainscot. 
A striated specimen caught at Holne Chase, Devon. 



142 



AUGUST 1995 



2352 Eremobia ochroleuca (D. & S.). Dusky sallow. 
A female caught at Dawlish Warren, Devon; a few eggs were laid. 

2377 Arenostola phragmitidis (Hb.). Fen wainscot. 

A pair taken from several seen at Dawlish Warren, Devon; an earlier specimen was caught 
by friends in Teignmouth around the 1980s but was not published. 

2391 Chihdes maritimus (Tausch.). Silky wainscot. 

Specimens taken from Dawlish Warren and Exminster Marshes, Devon; including an ab. 
nigristriata and an ab. bipunctata. 

2452 Catocala nupta (Linn.). Red underwing. 
One specimen caught at Dawlish Warren, Devon. 

2418 Earias clorana Cream-bordered green pea. 
Found commonly at Dawlish Warren and found at other localities in south Devon; odd 
records have also been noted from Cornwall. 

The poor number of migrants that came to my garden in Teignmouth, Devon. 

1395 Udeafenugalis (Hb.). 
Several seen throughout the year and are still appearing. 

1398 Nomophila noctuella (D. & S.). Rush veneer. 
A common species which started to appear from June. 

1716 Rhodometra sacmria (Linn.). Vestal. 
A singleton to my trap but they have been common on Dawlish Warren. 

2385 Spodoptera exigua (Hb.). Small mottled willow. 
A pair taken from several seen throughout the area. 

2403 Heliothis peltigera (D. & S.). Bordered straw. 
The best one of two that came to my garden trap. 

2441 Autographa gamma (Linn.). Silver Y. 
An ab. gamma and a normal specimen that was taken in March this year. 

Species, in the main, bred this year from various localities. 

1764 Chhrocl\;sta truncata (Hufn.). Common marbled carpet. 
Bred from larvae swept at Feshiebridge, Scotland. 

1777 Uydriomena furcata (Thunb.). July highflyer. 
Bred from larvae swept at Feshiebridge, Scotland. 

1921 CrocalHs elinguaria (Linn.). Scalloped oak. 
An ab. unicolor bred from a larva swept at Feshiebridge, Scotland. 

2010 Odontosia carmelita (Esp.). Scarce prominent. 
A Scottish dark form of this species caught at light at Feshiebridge, Scotland. 

2132 Xestia castanea (Esp.). Neglected rustic. 
A pair of dark red specimens bred from larvae swept at Mooremore, Aviemore, Scotland. 

2181 Egira conspicillaris (Linn.). Silver cloud. 
Part of a series of typical specimens bred from a female caught at light at Kynaston. 
Hereford; kindly bred for me by Dennis O'Keefe. 

The extensive variety oi Agrotis puta and A. clavis found in south Devon. 

2092 Agrotis puta (Hb.) ssp. puta (Hb.). Shuttle-shaped dart. 
I have tried to name the various forms from Tutt's The British Noctuae and their varieties 
and as far as 1 can tell the red forms, which are predominant, are called "erythroxylea" 
and the rest of the forms correspond to the position in the row; 4th = radius, 5th & 
7th = lignosa and 9th = radiola. A pair of south-east specimens were included for 
comparison. 

2088 Agrofc~c/auis (Hufn.). Heart and club. 
Some of the obscure forms of Agrotis clauis. mostly from my garden in Teignmouth. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



143 



Adam Muncer (1006J). The application stated that a giant snail, orchid 
mantis and whip scorpion would be shown but no exhibit note was 
handed in. 

J.W. Ogilvie. Exhibited the Monarch or Milkweed butterfly. He had 
trouble with the Customs when he tried to get a larva of this species into 
England from Canada but after it had been examined by them he was 
allowed to keep it. After this larva had eaten all the Milkweed leaves, Mr 
Ogilvie obtained a plant of Asciepias incarnata from his local gardening 
centre; the larva took to the new leaves and then pupated. He put the 
pupa into the refrigerator while he awaited further stock from Worldwide 
Butterflies; these came as larvae which took to the plant of Asciepias 
incarnata but the leaves of this turned yellow in the autumn; he tried to 
get further supplies of Milkweed from Canada but on arrival these were 
damaged so he tried his larvae on chopped stems and leaves from these 
plants. All but one had pupated by this time. On 6.10.94 the first pupa 
hatched, the cooled-down one emerging as a perfect female on 7.10.94. 
The exhibit showed one larva, two pupae and eight butterflies; he is 
hoping that the stock will survive hibernation. 

David Oram (7127) along with Rebecca (aged 10) and Richard (aged 14). 
Exhibited some butterflies and moths caught while on holiday on Sanibel 
Island, Florida, USA during August 1987 to 1988. Species exhibited 
were: Gulf fritillary, Agraulis uanillae; Zebra longwing, Heliconius 
charitonius; White peacock, Anartia jatrophae; Cassius blue, Leptotes 
cassias; Mangrove skipper, Phocides pigmalion; Dwarf yellow, Nathalis 
iole; Orange sulphur, Colias eurytheame; Orange giant sulphur, Phoebis 
agarithe and an unidentifled hawkmoth. 

J.H. Payne (9002J). Stated on his application that Arachnida would be 
shown but did not hand in an exhibit report. 

Joe Parker. Exhibited examples of temperature experiments with 
butterflies. Species shown were ab. semiicchrusoides the Small 
tortoiseshell and the Silver-washed fritillary ab. ocellata and ab. valesina. 

Joe Rogers. Exhibited three spiders and one scorpion. The spiders 
shown were Chili rose, Grammastola cala; a medium-sized tarantula with 
beautiful brown hairs; this spider is docile and his female is about five or 
six years old. Red rump, Brachypelma vagas; a rich velvety black spider 
with rusty red hairs on its abdomen; when adult, females exceed 60mm 
in length. Salmon-pink bird eater, Lasiodom parahyhana; this is a species 
second in size to the largest of all Theraphoside spiders - Theraphosa 
leblondi. 



144 



AUGUST 1995 



The scorpion was an Emperor, Panthrobetius impurtus: Joe's is an 
adult male which has been mated once. Some scoipions have the ability 
to change colour in ultra-violet light. Also shown was a cross-bred rat 
snake, everglade yellow, which feeds on mice. 

P.J.C. Russell (8977). A case of butterflies from the Canary Islands of 
Tenerife and La Palma was shown. Gonepteryx cleopatra cleohule and 
G.c. palmae, endemic to Tenerife and La Palma respectively were 
compared, as were the two Large whites, Pieris cheiranthi cheimnthi and 
P. cheiranthi benchoauensis which are similarly endemic. Some species 
which are restricted to the Canaries, Thymelicus christi, Cyclyrius 
webbianus and Pararge xiphioides were included with some endemic 
subspecies such as Maniola jurtina fortunata and Euchloe belemia 
hespehdium. 

Two cases of butterflies from the south-eastern Aegean islands of Simi. 
Rhodes and Karpathos were shown. The display included examples of 
Gonepteryx cleopatra fiorii, Hipparchia syriaca ghigii (the two subspecies 
endemic to Rhodes) and Hipparchia christenseni, which is endemic to 
Karpathos. Some examples of Allancastria cerisyi demonstrated the 
different morphs found on Rhodes, the form martini having the normal 
red spots replaced by yellow spots on both upper and lower surfaces of 
the wings. Other species of interest were Carcharodus stauderi anibiguus, 
Maniola telmessia, Pseudochazara anthelea anthelea and Plebejus loewii 
all of which are at the western limits of their Middle-Eastern dist-ibution in 
the Aegean islands. Some large Papilio niachaon syriacus reared from 
ova taken on Karpathos, Charaxes jasius from ova taken on Rhodes and 
Lampides boeticus from larvae taken on Rhodes were included in the 
display. 

John Slosgett (9638) & Michael Majerus (4027). The exhibit 
concentrated on the Scarce 7-spot ladybird. Coccinella magnifica 
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This shows an unusual habit preference: this 
7-spot ladybird can only be found in the immediate vicinity of the nests of 
wood ants, Formica rufa. Other species of ladybird, including the closely- 
related 7-spot, C. septempunctata, are attacked by these ants if they stray 
close to the nests. Scarce 7-spots are not molested by the ants, which 
ignore them. The exhibit considered the reasons why these ladybirds 
choose this lifestyle and how they are adapted to it. The display rounded 
off with a request for information on the Scarce 7-spot and other 
Coccinella ladybird species and went on to ask for samples of all ladybird 
species from around the world for research. The exhibitors also wanted 
information and samples of Brimstone {Gonepteryx spp.) and Clouded 
yellow {Colias spp.) butterfly species for other work being carried out. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



145 



St Ivo School Entomological & Natural History Society. The 

usual engaging menagerie exliibited by this enthusiastic group. All things 
furry, scaly and slimy were shown with great keeness by the juvenile 
Homo sapiens present. 

Bernard Skinner. On display were: 
Micro-lepidoptera 

Udea fulualis (Hiibner): Three bred specimens ex-female Highcliffe, Hampshire, July 1993 

together with photographs illustrating life history. 
Salebriopsis albicilla (Herrich-Schaffer): Caught male specimens from Welshbury Hill, 

Gloucestershire, June 1994 together with photographs illustrating life history. 
Melissoblaptes zelleri (de Joannis): Male with discal spots united, Greatstone, Kent, 14.7.94. 
Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabricius): Male with banding on forewing. Stoke Saltings, Kent, 

24.7.94. 

Acrobasis repandana (Fabricius): Melanistic male, Hamstreet, Kent, 13.7.94. 
Sciota adelphella (Fischer von Roslerstamm): Short series bred from south-east Kent. 
Schoenobius gigantella (Denis & Schiffermuller): Melanistic male, Stoke Saltings, 24.7.94. 
Perinephela hnceahs (Denis & Schiffermuller): Albino male, Hamstreet, 13.7.94. 

Macro-lepidoptera 

Pelosia obtusa (Herrich-Schaffer): Two males and two females, Catfield, Norfolk. July 1994. 
Hophdrina alsines (Brahm): Albino male, Dungeness, Kent, 8.7.94. 

Nola aerugula (Hiibner): Male from Greatstone, Kent, 12.7.94 (fifteenth Kentish record this 
century). 

Agrotis crassa (Hiibner): Portland Bird Observatory, Dorset, 4.8.94 (sixth English record this 
century). 

Paul Sokoloff. Exhibited a photograph of an unusual aberration of the 
Red admiral, Vanessa atalanta (L.). The butterfly was characterised by 
bright orange suffusion from the fore- and hind-wing bands, covering the 
basal areas of all wings, and extending to the thorax and abdomen. The 
coloration resembled that of ab. eos (Fritsch), but was much more 
extensive. The marginal white spots on the fore- and hind-wings were 
also much enlarged. 

The insect was photograhed at Hinksey Top, Oxfordshire on 27th 
August 1994. 

Peter Tebbutt (7941). A selection of aberrations taken or reared during 1994. 
The more major aberrations consisted of several melanic specimens and 
these were: Duke of Burgundy fritillary, Hemearis lucina ab. semibrunnea 
(Osthelder), an almost black male Large skipper Ochlodes venata ab. 
fuscus (Frohawk), and three White admirals, Ladoga Camilla, two female 
ab. obliterae (Robson & Gardner) (one very extreme) and a small male 
nigrina (Weymer). I had been hoping to take these for over eight years 
and took the first two within one and a half hours of each other, the third 
being taken three days later. 



146 



AUGUST 1995 



Several female Silver-studded blues, Plebejus argus argus, were shown 
with varying amounts of blue scaling similar to the extinct race masse\;i. 
The best of these had no trace of any lunules, almost the whole of the 
hindwings and base of the forewings distinctly blue, and a series of four 
black spots around the discoidal spot on the upperside forewings - a really 
striking specimen. 

Also exhibited was a female Clouded yellow, Colias croceus ab. nov. 
This had a large teardrop - shaped discoidal spot on each hindwing with 
the forewing black bands devoid of any spotting but dusted with yellow 
scales. 

A very unusual Brown argus. Aricia agestis, had a reduced number of 
underside spots and those that remained were drawn inwards to form an 
arc around the discoidal spot, ab. obsoleta (Tutt) + ab. glomerata (Tutt). 

A male Essex skipper, Thxjmelicus lineola 3b. antiardens (Lempke) with 
the blackish marking replaced by pale brownish and believed to be an 
albino form was also shown together with several minor aberrations of 
the Large heath. Small heath, Chalkhill blue and Orange tip. 

A single moth was included. This was a smoky Garden tiger, Arctia caja 
ab. fumosa (Horhammer), and this was the last to emerge from only five 
larvae that were reared, the other four having already produced typical- 
looking specimens. 

W.J. Tennant (7756). The genus Plebejus (Kluk) in north-west Africa. 
Eleven pairs each of the these three described forms of Plebejus martini 
and of the closely related P. allardi. all endemic to north-west Africa, were 
shown to illustrate external differences: P. martini martini (Allard), flies in 
several areas in Algeria, from the Djurdjura Massif to the Aures 
mountains: P. martini ungemachi (Rothschild), flies in the Moroccan High 
Atlas and Middle mountains: P. martini regularis (Tennent), flies in the 
Moroccan Rif mountains: P. allardi (Oberthiir), flies, without significant 
variation, from the Anti-Atlas mountains in the south-west of Morocco, 
through Algeria, to eastern Tunisia and western Libya. All forms are 
restricted but may be locally common. 

Raymond Thompson (9301). This exhibitor, along with Kay Medlock, 
again produced an excellent exhibit promoting the British Dragonfly 
Society. Five panels of very large colour photographs taken by Kay 
Medlock were the highlight of the stand. Running at the same time was a 
continuous slide show of British and European species: some exciting 
video films of dragonflies, butterflies and other insects taken by Ray 
Thompson were enjoyed by the many people who came to the stand. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



147 



Paul Waring (4220). Some interesting moths from the Palava 
landscape area in the Czech Republic, 4th-9th September 1994. 
Rhodostrophia uibicaha (Clerck) - a central and southern European 
geometrid, the larvae of which are reported to feed on broom C\;tisus 
scoparius and sloe Prunus spinosa. This individual came to m.v. light on 
the edge of riverine woodland just north of Lednice on 5th September 
and was the only one we saw. 

Catacli;sme riguata (Hiibner) - Associated with warm, dry, open habitats 
where the larvae feed on various members of the Rubiaceae (bedstraws). 
Known to be well established on the Palava Hills just west of Lednice, 
where this singleton came to our m.v. light among the limestone stacks on 
4th September. 

Therapis (Epione) flauicaria (D. & S.) - A geometrid of south-eastern 
Europe, where the larvae feed on white dead-nettle Lamium album. This 
individual came to m.v. light on the edge of riverine woodland just north 
of Lednice on 9th September and was the only one we saw. 
Artiora euon\;imaha (D. & S.) - Regarded as a local species, known from 
parts of Germany, Austria and Hungary but not apparently from France, 
Belgium or Corsica, the larvae feeding on spindle-tree Euonijmus 
europaeus. Well established on the Palava Hills just west of Lednice, 
where several came to our m.v. lights and others were seen at rest on the 
larval foodplant on 4th September. 

Chersotis margaritacea (de Villers) - A noctuid moth of south-central and 
eastern Europe, the larvae feeding in flowers of hawkweeds Hieracium 
spp. Several came to our lights on the Palava Hills on 4th September. 
Agrochola nitida (Scop.) - Formerly resident in the Breckland of East 
Anglia but no evidence of breeding since 1960. Widespread in warm dry 
habitats in Europe, the larvae feeding on field bindweed Convolvulus 
arvensis. An abundant species in the Palava Hills. This one came to light 
there on 4th September. 

A paper containing further details of the visit to the Czech Republic can 
be read in Bulletin 54 (399): 66-76. 

National Moth Conservation Project with Butterfly 
Conservation and Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 

A display of photographs showing different aspects of the project, including 
survey and monitoring of the rarer British species, captive breeding of 
endangered species for ecological and behavioural observations to help 
with field work, and for established trials. Also shown were the new 
generation of national distribution maps with 1980 onwards as the most 
recent of date class, and a map of Britain showing the approximate 
location of a selection of target species which require urgent work. 



148 



AUGUST 1995 



David Young (5547) 

Macro-lepidoptera: 

Lymantha dispar (Linn.) Gypsy moth. 

New Forest 5.8.94. Probable migrant specimen recorded on the same night as several 
specimens of Nomophilia noctuella, Rhodometra sacraria and other com.mon migrant 
species. 

Dr\;monia ruficornis (Hufn.) Lunar marbled brown. 
Ladycross, New Forest, Hampshire 25.4.93 m.v. light. 

Area between ante- and postmedian lines whitish yellow as illustrated in MBGBI 9: plate 
4:4. 

Sesia apiformis (Clerck) Hornet clearwing. 

Boxed from trunk of black poplar at Reading around 7.15 to 7.30am 27.6 to L7.94. 

Hydraecia osseola hucherardi (Mabille) Marsh mallow moth. 
Kent 7.9.94, reasonably common at m.v. or sitting on foodplant. 

Catocala promissa (D. & S.) Light crimson underwing. 

Repeated visits to favoured localities over the past two years suggest that both sponsa and 
promissa are at a low ebb at the moment. Some of the mature oaks in these localities are 
thought to be suffering from the effects of "acid rain" which is unlikely to be helpful to 
either species. 

Agrotis ripae (Hiibn.) Sand dart. 

Short series bred from larvae collected at Wittering, West Sussex and raised on 
Sainsbury's finest carrots. 

Gort\jna borelii lunata (Freyer) Fisher's estuarine moth. 

From the usual Essex locality where it was reasonably common in October 1993. 
Heliothis uihplaca Marbled clover. 

Tilshead, Wiltshire 2.8.94 m.v. probably breeding in this area. 

PoHa bomb\jcina (Hufn.) Pale shining brown. 
Tilshead, Wiltshire. Common at m.v. light, June 1993. 

Senta flammea (Curtis) Flame wainscot. 
Cambridgeshire. Fairly common at m.v. light, June 1994. 

Cabera pusaha (Linn.) Common white wave. 
Aberration. Wales, July 1994. 

Abraxas s[;luata (Scop.) Clouded magpie. 
Fairly common at m.v. light, Wales, July 1994. 

Micro-lepidoptera 

Elophila nymphaeata (Linn.) Brown china-mark. 

A heavily-suffused specimen from the New Forest. 21.8.94. m.v. light. 

Aglossa pinguinahs (Linn.) Large tabby. 

Boxed from the walls of a Royal Artillery bunker on the Great Orme. North Wales. The 
moth seems to breed well on rabbit dung. 

The compiler of these notes is not responsible for claims made by the 
exhibitors; however an effort has been made to be as accurate as 
possible. 

Roy McCormick (3375) 



AUGUST 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




COLOUR SECTION AUGUST 1995 




AUGUST 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




COLOUR SECTION 



AUGUST 1995 




PLATE 95P 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



149 



A FURTHER STUDY OF THE ODONATA OF MILTON 
COUNTRY PARK (SOUTH CAMBRIDGESHIRE) 

by D.F. Madin (10023) 

32 Kinross Road. Chesterton. Camhric/oe CB4 IQY. 

An earlier report (Madin, 1994) was the result of incidental observations 
made during a comprehensive survey of the birds of the park. As 
anticipated in that paper, a more detailed study of the Odonata has 
increased the number of recorded species to 16 which is probably close to 
the maximum number to be expected at this site. 

Study Area 

The park is on the site of former gravel pits, in total about 35 ha. with two 
main lakes, the larger (Dickerscn's Lake) being about 8 ha, with a well 
indented shore-line and a gently shelving bottom. The other pool (Todd's 
Lake; about 6 ha.) is rectangular, steeper-sided and rather deeper. 
Between the two is a small shallow pond and there is a fourth water area, 
where succession is well advanced, being mainly reed and willow scrub. 
During preparatory landscaping work in 1991-92 the amount of shallow 
water on both of the larger lakes was increased and some planting of 
emergent vegetation took place. For coarse fishing on the main lakes 47 
platforms were constructed with a further four round the central pond to 
make them accessible for pond dipping by school groups. In addition, a 
public drain running across the full width of the park divides it into a 
northern section of two-thirds of the total area which includes most of the 
water and a drier southern section. Flow rate in this drain is directly 
proportional to recent rainfall. The wetland section of the park is 
completed by a seasonal pool which, being dry from late spring until mid- 
autumn, does not have a direct effect on Odonata ecology. Some 
grassland is mown as an amenity area while the remainder is not cut until 
the end of the summer. 

Methods 

Larvae were collected by pond dipping and exuviae (Plate 95P, Fig. 14) 
from emergent vegetation, while for adults identification was mainly by 
8x20 close focus-monocular, with netting (followed by release) to allow 
closer examination if necessary. At times a x8 hand lens was used at this 
stage while for larvae and exuviae microscopic examination was often 
necessary. Keys in Hammond (1983) and McGeeney (1986) were used to 
confirm identification. 



150 



AUGUST 1995 




last updated 4.07.94 



Fig. 1. Milton Country Park. 



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151 



Accurate counts of species populations were not attempted, but 
estimates were made using the scale of the Cambridgeshire Dragonfly 
Survey (Perrin & Johnson) as shown in table 2. 

The Odonata recorded fell into three groups, the first with a high 
number of individuals or confirmed breeding, the second in lesser 
numbers where breeding was not confirmed though there is suitable 
habitat on the site and the third group occurring in very low numbers and 
no optimum habitat with the park. 

The variants infuscans and rufescens female Ischnura elegans were 
both recorded in small numbers. 



Results 



Table 1. Species recorded in the park. 



Breeding confirmed 

Ischnura elegans 
Enallagma cyathigemm 
Er\;thron]ma najas 
Coenagrion puella 
Pyrrhosoma n\jmphula 
Aeshna cyanea 
Aeshna grandis 
Orthetrum cancellatun] 
Libellula depressa 
Sympetrunn striolatum 



Possible Breeding 

Brachytron pratense 
Aeshna mixta 
Anax imperator 
Libellula quadrimaculata 



Probable Visitor 

Calopteryx splendens 
testes sponsa 



^The two species shown as "Probable visitor" both occur in field drains and the nearby river, 
as does Sympetrum sanguineum which is. therefore, a strong contender for future inclusion 
in the park list. 



Table 2. Estimated populations. 



Species 


Scale^ 


Cambs^ 

% 


Species 


Scale*^ 


Cambs'^ 

% 


Ischnura elegans 


E 


73 


Aeshna cyanea 


C 


29 


Enallagma cyathigerum 


E 


62 


Aeshna grandis 


D 


48 


Erythromma najas 


D 


30 


Orthetrum cancellatum 


D 


33 


Coenagrion puella 


E 


37 


Libellula depressa 


B 


8 


Pyrrhosoma nymphula 


D 


9 


Sympetrum striolatum 


E 


61 



^Scale: A = 1 only seen: B = 2-9: C = 10-29: D= 30-99: E = 100 or more. 



^Cambs %: Fron^ Perrin, V. and Johnson. I. (in press). Number of tetrads in which the 
species was found, expressed as a percentage of 275 tetrads surveyed. 



152 



AUGUST 1995 



pH values 

The confirmed breeders are all species showing a preference for alkaline 
waters, while of the "possibles" Bmchytron pratense is found in neutral to 
acid habitats. In the case of Libellula quadrimaculata, the British 
Dragonfly Society list it under non-acid, while Gibbons (1994) gives it as 
acidophilic. In view of these associations, pH value was checked at a 
number of points on the two main lakes, the central pond and the public 
drain, using a meter with a sensitivity of 0.01 pH. 



Table 3. pH values. 





Dickerson's 
Aug Nov 


Todd's 
Aug Nov 


Drain 
Aug Nov 


Pond 
Aug Nov 


Number of reading points 


10 


7 


4^ 5 


1 


Mean pH 


8.6 7.08 


8.07 7.10 


7.68 6.99 


8.03 6.96 


S.D. 


0.38 0.04 


0.47 0.12 


0.12 0.20 





At one position in August the drain was dry: water temperature 20 °C. 
November water temperature 11 X. 



All summer readings were above 7.0. Although both lakes showed 
variation at different points, the readings for Todd's were within 1 S.D. of 
the mean while those on Dickerson's were within 2 S.D. The only species 
showing close association with pH value was Orthetrum cancellatum 
which occurred in areas with the highest levels (8.8-9.1) but this area also 
had a firm, gravel bottom with abundant floating and emergent 
vegetation. On the bank at this point are a path and areas of bare earth 
and it is these factors which were the probable reason for the distribution 
of this species. As would be expected, after rain and wind the late 
autumn values were much more uniform throughout the study area. The 
photosynthesis of weed beds, algae and slimes on the substrate would 
account for the differential between the summer and autumn values 
(Jefferies, M. and Mills. D., 1990). 

Habitat preferences 

Like all insects Odonata require some warmth before they can become 
active and this was provided by the paths, fences, long grasses and other 
plants throughout the park. Ischnura elegans and Enallagma c\jathigerum 
made some use of the paths and bridge railings, but in general preferred 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



153 



close proximity to water and emergent vegetation. Within two clumps of 
nettles, Urtica dioica, the surface temperature of leaves was 5-8 °C above 
ambient at 09.00 hrs, these sites being especially favoured by Coenagrion 
puella in early spring. Aeshna grandis favoured fences and vegetation, a 
notable feature being that where woodwork had been treated with 
preservative to give a brown coloration, A. grandis appeared to have a 
marked preference for these sections. At a different site (Roswell Pits, Ely), 
a four metre section of treated fencing held 17 A. grandis at 09.30 hrs on 
a fairly dull morning. More records are needed as this treatment was 
carried out on new or repaired fencing, the work involving cutting back of 
vegetation and therefore greater exposure to sunlight. S[;mpetrum 
striolatum also used fences (though not showing any colour preference) 
and vegetation, often long grasses, whilst Orthetrum cancellatum showed 
a strong tendency to use paths and bare earth. In mid-afternoon in 
summer an ambient temperature of 30°C resulted in a surface 
temperature of 43°C on the gravel of the footpaths and fishing platforms, 
but at this level most insects were seeking cooler positions. 

As the insects reached maturity, the Zygoptera and O. cancellatunn 
continued to remain near water; A. grandis was frequently seen over 
hedges, long grasses and an adjoining wheat field, while S. striolatum 
also favoured long grass as a feeding habitat. 



Predation 

Fishing in the lakes is managed by the Histon Angling Society with the 
park rangers as bailiffs and is operated on a "catch and return" basis with 
no (official) re-stocking. Under these conditions, it has been shown in the 
Lake District that a balance is achieved, resulting in a stable Odonata 
population (Fryer, G. 1991). Fish in the lakes are mainly pike and 
Cyprinids while other principal predators would be larger dragonflies 
preying on immature animals. 

For adults, birds are the main enemies and it was observed that the two 
areas of nettle noted above were close to high concentrations of nesting 
insectivorous warblers. Towards the end of the flight period numbers of 
C. puella fell much more rapidly here than in other areas of the park. 

Spider webs trapped several individuals on most days, the majority 
being Zygoptera. Little interaction was seen between dragonfly species, 
apart from the 13th public drain, where there were several encounters 
between A. grandis and S. striolatum, but these appeared to be territorial 
rather than predatory. 



154 



AUGUST 1995 



Management 

It was fortunate that the method of mineral extraction between the late 
1930s and 1960 was such that there were extensive areas of shallow 
water where a muddy substrate has developed in the intervening years. 
Natural succession and selective planting has extended areas of reed 
{Phragmites austrahs) and would encourage S. sanguineum. The regime 
of leaving grasses and other plants uncut until the end of the summer 
provided sunning perches for the dragonflies and optimal habitat for their 
prey species. The public drain is cleared annually to maintain an 
unobstructed water flow. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank Malcolm Bushby. the head ranger, for permission to 
carry out netting and pond dipping and for his interest in the survey. 

REFERENCES 

British Dragonfly Society, undated. Managing Habitat for Dragonflies. 

Fryer. G. (1991). A Natural Histor^j of the Lakes. Tarns and Streams of the English Lake 

District. Freshwater Biological Association. 
Gibbons. B. (1994). Dragonflies and Damselflies of Britain and Northern Europe. Hamlyn. 
Hammond. CO. (1983). The Dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books. 
Jefferies. M. & Mills. D. (1990). Freshwater Ecology . Belhaven Press. 
Madin. D.F. (1994). Bulletin oftheA.E.S. 53. 

McGeeney. A. (1986). A complete guide to British Dragonflies. Jonathan Cape. 
Perrin, V. & Johnson. 1. (in press). Cambridgeshire Dragonflies. The Cambs. Dragonfly; 
suruex; 1991-93. Nature in Cambridgeshire. 

AN OBSERVATION OF PREPONA DEXAMENUS (HOPFFER) 

b\;JA.D. Smith (5438) 

Leas View. Epsom Road. West Horsier,'. Leatherhead. Surrei,' KT24 GAP. 

On my latest visit to Costa Rica in January 1995. residing at Hacienda 
Solimar in the south of Guanacaste Province, near to the Palo Verde 
Biological Station, I saw a specimen of this butterfly alight on a tree and 
was able to photograph it. This species is easily identified on account of 
its small size for the genus Prepona and the sti-aight line interface between 
the basal and distal halves of the wings on the underside. 

De Vries states in his excellent book The Butterflies of Costa Rica that it 
has not been recorded in that country although it does occur in Panama 
in lowland rain forest on the Atlantic slope. This sighting was in the north, 
quite near to Nicaragua, on the Pacific side, where the climate is quite 
different, and in the dry forest in the dry season. Little seems to be known 
of this pretty species although the genus is much prized by collectors, 
neither has the foodplant been documented. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



155 



THE USE OF SILICA GEL FOR DRYING INSECTS IN THE 
TROPICS 

by Phil Bragg (8737) 

51 Longfield Lane. Ilkeston. Derbijshire DE7 4DX. 

Although my main interest lies with Phasmids. 1 do occasionally collect 
other material for people working on other insect groups. 1 received a 
letter from an acquaintance in Australia to whom 1 had sent some cicadas 
which I collected in Borneo. 1 was particularly pleased to read "Your 
specimens had retained excellent colour, especially the green ones which 
usually reach me yellow or even dark brown, so whatever you did looking 
after them was extra good." In case anyone else is interested in how to 
retain green coloration when collecting insects in the tropics either for 
themselves or for others, the following may be helpful. 

Basically I kill the insects, paper them, and put them in a box of silica 
gel to dehydrate them. The specimens I have collected in this manner 
have included cicadas, dragonflies, cockroaches, mantid and bush 
crickets. 

Specimens are killed by being placed in a plastic bag, and dropping a 
small piece of cotton wool or tissue paper which has been soaked in ethyl 
ethanoate (= ethyl acetate) into the bag. Alternatively, with large insects, 
they are injected with a small quantity (eg 0.2cm") of 40% formalin; 
injection into the thorax is most effective. If ethyl ethanoate is used it is 
vital to remove the insect as soon as possible as it destroys green 
coloration very quickly. Formalin kills instantly and does not affect the 
colour, however, it does make it very difficult to relax the insect for 
setting. 

The dead specimens are placed in paper packets, with data written on 
the packets. The packets are closed and put into an air-tight plastic box, 
21cm X 15cm x 10cm, containing 200g of dehydrated silica gel. The gel 
contains cobalt chloride indicator and I dehydrate the gel as soon as it 
begins to change colour. How often dehydration of the gel is necessary 
depends upon the number and sizes of the insects collected. It may be 
sufficient to do it every few days, or it may be necessary to do it two or 
even three times per day. Dehydration is easily done by heating the gel in 
a small pan on a cooking stove. If (as I often am), you are camping or 
self-catering, it is easy to get in to the habit of dehydrating the gel while 
waiting for your coffee to cool to a drinkable temperature; by the time 
you finish washing up, the gel has cooled enough to be put back into the 



156 



AUGUST 1995 



box. Tipping the gel cmo the lop of the packets means Lhai some finds iis 
way to ihe bottom of the box. and some is in close contact with all the 
specimens. 

Once you are sure the specimens are totally dry they can be removed 
from the box and placed in an airtight container ieg plastic bag'. If you 
are collecting on a continual basis ii is bes: :o ha\ e r.vo or -Jr.ree boxes to 
ensure that the older material has time to dn^' completely. 

I should point out that I have only used the above method for 
peripheral maierial. not the n^.aieriai I ar::^- pariiculariy interested in 
collecting. Anyone intending to collect their main interest group (sj in this 
manner should beai- this in mind: if 1 collected Orthoptera seriously. I 
would need perhaps as many as eight or ten such boxes to deal with the 
quantiti.' collected. You can fill a box with specim.ens if they are in vanning 
states of dehydration: it would be unwise, ho'vvever. to fill a box with fresh 
material as it would be unlikely to dry fas: enough to prevent som.e 
rotting. 1 only rarely use this method for phasmids (usually I eviscerate, 
stuff with cotton wool, and set them immediately) because they tend to be 
very large, and are too fragile to be papered successfully. 



A FURTHER NOTE ON SWALLOWTAIL LARVAE EATING 
GROUND ELDER 

by Leigh Plester {2968} 

L was interested to read Trevor Sampson's note {Bulletin 53: 204) 
concerning P. machaon larvae feeding on ground elder {Aegopodium 
podagraria). During the 1970-1 980s. when I used to breed fairly large 
numbers of the species at a time in Finland. I fed the lar\'ae almost 
exclusively on ground elder growing profusely between my "garden" and 
a small birch wood. Ground elder tends to keep rather well in water, often 
up to a week, whereas both wild angelica {Angelica sylvestris) and milk 
pai'sley {Peucedanuni palustre) wilt rapidly when cut. 1 once saw a female 
deposit an egg on some ground elder in my garden and also found a 
couple of lan.-ae in another year, but locally the species seems to prefer 
angelica and milk parsley, possibly due to the fact that ground elder likes 
the shade and the butterflies normally lay their eggs on plants in sunny 
situations (especially where they overhang pools and ditches i. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



157 



Book Review 

Danmarks Svirrefluer by Ernst Torp. Large 8vo (24x1 7cm), 490pp of 
which 21 coloured, 482 figures, 270 distribution maps. Danmarks Dyreliv 
Vol. 6. Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19. DK-5771 Stenstrup. Denmark, 
1994. Price DKK 300.00 (c. £35 plus postage). 

Coming shortly after the new edition of British Hoverflies by Stubbs & 
Falk, this book forms an extremely useful complementary volume to all 
those interested in this group of Diptera. 

Although this is a Danish book and written in that language, after each 
species description there is a brief summary in English and the majority of 
the figures also have English captions. Those that do not are easy to 
understand, however. It is unfortunate that the keys are entirely in Danish 
as this is going to make their use limited to those who take the time and 
trouble to familiarise themselves with perhaps the 200 Danish words 
necessary to work through them. The many illustrative figures in this 
section are of course an immense help in following them through. 

The distribution maps are printed on a large scale, half a page to each. 
Under each species there are separate headings, describing in turn its 
characteristics, distribution (worldwide, not just in Denmark), biotope 
preferred, flight-period, flowers it prefers to visit, biology of the larva 
(where known), then the English summary. 

An interesting comparison with the English hoverfly book is in the 
presentation of the illustrations which in the English book have the wings 
(where these are shown - often only the body is shown) set rigidly at 
right-angles to the body wheras in the Danish one they are swept back, 
delta fashion. Perhaps one result of these colour photographs is that they 
show how markedly similar so many species are to one another and how 
essential, therefore, keys are to run down the true identity. Nine of the 
colour plates are, however, devoted to rather fine photographs of the 
living insects. 

This book more than complements Stubbs & Falk, for it gives far more 
useful biological information on each species, including the larval stages 
where known; and, in a number of instances I directly compared, the 
flight period in Denmark was longer than that given for England - 
interesting perhaps in view of Denmark's more northerly latitude. 

There is a checklist and I was surprised to find that all Danish hoverflies 
have colloquial names (red fire hoverfly, sea dune fly). There is an 
extensive bibliography and glossary, followed by the index. 



158 



AUGUST 1995 



Denmark has aboui ihe same number (270) of species as we do. Many 
are common lo both countries and in view of the uncertainty over the 
identity of some hoverflies and the almost certainty of more species being 
eventually recorded, a consultation of both the English and the Danish 
books makes good sense. 

Brian O.C. Gardiner 

WAS 1994 A GREAT CLOUDED YELLOW YEAR? 

bi; AD. Dillon 

56 Oban Road. Southend-on-Sea. Essex SS2 4JL. 

I wonder if 1994 will go down as another great Clouded yellow year? I 
ask the question because on the 28th August I once again came across 
this rather rare migrant in a small field adjacent to Southend Airport, in 
south-east Essex. 

I had spent only fifteen minutes recording the various butterfly species 
present, when I noticed a yellowish butterfly in the distance, flying close 
to the ground. As I suspected it might be a Clouded yellow, it was with 
some excitement that I went off in pursuit, and with little difficulty 
succeeded in netting the insect which proved to be a female, although in 
poor condition. 

The insect must have been attracted to the large quantities of lucerne 
and clover growing in the field, as this is rather a rare habitat in this area. 
However. I am pleased to say that this is the second time I have recorded 
the species at this locality, the last occasion being in 1983. which some 
authors e.g. Thomas & Lewington. Butterflies of Britain & Ireland. 1991) 
claim to be a ver^- good year for the Clouded yellow in this country. 

After some thought I decided to ny and breed from the captive insect. 
As I had no supplies of clover or lucerne at home. I decided to leave the 
specimen on-site, enclosing it with a growing clover plant under a 
cylindrical, plastic cage. The cage was placed at the edge of the field and 
a honey-pad was placed on the muslin roof as a nectar source. 
Unfortunately, when the site was visited some time later the cage had 
disappeared and the butterfly had escaped. Although the enclosed plant 
was searched for eggs, regrettably none were found. 

As this locality seems particularly attractive to the Clouded yellow 
within my immediate area. 1 now intend to visit the locality even^' August 
and September, in the hope of making further sightings of this rare and 
beautiful migrant. 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



159 



THE SEARCH FOR CRENATA - THE DUSKY-MARBLED 
BROWN 

by DrP.J. Edwards (6871) 

Haddenham Low House, Oxford Road. Dinton. Berkshire HPl 7 8TT. 

For many years, I have run a moth-trap in the Aylesbury area which is 
not far from Halton. All this time I have been haunted by the quote from 
South and many others, that Parson Greene beat a larva of Gluphisia 
crenata "from a poplar near Halton" in 1853. They then go on to say that 
previously Henry Doubleday took two females of this moth in Ongar Park 
Woods in 1839 and 1841. So the Halton moth was the last of these 
rather drab little Notodonts to have been seen in England. This must 
make it one of our rarest native moths. 

In the Entomological section of the Victoria County History of 1905, 
Parson Greene's capture is recorded in detail. On the 18th August 1853 
he beat a larva out of black poplar "between Halton and Weston 
Turville". The two villages are about a mile apart separated by a flat 
damp area, ideal for black poplar. 

He realised that his larva was out of the ordinary and it pupated the 
next day. He consulted some friends in the Entomological Society of 
London, and found his larva in Hiibner's book of European moths. His 
friend expressed doubt. He took the pupa with him to Dublin where he 
spent the winter, where it hatched in a greenhouse in March 1854. In 
April of that year it was shown at the Entomological Exhibition in London 
where it was commented on by most of the journals of the time. H.T. 
Stainton reports it in detail in his Entomological Annual for 1855. By 
1905 Greene was reported to be "much stricken in years" and he died 
soon afterwards aged 82. 

The Rev. Joseph Greene MA is best known entomologically for his 
paper "Pupa Digging" published in the Zoologist in 1857. The next year 
the paper was published by Newman as a separate leaflet, price two 
pence. It brought lasting fame to Parson Greene. A proposal was made to 
present him with a testimonial in the form of a silver trowel. E.W. Classey 
re-published "Pupa Digging" in 1957 and pondered on the fate of the 
trowel in the first volume of the Entomologist's Gazette. Greene also 
caught two Mazarine blues (Cyaniris semiargus) at Guiting Power, near 
Cheltenham, where he was working in 1850. C. semiargus was rare then 
and is now extinct as a British butterfly. 



160 



AUGUST 1995 



Poor Parson Greene. He has fallen under something of a cloud which I 
feel is not justified. P.B.M. Allan suggests he was exaggerating in his 
claims of the number of pupae he had dug. Certainly 60 pupae in an 
area the size of a dinner plate and a thousand incerta larvae in one year 
seem rather excessive. As a result there is a lingering doubt about his 
honesty, but I think his enthusiasm was more that of a fisherman 
describing his catch, rather than dishonesty. 

So what happened to the famous moth? In the Entomologisfs Record 
of 1906 (xviii pll92) there is a report of the sale of Greene's collection at 
Stephens's Saleroom. The G. crenata fetched £8.10, a great deal of 
money for the time (the two C. semiargus fetched £5.00). We were not 
told who bought it. However it now sits resplendent in the National 
Collection at South Kensington, with Greene's label underneath. 

Above it in the same drawer are Henry Doubleday's moths. But it is of 
great interest that there are three moths, not two, as so often 
stated. Doubleday was guilty of not labelling his specimens on the pin. So 
where did the third moth come from? Edward Newman in his British 
Butterflies and Moths says "Three specimens were taken at Epping". 
James English, who was employed by Doubleday to collect for him 
claims to have taken G. crenata at Ongar. (Essex Field Club Records July 
1884). He states quite clearly "In 1843 Gluphijsia crenata was taken at 
Ongar Park woods and subsequently two others, both females. They are 
now in the Doubleday Collection." 

In Moths & Butterflies of Great Britain (Heath et al Vol. 9 p. 6) mention 
is made of three Dusky marbled browns being taken among aspens on 
the Isle of Man. Indeed, in the same drawer as the Greene and 
Doubleday moths there is a single G. crenata, the label of which reads 
"Isle of Man E.G.M. 1870 Bred." David Carter, the collections manager at 
South Kensington, kindly pointed out to me a reference in the Entomologist 
for July 1874 by Gregson who was in Man at the time, saw the moths on the 
setting-boards and very much doubted that they were genuine. E.G.M. stood 
for E.G. Meek, one of the Kentish Buccaneers so criticised by P.B.M. Allan as 
being dishonest importers of foreign insects. It seems, therefore, that the 
report of G. crenata from the Isle of Man is probably false. 

So to summarise, I think there are four good records of G. crenata in 
Britain, not three as normally stated: one caught by English, two by 
Doubleday and one bred by Rev. J. Greene. The report of the moth from the 
Isle of Man must be discounted. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



161 



WILL BREEDING AND INSECT NETS BE BANNED? 

bi^Ton]; Steele (4106) 

With the impending review of the 1981 Wildlife & Countryside Act, it 
would seem almost certain that the Act will be amended to encompass 
most of the British butterfly species. One interesting possibility which 
could arise, is that the possession and breeding of these protected species, 
and the carrying and/or use of insect nets would be prohibited, unless a 
licence is granted. 

One well-known conservation organisation, has already requested that 
butterfly nets are not to be used on field trips. That request could easily 
become an order, and they may even appeal to Parliament to include a 
ban or restriction in the amendment. 

Then we must not forget the excellent work that breeders do, be it just 
for interest, for photographic purposes, or for the perfect cabinet 
specimen. A gravid female is collected, her progeny are then reared to 
maturity with virtually no losses because of protection from parasites etc, 
and the surplus released in the original location, thus reinforcing the 
donor colony. Much valuable information has been discovered by 
amateur breeders over the years, and to ban this pastime will be a 
deplorable loss to the entomological world. 

We all know that it is not collecting that is the main cause of the decline 
of our butterflies and other insects, but simply loss of suitable habitat. The 
chief culprit being the "head in sand" attitude of the Government to build 
more and more roads, instead of investing in a decent public transport 
system. These days, a site that has been designed SSSI status, is almost 
totally meaningless. Just look what happened to Twyford Down in 
Hampshire. 



BANANA BUTTERFLY 

by Geoff Ayres (8950) 

I have recently been given a dead butterfly which was found, apparently 
trapped, in a bunch of bananas (Musa x Sapientum spp. Tescola). 

It is fully expanded so I suspect that it may have chosen a poor roosting 
site. I identified the insect as Hamadrxjas guatemalena (Bates) so 
presumably the source was Central America. 



162 



AUGUST 1995 



THE V8 4x4 MOBILE INSECT TRAP 

bv Leigh Plester (2968) 

Yla-Muuratidrui. 41800 Korpilahti, Finland. 

Those who have had enough of the conventional light trap for catching 
insects might like to consider adding a few extra lights, a V8 petrol 
engine, some dented aluminium mudguards, and high and low ratio 
gearing. If the resulting con(trap)tion looks a bit like a Land-Rover, that 
may be because an insect trap of this kind has already proved a highly 
marketable commodity due to its mobility. 

"While tearing out the lining from the roof of our 1980 Land-Rover in 
the summer of 1993," I wrote on 14th November 1993, "I came across a 
large number of dead insects, mainly lacewings but including one or two 
other specimens. The vehicle has had a somewhat unusual history, 
having been shipped new to Bahrain in 1980 where it remained 
(according to a still intact tax disc) until at least 1986, when it was 
apparently shipped back to the UK. 

"It was purchased from there in 1990 by a Finnish Land-Rover dealer 
and was stuck out in the yard in Helsinki until September 1992, when I 
bought it off them. The vehicle is a LWB model, registered in Finland as a 
van, but it may originally have been a pick-up later fitted with a van top 
in the UK. Presumably the cab, from the roof lining of which I detached 
some of the specimens, is original, though. 

"So, all in all we could be looking at some common insects from the 
UK or some 'exotic' from Bahrain. It is also possible that the insects could 
have crept into the lining in Helsinki. There is, incidentally, a sticker on 
the rear side window advertising the Breckland Land-Rover Club and 
another for the Camel trophy/UK and Baikal, USSR (as it then was). 
Since the vehicle has my headhunter's monkey skull charm hanging from 
the rear view mirror, yet has never actually been driven in Borneo, these 
stickers may merely have been acquired by an eccentric owner like 
myself." 

On looking up Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street, I discovered he had 
given up sleuthing and gone into television, so I sent the letter (abridged 
above) and the appropriate specimens to three experts: Eric Bradford in 
Kent (Microlepidoptera), Colin Plant in Hertfordshire (Naturalist, 
Entomologist and lacewing specialist), and Dr Rauno Linnavuori of 
Somersoja, Finland (Hemiptera, including those of the Middle East). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



163 



Mr Bradford replied, "I have managed to identify one specimen. It goes 
by the name Agonopter\;x heracliana L., a common micromoth in this 
country (UK) and on the continent, including Norway and Finland. The 
Land-Rover must have been in the damp at some time as the moth was 
slightly mouldy; similar to bread mould. I had to dissect the body out 
which more or less fell apart in the petri dish. However, there was enough 
to make the determination. The second moth, or three-quarters of a moth 
(there was one forewing and two hindwings, no body) was the same 
species, probably a female. Nothing remotely exotic about them. 

"I do not know what to make of the empty pupal skin. It could be from 
which the second moth emerged. I am not a specialist when it comes to 
pupae. There was also a husk of grass or grain, a bit of the roof lining and 
that's about it. Shame it wasn't an exciting thing from Bahrain but that's 
how it goes." 

After receiving my initial enquiry together with a monochrome print, 
and later the desiccated lacewings, Colin Plant duly reported that, "I 
rather suspected what they might be when I got your first letter, as there is 
really only one species of green lacewing that hibernates and is therefore 
likely to be found in odd places such as Land-Rovers! My suspicions were 
strengthened when I saw the photograph and confirmed when I saw the 
specimens! They are all examples of Chrysoperla carnea Stephens 
(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) - probably the most numerically abundant 
and geographically widespread green lacewing in the Palaearctic Region. 
In the Nearctic (North America) it is replaced by Chrysoperla plorabunda 
which, say some, is the same species with an American accent. It is 
present in Finland." 

He then went into more detail. "C/i. carnea may in fact be a species 
complex. French researcher, Dr Patrice Leraut, recently split off Ch. 
renoni, Ch. lucasina and Ch.kolthoffi as distinct species, raising the names 
from the vast list of synonyms available for carnea. His views are not 
universally agreed, but there is, nevertheless, an International 
Chrysoperla carnea Working Group, based in Switzerland and organised 
by Dr Peter Duelli. Not as loony as it may initially seem - carnea shows 
great geographic variation and there is a theory that it is actually evolving 
before our very eyes. 

"Sorry this is a rather boring response to a potentially interesting 
question, but the insects could have got in anywhere along the route and 
there are no clues from their identity!" 

Members might like to note Mr Plant's final comment, "I should be 
pleased to look at Finnish lacewings if you ever need any identifying; and 



164 



AUGUST 1995 



Members might like to note Mr Plant's final comment, "I should be 
pleased to look at Finnish lacewings if you ever need any identifying; and 
of course if you ever come across any interesting species I do have a few 
"gaps" in my reference collection!", as I feel this could apply universally. I 
have to take issue with his comment about "boring response", however! 

In turn, Dr Linnavuori replied that the solitary bug I had sent him 
". . . belongs to Elasmostethus interstinctus L. (Acanthosomatidae). It is 
definitely not from Bahrain, but since it is common in the UK, Finland or 
even Siberia, I cannot tell its origin." 

E. interstinctus is the birch shieldbug found throughout the British Isles 
in mixed broadleaf woodlands. It hibernates as an adult under bark or in 
moss. To these details from Southwood and Leston, one is tempted to 
add, "... and in the roof lining of old Land-Rovers!" 

I should like to express my sincere appreciation to the three experts for 
identifying the specimens with such enthusiasm and dedication. The only 
other insect of merit I can recollect having seen in a trap fitted with an 
internal combustion engine was my first Mazarine blue (C\;aniris 
senniargus). This was caught in the radiator of a car in northern France in 
July 1962. I wonder whether other members have made use of similar 
traps? 



PALE CLOUDED YELLOW (C. HYALE) - 
A REQUEST FOR RECORDS 

by Michael Edmonds (3821 ) 

31 Beconsfield Close, Dorridge. Solihull. West Midlands B93 8QZ. 

The Pale clouded yellow is a butterfly which is rarely seen in this country, 
but with an exceptionally warm summer and the recording of numerous 
sightings of migrant species such as the Queen of Spain fritillary and 
Camberwell beauty the possibility of the Pale clouded yellow being 
sighted is high. I would, therefore, be pleased to hear of any sightings 
with a location and grid reference. 



REFERENCE 

Southwood & Leston. (1959). Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles. 




AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



165 



PRESERVING ONE S RECORDS 

by RA. Eades (9730) 

28 The Stra];, South Cave, Brough, North Humberside HU15 2AL. 

Peggie Pitkin's note (Vol 53: 256) is of great interest. Undoubtedly she is 
correct in wishing to avoid "twitching" entering entomology, though it 
surely cannot be denied that the urge to collect and classify is deep rooted 
in people, even entomologists. Indeed, our great museums are founded 
on this need. 

May I suggest that one practical step which every naturalist should take 
is to ensure that one's notes and records are entered into a permanent 
archive for storage after one's death. The local museum or public record 
office would seem a sensible location. Time after time, the vultures and 
tidy-up brigade come along after the sad event, looking for pickings. That 
which is not financially valuable is thrown into the dustbin. How many 
priceless collections and diaries have been lost in this way, through 
ignorance and apathy? It really does not bear thinking about! 

A further useful task would be to try and analyse one's records over the 
years. Probably the most productive way would be to look at each site 
that one has ever worked, and draw up a list of species found there, with 
details of abundance, changes in status, exceptional years of abundance 
or disappearance. The further back one can go, the better. A site-based 
approach would probably be the most useful for conservationists, 
especially in planning battles. 

It is surprising how frequently it happens that when a planning 
application is put forward which will destroy a good insect habitat, almost 
invariably nothing is written up nor published about the location. Yet it 
has been worked by local naturalists and entomologists for years, if not 
generations. The knowledge resides in diaries, collections, or people's 
heads, but not in a form which can be presented to a planning inspector. 
With "motorway madness" still this country's only transport policy, 
nowhere can be assumed safe. 

For those brave souls who have entered the computer age, the final 
solution would presumably be to enter all one's records onto a computer 
disc. This can then be lodged at a museum or data bank, copies can 
easily be made from it, and the storage problem of bulky notebooks can 
be reduced. English Nature have produced a software package called 
"Recorder" which the experts say is ideal to store and collate records for 
future use. Perhaps this will eventually create a "Domesday Book" for 
nature conservation? 

i 



166 



AUGUST 1995 




60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS SOCIETY 
Part IV. 1965-74 

by \Nayr\e Jarvis (9899) 

During the late 1960s, conservation became a common interest amongst 
entomologists and this was highlighted in Bulletin articles in particular. 
The 1940s reporting of insect collecting now gave way to observations 
and habitat reports. 

The AES went into its fourth decade with a stable membership of just 
over 800 and the Bulletin in its 24th Volume. H.V. Danks continued his 
reign as editor, and in August 1965 produced a special issue (Volume 54: 
Number 268) in which two articles were published. A guide to, and local 
insects in north-west Cornwall by D. Trebilcock and Insect migration - a 
review by C.B. Williams. 1965 was a good year for the Society, with 
production and sale of AES metal badges (still available today) for 3s 9d 
with 4d postage and packing, but the highlight of the year was 
undoubtedly the exhibition. This was again held at Hugh Myddleton 
School in October and attracted an enormous number of exceedingly 
high quality exhibits despite the summer being one of the worst ever for 
sun-loving insects, especially in the Home Counties. 

A subscription increase greeted 1966. after heavy losses in the previous 
year, partly due to the large August Bulletin which cost £223 to produce 
compared with the normal Bulletins cost of £143. A huge interest was 
shown by Junior members in stick-insects which were now readily 
available to those who wished to rear them. Field meetings were also 
regularly organised during the year. 

A regular Bulletin feature over the years had been D. Ollevant's 
Smaller moths - collecting notes. With the August 1966 Bulletin (Volume 
25: Number 272) this was taken over by A.M. Emmet. 

February 1968 saw the only remaining Study Group of the Society, the 
AES Breeding Group, become the AES Consei-vation Group, in light of 
the keen interest in conservation. The Bulletin, by this time had become 
dominated with the larger articles which prior to 1963 had been hard to 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



167 



come by. Mr Danks resigned from the editorship with the May 1968 issue 
due to personal reasons, ending his six year association with the Bulletin. 
His successor was David Corke (who incidentally some 20 years later was 
my lecturer at University - and I never knew that he had edited the 
Bulletin]). The Royal Entomological Society called a special meeting on 
21st June 1968 to set up an independent broadly-based committee for 
the conservation of insects, the JCCBI, in which the AES had, and still 
has, an active part. By the end of the year, the Society saw a second 
Study Group formed, this being the reformation of the Silkmoth Rearers' 
Group. 

A new Bulletin format was seen in 1969, with a look more familiar with 
today's publication. The two-column structure adopted over the past 30 
years was abolished, thus making it easier to publish longer articles as 
AES leaflets. The conservation group continued to thrive and the 
exhibition was a huge success, with a change in venue to Holland Park, 
Kensington, where space was more freely available. 

David Corke resigned as Bulletin editor with the February 1970 edition 
(Volume 29: Number 286) and was replaced by John Bocock. A third 
Study Group, the Midlands Group was formed during this year. 

The first ever black and white photographs were included in the 
Bulletin in 1971, with two pictures of dark bush crickets being 
incorporated into an article in Volume 30: Number 293, November 1971 
ppll8-9. However, the next photographs didn't appear for a couple of 
years. Over 2000 people attended the exhibition, but traders were 
beginning to dominate the event, far outweighing exhibitors, and Council 
decided to address this the following year. 

John Bocock joined the list of retired editors in February 1972 (Volume 
31: Number 294) and was replaced by Paul Boswell. It was during this 
year that the membership passed the 1000 mark for only the second time 
in the Society's history. 

An important year in the Society's history was 1973, the Society gained 
Charity Status. The Bulletin increased in size and the printer was 
changed. Ellis and Phillips Ltd were replaced by the Kettering-based V.B. 
Pike. During 1973 two official sub-committees of the Society were 
formed. The Conservation group was amalgamated into the Society as 
the Conservation Committee, and a Finance Committee was set up. The 
300th Bulletin appeared during 1973 in August, which also saw the 
departure of Paul Boswell as editor. With no successor forthcoming, Peter 
Cribb stepped into the editor's shoes in a temporary capacity until a 
replacement could be found. 



168 



AUGUST 1995 



Only two Bulletins went by until that successor was found. Brian 
Gardiner stepped foiivard to begin a spell of 20 years of highly successful 
editorship. Brian had previously had a brief association with the Bulletin 
under Beowulf Cooper in 1947-8. 

A selection of Bulletin articles from the decade follows. 

From Volume 24 Number 267, May 1965. Page 68. 
LETTER TO THE EDITOR 

by Wendi'Russ (3784J) 

Sir.- Last year 1 found an old Song Thrush's nest, three feet up in a 
hedge. Later, when taking it to pieces to look for insects. I was surprised 
to find a moth pupa inside it. The pupa was kept and later produced a 
specimen of the Clouded-bordered brindle {Apamea crenata Hufn.). 
Surely this was a very unusual place for a caterpillar to pupate. Have any 
other members found pupae in birds' nests? 

From Volume 25 Number 272. August 1 966. Pages 82-83. 
COLLECTING FLIES WITHOUT A NET 

by R.M. Payne (2982) 

Collecting flies without a net has at least two distinct advantages. The 
specimens are much less likely to be damaged than if they are caught on 
the wing, or swept off vegetation: and you can obser\/e them beforehand 
and study their behaviour, either with the naked eye or under a weak lens 
with a suitably wide field. 

I have spent many pleasant hours looking for and at flies in situations 
that lent themselves to this technique, for example on ti"ee trunks, on the 
ivet moss and rocks by waterfalls or on broad leaves in my garden. To 
give you an idea of the variety of tlies that occur in such places 1 will 
describe two particular occasions. 

One day in June 1964 I strolled down a broad ride in Epping Forest, 
and paused to examine the trunks of a few oak {Quercus sp.) and 
Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus Linn.) trees. My only equipment was a 
number of glass tubes, a hand lens and a notebook. If you have not 
looked closely at a ti'unk in summer before, it is suiprising what a lot of 
insect life is to be seen on its surface. In a veiy short time I had tubed 
specimens of twelve species of tlies in nine families. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



169 



By far the most abundant fly was the tiny Empidid Tachypeza nubiia 
Meig., which was running about the trunk. The other species were: 
Tipulidae, Ilisia occoecata Edw. and Molophilus ochraceus Meig.; 
Culicidae, Ades cantans Meig.; Mycetophilidae, Tetragoneura s[;!uatica 
Curtis; Rhagionidae, Rhagio scolopacea Linn, and R. lineola Fab.; 
Doiichopodidae, Medeterus tristis Zett. and Sciopus plat\;pterus Fab.; 
Muscidae, Alloest\;lus diaphanus Weid.; and undetermined species of 
Cecidomyiidae and Phoridae (two very difficult families for which keys 
are not available). 

The other occasion was very different. At the end of June 1964 I was 
climbing up a shoulder of the Brecon Beacons, and stopped to have my 
sandwiches by a small waterfall about 2000 feet above sea level. After I 
had eaten I looked closely over the sheet of wet moss hanging at the sides 
of the waterfall, and found several males of the large Rhagio scolopacea 
Linn, sitting in their usual attitude face downwards. The other flies noted 
on this moss were all Tipulids - perhaps because this is the family 1 am 
most interested in! Species were Tipula cheethami Edw., Dolichopeza 
albipes Stroem., Dicranomyia didyma Meig., D. aquosa Verrall and 
Tricijphona claripennis Verrall. All these flies were captured simply by 
tubing them as they rested on the moss. In the case of one species - 
Dolichopeza - I was able to make some notes of their courtship behaviour 
while I watched them, subsequently capturing just one specimen to 
confirm their identity. 

From Volume 26, Number 275, May 1967, Page 54. 
SKIN CHANGING IN THE INDIAN MOON MOTH 

by D.J. Longman (4042J) 

Last year (1966) I bred some Actias selene Huebn. (Indian moon moth). 
They were easy to breed, but turned out to be rather a problem in the 
winter, because the only food that they would take was Rhododendron 
and 1 had to keep getting fresh supplies, which were about ten miles 
away. 

The small larvae hatched from fairly large ochreous coloured eggs and 
assumed a red colour with black warts with white hairs arising from them. 
This skin lasted for just under a week. 

The second skin was much the same, although there was a black band 
running cross-ways over the body. This skin lasted for just under two 
weeks. 

The third skin was considerably different from the previous two. Its 
main colour was a transparent green, but the warts had changed colour to 



170 



AUGUST 1995 



yellow. In ihis skin, and in the fumre skins. I saw ihe front four warts 
become more prominent. This skin lasted for approximately two and a 
half weeks. 

The only difference in the fourth skin was the increase in size, and the 
time that the laivae kept the skin. I now expected the lar\-ae to pupate, 
but instead they kept feeding. They changed three more skins before 
pupating in a thin, papeiy cocoon, which was made by bringing two or 
three leaves together with a few strands of brown silk. The larvae did not 
complete the cocoon straight away, but waited for about forty hours 
before commencing again. It took about three days' work by the lar\-ae to 
complete the cocoon. 

The pupae were about one and a half inches long, with a rich dark 
brown smiace. There was no sign on the wing cases of the long tails that 
are present on the hindwings. 

Would anyone who has had a laiva change more than seven skins, 
please let me know? 

From Volume 27. yumber 27S. FebruGry 1963. Pages 33-34. 
GNATS WITH AN ANTENNA FOR MUSIC 

by Leigh Plesier 12968) 

Quite often, while perusing literature outside m.y own immediate spheres 
of study. I discover an item which interests me not simply as another 
piece of scientific knowledge, but rather as a novel piece of information 
easily recalled to m.ind for a long tim.e afteiwards. 

Such an item, appears in Annales Zoologici Fennici (1966). in which 
Jaakko Syriamaki reports his observations on dusk-swarming in 
Cr.ironomiis pseiidothummi Sti^enzke. These obseivations were made at 
the Lammi Biological Station, south Finland i61"'03'X: 25'03'E). during 
the late summer of 1965. 

"One evening, when watching the swarm. I began to hum a Finnish 
folk-song. As 1 hummed the first note, the whole swarm abruptly moved 
down and the nearest swarmers flew veiy vigorously to the vicinity of my 
mouth. This led me to stop humming, whereupon the males immediately 
returned to the swarm. The tone sung proved to be G \i.e. about 200 
vibrations per second) as determined with the aid of a piano-fone in the 
nearby home of the janitor of the Station."" 

I would be interested to know whether any of our members have met 
with similar experiences in the field. Syriamaki records that the 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



171 



phenomenon has been observed before (Nielsen and Grieve, 1940), but 
as neither of these observations was made in Britain, if one of our 
dipterists is sufficiently interested he could perhaps perform some original 
work in the field using, for example, a set of tuning forks. It might be 
possible to discover what vibrations attract the males of the various British 
species, hence to contribute to the knowledge respecting mate-attraction 
in the females. 

References: Syrjamaki, J. (1966). Annales Zoologici Fennici, 3(1): 20-8. Dusk swarming 
of Chironomus pseudothummi Strenzke. (Dipt. Chironomidae). 

Nielsen, E.T. & Grieve. H. (1950). Bull. Entom. Res., 41: 227-28. Studies on the swarming 
habits of mosquitoes and other Nematocera. 

From Volume 27, Number 278, Februari; 1968, Pages 34-5. 
THE GLOW-WORM IN KENT 

by Brian Wurzell (3718) 

Recently I heard that as this insect seems to be decreasing in numbers 
recent records were of special interest. In June 1967, I found Glow-worms 
(Lampyris noctiluca Linn.) to be quite frequent in the Weald of Kent, just 
south of Knole Park, Sevenoaks. Any half an hour's walk after dark would 
certainly reveal two or three females on pathsides and verges, while males 
regularly came to electric lights, presumably confusing artificial light with 
the sexually-inviting light of the female. Perhaps the female's light renders 
her far more vulnerable to nocturnal predators, not to mention collectors, 
or even passers-by who cannot resist handing, or displaying to their 
friends, objects of unique interest. More publicity about the precarious 
status of the Glow-worm could do no harm. 

From Volume 32, Number 301, November 1973, Page 1 72. 
KEEPING THOSE ANTS AT BAY (AND ALIVE) 

by T.P. Pa\;ne (4688) 

I refer to I. Scott's troubles with keeping his ants. I offer the following 
observations which he might find helpful. Insects flourish best in captivity 
when given as much space as possible so the Formicarium should be as 
big as is convenient. Ants can roam over any surface, even when upside 
down, within their foraging area. The ants' nests at the London Zoo are 
given about three feet in each direction but this may be too large for the 
average amateur. A moat of water is still the best way to confine the ants 
I but the base of the "island" should slope gently towards the water and 
j not end abruptly in a "cliff" over which the ants are sure to fall. They 

I 



172 



AUGUST 1995 



need water and can get what they want from the water's edge of the 
sloping shore. Water will have to be added daily in hot weather to 
compensate for evaporation and a wide wall brush should be passed over 
the surface to remove debris and film which forms on the surface and 
enables the ants to cross over. Outdoor cages should be protected from 
birds and it is sufficient to form a frame of timber which is then covered 
with nylon netting of the type used to cover fruit bushes. 




The making of the cage can be as follows. A plastic washing-up bowl is 
placed on an old table top or similar flat board of the dimensions 
suggested above, in the centre of the board with the bowl mouth 
upwards. A mould of cement/sand mixture is built up around the bowl to 
its lip and then dished away and down to be raised again at the periphery 
of the table so that a moat is formed around the central island (see 
sketch). The ants' nest is set in the bowl with soil and litter from the 
original site of the nest if possible. It is a heavy contraption so should be 
made in situ. 

Do not use DDT to prevent roaming as the ants will bring it back into 
the nest with fatal results Suitable food for the ants to collect can be 
placed in spots around the island. 



SLOVENIA OR SLOVAKIA? 

by WgCdrR. Parker (5247) 

263 Back Row. Bur\; St. Edmunds. Suffolk IP28 SEX. 

Readers wishing to see the limestone valley in the Mala Fati-a National 
Park, pictured on Plate 95G in Vol. 54 No. 399. should be sure to visit 
the right country. It is not in Slovenia (former Yugoslavia) as suggested in 
the caption, but in Slovakia (former Czechoslovakia) - as correctly 
described in the map and article (p. 67). 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



173 



UNLIKELY BUTTERFLY HABITAT IN THE PHILIPPINES 

by Peter B. Hardi; (9436) and Grace C. Abejuela 

10 Dudle\; Road. Sale. Cheshire. 

During three weeks of butterfly observation in the PhiHppines in 
December 1994 and January 1995, as well as visiting areas recognised as 
prime butterfly habitat, we carried out some studies on the extent to 
which some of the more successful species were able to utilise sites which 
would not normally be regarded as suitable habitat. 

Such an area is Subic port, a former United States Navy base now 
developing as a large-scale hotel, recreational and duty-free shopping 
zone. Essentially it is an extensive complex of buildings and roads, 
interspersed by areas of mown lawns, flower beds and occasional planted 
trees. Although there is extensive primary rainforest about five miles 
away, virtually no natural vegetation exists in the port area. 

Shortly inside the port entrance, beside the road, we came across a 
very large number of Common lineblues (Prosotas nora), centred on a 
single small leguminous tree (approximately 15 feet tall), identified by 
GCA as a "Camachile" (Phitacelobium dulce). Close to the tree were 
several small ornamental shrubs with red flowers C'Gumamela"), and 
some of the butterflies were straying over these; however, the Camachile 
tree was clearly their base and there were none on nearby 
Tamarind/Sampalok trees. The butterflies were very active; up to a 
hundred could be seen in a space of a few minutes constantly making 
short flights around the tree and adjacent vegetation, while others were 
resting with closed wings or dorsal-reflectance basking with wings three 
quarters open. Some were feeding from secretions on the leaves. We 
stayed four days in the area and each time we passed during daylight 
hours the butterflies were active, apparently without regard to whether the 
day was sunny or cloudy, even when it was quite windy. They appeared 
quite undeterred by the constant passage of pedestrians and vehicles. 
Also, electric lights which were hung around the tree and switched on at 
night presumably did not affect them. 

We did not observe any dispersal away from the tree, and although no 
egg-laying was witnessed, we are confident that the colony was breeding 
on it. Elsewhere in the port area, although there were small numbers of 
the butterfly around other Camachile trees, we found no other colony 
comparable in size. 

During previous tours of the Philippines we have come across this species 
similarly congregating around single trees; however we feel the present 
observation to be of exceptional interest because of its unlikely location. 



174 



AUGUST 1995 



Diary Dates 

Abbreviations 



BENHS British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

I: Information from: 

LCES Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

LSL Linnean Society of London. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 

RES(QG) RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 

RSPB Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 



To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. Any 
relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor . No charge is made for 
entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 

SEPTEMBER 

2nd BENHS Field Meeting 

Snettisham RSPB Reserve, Norfolk. Meet at 12.00hrs and IS.OOhrs at 

car park (TF 647335). 

I: Ken Saul 01493 369021. 

9th BENHS Field Meeting 

Dungeness, Kent. Meet at IS.OOhrs at Britannia pub car park (TR 
092168). 

I: Sean Clancy 01797 321458. 

13th Some contributions towards a Red Data list of Lepidoptera and 
other invertebrates in the London area. 

Joint BENHS and LSL meeting. Colin Plant, well known for his detailed 
reviews mapping the distribution of invertebrates in the London area 
talks about how his work helps to assess which species are declining and 
threatened. At Linnean Society's rooms. Burlington House, Piccadilly 
from IS.OOhrs. 

I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, 
Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

14th/ Forests and Insects. 

15th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London to be held at 
the Natural History Museum, London. 

To Register or for I: Mr G.G. Bentley at RES 0171 584 8361. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



175 



1 6th LCES Field Meeting. 

Cil-y-Groeslwyd. Clwyd. Daytime meeting in conjunction with the Clwyd 
Entomological Society. Meet at grid reference (SJ 126553) at ll.OOhrs. 
I: Rob Whitehead 01824 704507. 

Leajhopper Workshop. 

BENHS Workshop at Dinton Pastures Country Park, Davis Street, Hurst, 
Reading. (SU 784718). Starting at lO.SOhrs. Please book places prior to 
event. 

To book or for I: Dr Ian McLean, 109 Miller Way, Brampton, 
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

BENHS Field Meeting and Genitalia Workshop. 

Natural History Museum Gardens, London. Day to be split between 
insect survey and tuition in the preparation and drawing of the genitalia 
of Lepidoptera. Contact leader in advance please. 
I: Malcolm Scoble 0171 938 9200. 

1 9th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Talk to be held at Liverptjol Museum 19.00hrs - subject and speaker to 
be finalised. 



OCTOBER 

7th AES Annual Exhibition. 

Kempton Park Racecourse. Doors open ll.OOhrs until 17.00hrs. 
I: Roy McCormick, 

36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8WR. 

10th BENHS Indoor Meeting - British Hairstreaks and their 
Conservation. 

RES(QG) 18.00hrs. Ken Willmott gives a talk on these attractive and 
elusive butterflies which have distinctive conservation needs. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

1 7th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Review of the 1995 season. At Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

28th BENHS Annual Exhibition and Annual Dinner. 

Exhibits are encouraged. Non-BENHS members please contact the 
organiser for details in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



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PRACTICAL HINTS FOR THE FIELD LEPIDOPTERIST byJ.W.Tutt 

Written in three parts at the turn of the century, this book has been reprinted 
because it still represents the most comprehensive field guide covering both 
macro and microlepidoptera. Parts I to III all give a month by month guide to 
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plates showing 74 photographs of larvae and adult moths) £13.75 

Killing, Setting and Storing Butterflies and Moths ( 19 pages) .... £2.85 

The Study of Stoneflies, Mayflies and Caddis Flies (44 pp, 1 0 flgs.) . . £3.40 

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The Hymenopterists Handbook (226 pages, illustrated) £8.50 

Revised Flight Tables for the Hymenoptera (24 pages) £2.00 

A Coleopterists Handbook (Hardback, 300 pages, illustrated) . . . .£15.50 

Host plants of British Beetles (24 pages) £2.00 

A Dipterists Handbook (260 pages, illustrated) £9.50 

Rearing and Studying Stick and Leaf-Insects (73 pp. 43 figs. 17 plates) . £5.00 

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THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION, 1995 

Saturday, 7th October 

11 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

KEMPTON PARK RACECOURSE, 
STAINES ROAD, SUNBURY, MIDDX. 

ACCESSIBILITY: The Racecourse is easy to reach by road and rail, and 
there is adequate free car parking. The IVI25 is very near and is linked 
to Kempton Park by the M3, which is less than a mile away. Sunbury 
Railway Station with trains from Waterloo, is a short walk away. The 
site is served by two bus routes. Green Line No. 290, and Red bus No. 
216. Both these buses stop right outside. 

ADMISSION: by Programme at the door, 50p. In addition, sticky 
badges will be issued. These are to be worn while at the show. 
PARKING: in the free car parks only. NOT outside the Grandstand. 

Keep all entrances clear. 

EXHIBITORS AND DEALERS ONLY will be admitted between 8 am 
and 1 1 am. 

TROLLEYS are not provided and provision should be made for heavy 
loads. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL DEALERS are attending. 

REFRESHMENTS: Full facilities are available. All food and drink to be 
consumed in the Refreshment Area. 

SURPLUS MATERIAL: will be welcome for sale on behalf of the 
Society's funds. 

ANSORGE BEQUEST: Cash prizes and certificates to Junior Members 
for exhibits at the Exhibition. 

LIVESTOCK: It is the duty of both dealers and buyers to ensure that all 
livestock is kept in containers which are roomy, hygienic and secure 
against any possible escape. 

EXHIBITS which show long series of wild-caught, rare or endangered 
species will not be allowed. 

ALL ENQUIRIES: Roy McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR 



CONTENTS 



P. Waring and R. Thomas. Moths and butterflies of the French Pyrennes, 

22nd-31st July 1994 124 

A. Steele. Observing butterflies in Austria, July 1994 130 

D.F. Madin. A further study of the Odonata of Milton Country Park 

(South Cambridgeshire) 149 

P.J. Edwards. The search for crenata - the Dusky marbled brown 159 

L. Plester. The V8 4x4 mobile insect trap 162 

W.J. Jaruis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, Part IV. 1965-74 166 

Short Communications 

C. Martin. Roesel's bush cricket in Surrey 129 

F. McCann. Glasgow observations 133 

J.A.D. Smith. An observation on Prepona dexamenus 154 

P. Bragg. The use of silica gel for drying insects in the tropics 155 

L. Plester. A further note on Swallowtail larvae eating ground elder 156 

A.D. Dillon. Was 1994 a great Clouded yellow year? 158 

A. Steele. Will breeding nests be banned? 161 

G. Ayres. Banana butterfly 161 

M. Edmonds. Pale clouded yellow (C. hya/e) - a request for records 164 

R.A. Eades. Preserving one's records 165 

P.B. Hardy and G.C. Abejuela. Unlikely butterfly habitat in the Philippines 173 

1994 Exhibition Report 134 

Editorial 123 

Book Review 

Danmarks Svirrefluer 157 

Diary Dates 174 

Slovenia or Slovakia? Correction to Vol. 54: (399) 172 



NOTICE 

It is to be distinctly understood that ali views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal are solely those 
of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or informa- 
tion, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held 
responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 20th August 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430), from 4 Steep Close. Orpington. Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd.. 1 Tower Hill. Brentwood. Essex CM14 4TA. 



6s. 56 ^ 



ISSN 0266-836X 



%9 



Volume 54, No. 402, October, 1995 




The Bulletin 
of the Amateur 
Entomologists' 
Society 



^ -^rjL Natural 

i H!5^T0PVMUSFUM 

10 OCT ie9§ 

PRESENTED 
ENTOIVIOIOGY LIBRARY 



EDITOR 

WAYNE JARVIS BSc. 



The Amateur Entomologists' Society 

Founded in 1935 



President: 
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Rob Dyke 

26 Ridings Avenue, Winchmore Hill, London N21 2EL. 
Wayne Jarvis 

9a Brook Street, Luton, Bedfordshire LU3 IDS. 
e-mail: jarvisw@bbsrc.ac.uk. Tel: (01582) 485820. 

Andrew Locke 

150 Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW9 lUU. 
Mark Colvin 

5 Oakfield, Plaistow, Billingshurst, West Sussex RH14 OQD. 
Wayne Jarvis 

9a Brook Street, Luton, Bedfordshire LU3 IDS. 
Mike Bonsall 

Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College at Silwood 
Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY. e-mail: m.bonsall@ic.ac.uk. 

Rob Dyke 

26 Ridings Avenue, Winchmore Hill, London N21 2EL. 
Roy McCormick 

36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQM 8WR. 
Darren Mann 

c/o The Registrar, address as above. 
David Lonsdale 

33 King's Road, Alton, Hampshire GU34 IPX. 
Owen Lewis 

Department of Pure & Applied Biology, 
The University of Leeds, 
Leeds LS2 9JT. 

Martin Harvey 

10 Kiln Ride, Upper Basildon, Berkshire RG8 8TA. 



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Midlands 
Christmas Entomological Fair 

Granby Halls, Leicester 

Sunday 26th November 1995 
10.30am -4.30pm 
Admissions £1.00 Adults - 50p Juniors (5-16) 

• .4// major dealers in attendance. • 
• Specialist groups and organisations. • 
• Equipment for breeding and collecting. • 
• Livestock, papered stock, books and periodicals. • 
• Large reptile section. • 

Enquiries: Jack Harris, 01455 846310 

Bar and catering .\mple free parking 

Dian note: Spring Fair - same venue 31st March 1996 



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AES BULLETIN 




No. 402 





MscTORV MUSEUM 



THE NATURAL 



3 0 OCT 1995 



PRESENTED 



ENTOMOLOGY LIBRARY 



EDITORIAL 

It was with great sadness that the Society heard of the tragic death of Eric 
Bradford, who has been an integral part of the Society for many, many 
years. Eric's devotion and dedication to entomology in general was 
second to none, and we send his family our dearest sympathy. 

I would like to apologise to all authors who have submitted a paper 
recently. Due to the inclusion of ICN within the Bulletin and the length of 
articles which have accompanied colour plates, it has meant that there 
has been a build up of articles on my desk. Please rest assured that if you 
have sent an article it will be published as soon as possible! 

The new look Bulletin is now certain to be launched in February. I am 
still interested to hear of any features that you would like to see included 
in the future, after all it is your journal and we aim to include what you 
want to read. If you have any comments or suggestions, please feel free 
to drop me a line. 

The 1995 exhibition was, once again, a success despite the inclement 
weather. It was Roy McCormick's last exhibition as the organiser, and on 
behalf of the Society, I would like to thank him for all his hard work, 
which has paid off year after year, making the event a very enjoyable 
occasion. Hopefully, his successor, Maxwell Barclay, will be able to 
continue where Roy has left off. 

Finally, please note that subscriptions are due shortly, and it would 
help the registrar enormously if the membership forms are returned as 
soon as possible. We are also in the process of compiling a new 
membership list for 1996 and we would appreciate it if the accompanying 
interests form could also be returned. 



Best wishes, 
Wayne Jarvis. 



178 



OCTOBER 1995 



HOW LONG-LEGGED WAS THAT ROMAN SOLDIER? 
- A CONTRIBUTION ON ROMANUS LONGIPES 

by Neil A. Robinson (1 0002) 

I enjoyed reading Richard Jones's article How big is that bug? in the 
October 1994 issue of the Bulletin, which prompted some mental 
meanderings on my own part. 

I note that the mile (originally 1618 yards) for a Roman soldier was 
1000 paces. Mighty long-legged these Romans, with paces of 1.6 yards! 
The explanation, I recollect from my schooldays, is that the Roman pace 
was a double stride ie the distance advanced by each foot, not the 
distance between feet, so the Roman mille passuun] was 2000 of our 
paces. That makes their pace 0.8 yards or 28.8 inches which sounds 
about right for their reputedly smaller stature - they were in fact Ronnan 
breuipes. 

I was intrigued to learn about the origin and size of that mysterious unit 
of length the "line" which I can remember encountering in old books 
when 1 was a boy without ever knowing what it meant, and why my 
word-processor gives Font sizes in "points", but 1 thought that typesetters 
designed layout in "ems". The Concise O.E.D. defines "em" as "the unit for 
measuring the amount of printed matter in a line", without explaining the 
dimensions - so what on earth is an "em"? 

On the subject of systems based on twelves, I think there are even older 
systems based on sixes and 60s. I remember vaguely from my schooldays 
that the reason why divisions of 60 are so prevalent in time-keeping and in 
geometry (6 x 60 degrees in the circle) is that arithmetic used by the 
Egyptians, the earliest Western astronomers, was based on these units (but I 
am not suggesting that it was because they had six digits). Perhaps someone 
can confirm this or correct me on this matter? 

Finally, 1 dread the 25 millimetre worm (though not as much as the 25 
metre Lampton Worm recorded in V.C. 66 near Penshaw Hill) which puts me 
in mind of the crooked man who walked a crooked 1.6 kilometres and found 
a crooked . . . 

[Printer's note: Because we need some standard to work to. the good old-fashioned printer works 
still to the old printers' standard: 

72 points to the inch (even this measurement is approximate!) 

To make matters worse, the "em" is a variable measure too! It is a square unit for any size type 
you are using. For example: if you are using 12 point type, the em is 12 point x 12 point (=6 to 
the inch); if you are using 8 point type, the em is 8 point x 8 point ( = 9 to the inch): and so on 
with all sizes of type. 

I think there is a shift-tendency towards the dreaded metric system, but well-trained printers still 
plump for the time-honoured system because, well . . it does work for us at Cravitz!] 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



179 



MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES OF THE FRENCH PYRENEES, 
22nd - 31st JULY 1994 

by Paul Waring (4220) and Rachael Thomas 

continued from page 129 

Up into the mountains 

On 26th July we drove up into the mountains to Col de Portel (42°55'N 
l°2rE) and spent two hours, from 12.00 - 14.00 hrs, enjoying the hot 
sun. Here we visited open hillsides covered in ling heather, bracken, 
bramble, broom and St. John's-worts Hypericum spp., with patches of 
betony Betonica officinalis, bird's-foot trefoil and thyme Thymus sp. Male 
Oak eggar moths were patrolling and we saw several of the purple and 
gold geometrid Lythria purpurata which can easily be confused with 
Lythria purpuraria which has only two major purple bands across the 
forewing rather than the three of L. purpurata. Six-spot burnet moths 
Zygaena filipendulae were frequent, feeding at Scabious flowers. This was 
a good place for butterflies and we saw several High brown fritillaries 
Argynnis adippe flying up and down amongst the patches of bracken. A 
specimen was netted to confirm that it was not a Dark green fritillary A. 
aglaja or a Niobe A. niobe. A couple of the Knapweed fritillary Melitaea 
phoebe were also noted. Several of the dark brown Piedmont ringlet 
Erebia meolans were seen feeding on flowers of a small scabious, a 
Swallowtail Papilio machaon was photographed sunbathing on a bracken 
frond. Small tortoiseshells Aglais urticae, Clouded yellows Colias croceus 
and Meadow browns Maniola jurtina were common, a Purple emperor 
Apatura iris was seen flying around scrub woodland fringing the hillside 
and a female Brimstone Gonepteryx rhamni and a male Pale-shot copper 
Lycaena alciphron gordius were also noted. 

We moved on to a rocky limestone peak just above the lake at Etang 
de Lers (42°48'N 1°23'E). Here was a quite different habitat (altitude 
1517 metres) comprising scattered bushes of juniper Juniperus 
communis, bramble, holly, hazel and red elder with carpets of harebells 
Campanula rotundifolia, the pale yellow flowering Sideritis hyssopifolia a 
small labiate, a Lady's mantle Alchemilla sp., a rock-rose Helianthemum 
sp., fringed pinks Dianthus monsspessulanus, thyme, bird's-foot trefoil 
and St. John's-worts Hypericum spp. The Chalkhill blue Lysandra 
coridon was common, with males and females nectaring on the Sideritis. 
Several Large wall browns Lasiommata maera were flitting about and 
male Six-spot burnets were patrolling. A worn female Oak eggar was 
found and a small white geometrid which proved to be a female 



180 



OCTOBER 1995 



Crocota peletieraria was noticed at rest on the bare rock. We sat enjoying 
the scenery and watching these insects from 16.00 - 17.00 hrs before 
driving on. 

At 17.45 hrs just below Port de Lers (41°48'27"N r25'9"E, c.1500 
metres) we pulled over at a series of hairpin bends to watch a female 
Apollo butterfly Parnassius apollo still feeding in the flower of spear thistle 
Cirsium vulgaris even though the sun had gone in. We watched it for 
over half an hour and in the process disturbed what looked like a large 
grey Common carpet moth Epirrhoe alternata but which proved to be E. 
moUuginata, which was at rest on the underside of a bramble leaf. 

On 27th July we drove high up into the mountains to the French 
border adjoining Andorra. We followed the D108 road up from 
Vicdessos, via Marc, until it became an unsurfaced track up to the 
reservoir de Pla de Soulcem and beyond, negotiating steep hair-pin 
bends and loose rock scree until the boulders on the track became so 
large and difficult to negotiate that we pulled the car over to let the engine 
cool down and continued on foot. The climb had got us up into open 
grassy hillsides lightly grazed by cattle, with U-shaped valleys and streams 
(altitude 2500 metres). There were very few trees or bushes. To give an 
idea of the flora, some of the plants noted amongst the grass sward 
included yellow bedstraw Galium verum (on which we found a full-grown 
caterpillar of the Hummingbird hawk-moth), thyme, bird's-foot trefoil, 
yellow rattle Rhinanthus sp., yarrow Achf//ea millefolium, harebell, fringed 
pink, eyebright Euphrasia officinalis agg. and the St. John's-wort 
Hypericum maculatum. Just below the Andorran border an Apollo flew 
across the track and a Berger's clouded yellow Colias alfacariensis was 
seen traversing the slopes. The Common brassy ringlet Erebia cassioides 
and the fawn and white pyralid moth Panstegia aerealis were plentiful 
along the track. Several Small mountain ringlets Erebia epiphron were 
seen and a large off-white Wave moth Scopula incanata was flushed from 
among rocks when we sat down to take in the scenery and identify some 
plants. 

On the descent we found large amounts of flowering dark mullein 
plants once we reached the lower wooded altitudes below Marc (1043 
metres) so we stopped off to inspect them for Shark larvae (Cucullia sp.), 
finding several dozen caterpillars of the Striped lychnis Cucullia lychnitis. 

We returned to the gite via Port de Lers, seeing another Apollo, this 
time a male, at the same hairpin bend where we saw the female the day 
before. Marbled whites Melanargia galathea were everywhere on the 
limestone. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



181 



We reached Col d'Agnes on the D8 road {4r47'35"N r22'39"E, 
altitude 1570 metres) at 19.00 hrs and pulled the car over to photograph 
the backdrop of snowy peaks as the afternoon drew to a close and it 
became overcast. A silky black geometrid was seen nectaring at the flower 
of a marsh thistle Cirsium palustre by the roadside, along with several 
Six-spot burnet moths. The geometrid proved to be a male Crocota 
peletieraria, the white female of which we had seen the day before. We 
motored on down to the village of Aulus les Bains, with its picturesque 
church amid the mountain setting, to return to our gite, a restful meal and 
the excitement of another night's light-trapping. 

Carcassonne, Quillan and Montsegur 

On 28th July we drove out from the gite, leaving the foothills of the 
Pyrenees, and motored across the agricultural plains to the ancient walled 
city of Carcassonne, surrounded by vineyards. This was purely a sight- 
seeing trip and our only entomological note was the finding of a single 
forewing of the Knapweed fritillary MeUtaea phoebe in the tourist car 
park. Of course the wing may have fallen from the front of any car with 
which the butterfly may have collided, the butterfly possibly originating 
from many miles away. Carcassone was at one time very much 
associated with the Cathars, a religious group, and it was to their 
mountain-top stronghold of Montsegur that we next headed, travelling 
via, and staying overnight at, the delightful old village of Alet les Bains 
near Quillan. On the campsite among mature poplars Populus by the 
river we put up some wine-ropes after erecting the tent. They were up by 
20.30 hrs and were checked at 22.30 hrs on our return from the 
restaurant in the village but no moths were seen at all. 

The mountain sides above Quillan were much more exciting for 
Lepidoptera. The vegetation was largely parched and dry, with scattered 
clumps of evergreen or holm oak Quercus ilex, box Buxus semperuirens, 
scrubby pines Pinus sp., a thorny broom-like plant and a few maples Acer 
sp., in marked contrast to the lusher vegetation around the gite. We 
stopped at a largely empty cleared area which served as a car park cum 
picnic site, with a panoramic view, on the Foix road (D117) 4km east of 
Nebias, by the junction with the Coudons road (D613) (at approximately 
42°53'N 2°09'E). This was a particularly good spot for butterflies, largely 
because of a bank of nectar flowers on the disturbed limestone ground at 
the edge of the car park, the result of earlier bulldozing no doubt. A 
mauve-flowered scabious was abundant, along with marjoram Origanum 
vulgare, a stonecrop Sedum sp. and yellow-wort Blackstonia perfoliata. 



182 



OCTOBER 1995 



Such a concentration of flowers was not seen elsewhere in the 
landscape and butterflies finding them were evidently remaining in the 
vicinity. We saw several fresh Swallowtails and a Scarce swallowtail, 
Silver-washed fritillaries Arg\;ninis paphia, a male Cleopatra brimstone G. 
Cleopatra and several of the False grayling Arethusana arethusa. Other 
species noted included a Painted lady Cynthia cardui, several Clouded 
yellows Colias croceus and Berger's clouded yellows, Bath whites Pontia 
daplidice, Marbled whites, Adonis blues Lysandra beUargus, Common 
blues Polyommatus icarus and a Brown argus Aricia agestis. This is 
definitely a place to return to one day with a light-trap and generator. 

Montsegur was nothing short of spectacular. The road winds steeply up 
into the mountains and eventually one sees a small fortification perched 
up on a pinnacle. It was a hot sunny day on our visit as we squinted up at 
this whitish Cathar edifice against a clear blue sky. There is a car park on 
the nearest flat ground which hummed with the sound of radiator fans on 
the hot engines of recently-parked cars. The final climb is on foot, up a 
well-worn path through wonderful steep flower-rich limestone grassland 
and scrub. Entomologically this was memorable for the numbers of the 
Large blue butterfly Maculinea arion, here occurring in a dusky form 
associated with higher altitudes. 

Motoring on to visit the limestone cave at Bedeilhac, near Tarascon, we 
came across a lovely flower-rich meadow on the north side of the D119 
within sight of Le Serat-Maury. It contained much flowering knapweed, 
mallow, bird's-foot trefoil and various umbels and was alive with 
Common blues, Gatekeepers Pyronia tithonus, Small heaths 
Coenonympha pamphilus, Meadow browns and Wall browns 
Lasiommata megera and would surely repay greater entomological 
investigation. There was nothing to indicate whether or not this meadow 
enjoys any special conservation status. 

Journeys to and from the Ariege 

We travelled pretty directly to and from the Ariege so that we could spend 
as much of our time as possible within striking distance of the gite. We 
can recommend travelling down the western side of France, from 
Cherbourg, and find this is more scenic than some other routes we have 
taken south through France. Nevertheless it is a long haul and two days 
should be allowed for a pleasant relaxed journey. Quite by chance we 
found an excellent campsite for the lepidopterist, which is the right 
distance from Cherbourg to break the journey south and this is a tip 
worth passing on. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



183 



The campsite is situated in oak woodland with good-sized trees, has 
excellent facilities and a superb local restaurant within walking distance. It 
is called Camping Municipal La Garenne, 17250 Pont L'Abbe, D'Arnoult 
(Tel: 49.97.01.46). The campsite is 3km from the N137, from which it is 
signposted. At the Restaurant le Porche in the village we had a superb 
four course meal of traditional cuisine for 65F (about £8) a head. PW was 
too sleepy to do any moth work on this first night in France, due to too 
many late nights mothing in Britain before we set off and little sleep on 
the ferry, but the site looked very promising for moths and it is a place we 
would like to return to. 

Our homeward itinerary was different. We left the gite at 15.00 hrs on 
31st July, encountering an amazing thunderstorm and heavy downpour 
shortly afterwards, during which plane trees Platanus sp. along the 
Toulouse ring-road system shed many branches. We camped overnight 
on a rather sterile campsite at Puymirol. The site consisted of mown grass 
and ornamental hedges of laurel Lauras and privet Ligustrum, with some 
poplars, in open farmland. We hung four wine-ropes on the hedges 
around the tent and succeeded in attracting the sleek Black copper 
underwing Amphip\^ra liuida, an Orache Trachea atriplicis and a Purple 
cloud Actinotia poli^odon by our efforts. 

We spent our last night within easy striking distance of the ferry, at 
Camping a la Ferme, La Cour, 53640 le Ribay, Normandy (c/o R. 
Bergue, Tel. 43.03.90.84) which is the best of the three campsites in the 
area from the point of view of light-trapping possibilities, with pastures, 
hedgerows, mature trees and an old orchard, in contrast to the rather 
ornamental campsites we saw nearby. Facilities were basic and might be 
stretched if the campsite was busy, but it was empty on the night we were 
there. The owner is very friendly and took us to his wine-cellar, where he 
makes a prize-winning pommeau from the apples grown in the orchard! 

Concluding remarks 

There is no doubt that a wide variety of moths exist in the semi-natural 
habitats of the Pyrenees. The interest in these records shown by several 
French contacts and the scarcity of resident recorders in this large area 
indicate that visitors can make a useful contribution towards updating 
records and extending coverage. This is equally true of many other 
places. There is a growing need for up-to-date species lists for national 
and international mapping projects. Readers are strongly urged to publish 
their findings so that they are available for other workers and projects in 
the host country and can be located through routine literature searches. 



184 



OCTOBER 1995 



now and in the future. As a result of modern computerised indexes, 
locating published lists is increasingly easy and the AES Bulletin is already 
becoming known as a fertile source of records. 



Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank David and Elaine Corke for so kindly making 
available their gite for our use. our neighbours in the surrounding gites for 
welcoming us during our stay. Terry Hollingsworth for our mothing night 
together at Les Esquirottes. Barry Goater and Manfred Sommerer for help 
with some of the moth identifications. Nick Greaterex-Davies for 
discussions on the Satyrines following our illustrated talk on this project to 
the Huntingdonshire Moth and Butterfly Group. Martin Honey and the 
staff at the Natural History Museum. London, for access to the National 
Collection. Keith Kirby for identifying our sprig of Quercus pubescens and 
Malcolm Rush. English Nature librarian for arranging the loan of various 
botanical books. 



Table 1. Macro-moths recorded at Les Aberes. Rivierenert. St. Girons. 
Dept. Ariege. French Pyrenees. 22nd - 31st July 1994. 

(a) Species which are also resident in Britain. 

HEPIALIDAE 

Map-winged swift Hepialus fusconebulosa (DeGeer) 



COSSIDAE 
Leopard moth 



Zeuzera p[;rina (Linnaeus) 



LI^4AC0DIDAE 

Festoon 



Apoda liniacodes (Hufnagel) 



LASIOCAMPIDAE 
Oak eggar 
Drinker 



Lasiocampa quercus (Linnaeus) 
Euthrix potatoria (Linnaeus) 



DREPANIDAE 



Scalloped hook-tip 
Oak hook-tip 
Ban-ed hook-tip 
Scarce hook-tip 



Falcaria lacertinaria (Linnaeus) 
Drepana binaria (Hufnagel) 
D. cuhraria (Fabricius) 
Sabra harpagula (Esper) 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



185 



THYATIRIDAE 




Peach blossom 


Th\;atira batis (Linnaeus) 


Buff arches 


Hahrosyne pyrxtoides (Hufnagel) 


Common lutestring 


Ochropacha duphhs (Linnaeus) 


GEOMETRIDAE 




Grass emerald 


Pseudoterpna pruinata (Hufnagel) 


Large emerald 


Geowetra papilionaria (Linnaeus) 


Little emerald 


Jodis loctcQriQ (Linnaeus) 


Mocha 


Cyclophora annulata (Schulze) 


Maiden's blush 


C. punctaria (Linnaeus) 


Blood-vein 


Tirnandra griseata (Petersen) 


Lace border 


Scopula ornata (Scopoli) 


Small fan-footed wave 


Idaea biselata (Hufnagel) 


Single-dotted wave 


/. dimidiata (Hugnagel) 


Riband wave 


/. auersata (Linaeus) 


Flame carpet 


Xanthorhoe designata (Hufnagel) 


Red twin-spot carpet 


X. spadicearia (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Dark-barred twin-spot carpet 


X. ferrugata (Clerck) 


Shaded broad-bar 


Scotopteryx chenopodiata (Linnaeus) 


Common carpet 


Epirrhoe alternata (MuUer) 


Galium carpet 


E. galiata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Beautiful carpet 


Mesoleuca albicilJata (Hiibner) 


Purple bar 


Cosmorhoe oceUata (Linnaeus) 


Phoenix 


Eulithis prunata (Linnaeus) 


Spinach 


E. mellinata (Fabricius) 


Small phoenix 


Ecliptopera silaceata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Common marbled carpet 


Chloroclysta truncata (Hufnagel) 


July highflyer 


Hxjdriornena furcata (Thunberg) 


Fern 


Horisme tersata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Pretty chalk carpet 


Mehnthia procellata (Denis & Schiffermuller) 


Brown scallop 


Philereme uetulata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Cloaked carpet 


Euphyia biangulata (Haworth) 


Tawny-speckled pug 


E. icterata (Villers) 


V-nuo 


Ch!orocl\jstis v-Qto (Haworth) 


Green pug 


C. rectangulata (Linnaeus) 


Lesser treble-bar 


AploccfQ cfforrnotQ (Guenee) 


Clouded magpie 


Abraxas syhata (Scopoli) 


Clouded border 


Lornaspilis rnarginata (Linnaeus) 


Peacock 


Serniothisa notata (Linnaeus) 


Sharp-angled peacock 


S. altemaria (Hiibner) 


Latticed heath 


S. clathrata (Linnaeus) 


Barred umber 


Plagodis puluewria (Linnaeus) 


Scorched wing 


P. dolabraria (Linnaeus) 


Horse chestnut 


PachycneTTtia hippocastanaria (Hiibner) 


Brimstone moth 


Opisthograptis luteolata (Linnaeus) 


August thorn 


Ennomos quercinaria (Hufnagel) 


Early thorn 


Selenia dentaria (Fabricius) 


Lunar thorn 


S. lunulaha (Hiibner) 


Purple thorn 


S. tetralunaria (Hufnagel) 


Scalloped oak 


Crocallis elinguaria (Linnaeus) 


Peppered moth 


Bistort betuhria (Linnaeus) (typical form) 


Waved umber 


Mer]ophra abruptaria (Thunberg) 



186 



OCTOBER 1995 



Willow beauty 
Mottled beauty 
Pale oak beauty 
Engrailed 
Common wave 
Clouded silver 

SPHINGIDAE 
Small elephant hawk 

NOTODONTIDAE 
Alder kitten 
Lobster moth 
Iron prominent 
Pebble prominent 
Lesser swallow prominent 
Swallow prominent 
Coxcomb prominent 
Pale prominent 

LYMANTRIIDAE 
Yellow-tail 
Black arches 

ARCTIIDAE 
Rosy footman 
Dingy footman 
Scarce footman 
Buff footman 
Four-spotted footman 
Garden tiger 
Buff ermine 
Ruby tiger 

NOLIDAE 

Kent black arches 
Least black arches 

NOCTUIDAE 
Turnip moth 
Dark sword-grass 
Flame shoulder 
Broad-bordered yellow 

underwing 
Lesser broad-bordered yellow 

underwing 
Least yellow underwing 
True lover's knot 
Purple clay 

Setaceous hebrew character 
Dotted clay 
Triple-spotted clay 
Green arches 
Dot moth 



Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Denis & Schiffermiillerj 

Aids repandata (Linnaeus) 

Serraca punctinalis (Scopoli) 

Ectropis bistortata (Goeze) 

Cabera exanthemata (Scopoli) 

Lomographa temerata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 

Deilephila porcellus (Linnaeus) 

Furcula bicuspis (Borkhausen) 
Stauropus fagi (Linnaeus) 
Notodonta dromedarius (Linnaeus) 
EHgmodonta ziczac (Linnaeus) 
Pheosia gnoma (Fabricius) 
P. tremula (Clerck) 
Ptilodon capucina (Linnaeus) 
Pterostoma palpina (Clerck) 



Euproctis similis (Fuessly) 
L\^mantria monacha (Linnaeus) 



Miltochrista miniata (Forster) 
Eilerna griseola (Hiibner) 
E. complana (Linnaeus) 
E. deplana (Esper) 
Lithosia quadra (Linnaeus) 
Arctia caja (Linnaeus) 
Spilosoma luteum (Hufnagel) 
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (Linnaeus) 

Meganola albula (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 
No/a confusalis (Herrich-Shaffer) 

Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 
A. ipsilon (Hufnagel) 
Ochropleura plecta (Linnaeus) 

Noctua fimbriata (Schreber) 

N. janthe (Denis & Schiffermiiller) agg. 

N. interjecta (Hubner) 

L^'cophotia porphyjria (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 

Diarsia brunnea (Denis & Schiffemiiiller) 

Xestia c-nigrum (Linnaeus) 

X. baja (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 

X. ditrapezium (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 

Anaplectoides prasina (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Melanchra persicariae (Linnaeus) 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



187 



Bright-line brown-eye 


Lacanobia olemcea (Linnaeus) 


Broom moth 


Ceramica pisi (Linnaeus) 


Campion 


Hadena riuulahs (Fabricius) 


Brown-line bright-eye 


M\;thinnna conigera (Denis & bchitiermuller) 


Shark 


Cucullia umbratica (Linnaeus) 


Alder moth 


Acronicta alni (Linnaeus) 


Grey dagger 


A. psi (Linnaeus) 


Knot grass 


A. rumicis (Linnaeus) 


Marbled beauty 


Cr\;phia domestica (Hufnagel) 


Copper underwing 


Amphipxjra puramidea (Linnaeus) 


Bird's wing 


Dypterxjgia scabriuscula (Linnaeus) 


Small angle shades 


Euplexia lucipara (Linnaeus) 


Ulive 


IpimoTpha subtusa (Denis & SchinermuUer) 


Dun-bar 


Cosmia trapezina (Linnaeus) 


Light arches 


A / /T~\ • O O \-'££ "11 \ 

Apamea /imoxy/ea (Denis & Schiffermuller) 


Slender brindle 


A. scolopacina (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 


Rustic 


tioplodrma blanda (Denis & bchiitermuUer) 


Marbled white-spot 


T '±1 !• / T T r 1 \ 

Litnacodia pygarga (Hufnagel) 


Scarce silver-lines 


Bena prasinana (Linnaeus) 


Green silver-lines 


Pseudoips fagana (Fabricius) 


Nut-tree tussock 


Colocasia cor\;h (Linnaeus) 


Burnished brass 


Diachrysia chrxjsitis (Linnaeus) 


Beautiful golden Y 


Autographa puicnrma (Haworth) 


Plain golden Y 


A. jota (Linnaeus) 


Gold spangle 


A / J. /r^ * O O 1 '££ "11 \ 

A. bractea (Denis & Schiffermuller) 


Dark spectacle 


Abrostoia tngemina (Werneburg) 


Light crimson underwing 


Catocala promissa (Denis & Schiffermuller) 


Small purpled-barred 


nr J. J. - • I • / /^i 1 \ 

Ph{;tometra umdaria (Clerck) 


Straw dot 


Rivula sericealis (Scopoli) 


Beautiful snout 


H\;pena crassalis (Fabricius) 


Snout 


H. proboscidalis (Linnaeus) 


Fan-foot 


Herminia tarsipennalis (Treitschke) 


Clay fan-foot 


ParacolcDC dehualis (Hiibner) 


Olive crescent 


Tristateles emortualis (Denis & Schiffermuller) 



(b) Species not resident 

LASIOCAMPIDAE 

DREPANIDAE 
Dusky hook-tip 

GEOMETRIDAE 
Blair's mocha 

SPHINGIDAE 
Convolvulus hawk 
Humming-bird hawk 
Striped hawk 

NOTODONTIDAE 
Dusky marbled brown 



in the British Isles. 

Odonestis pruni (Linnaeus) 

Drepana curuatula (Borkhausen) M 

Ci)clophom puppillaria (Hiibner) M 



Agrius convolvuU (Linnaeus) M 
Macroglossum steUatarum (Linnaeus) M 
Hy/es lineata (Fabricius) M 



Harp\;ia milhaurseri (Fabricius) M 
Gluphisia crenata (Esper) M 



188 



OCTOBER 1995 



THAUMETOPOEIDAE 
Pine processionary 

LYMANTRIIDAE 
Black V moth 
Gypsy moth 

ARCTIIDAE 



NOCTUIDAE 
Purple cloud 
White-point 
White-speck 
Tree-lichen beauty 
Latin 

Small mottled willow 
Silver Y 
Dewick's plusia 



Jubilee fan-foot 



Thaumetopoea pifyocampa (D. & S.) M 



Arctornis l-nigrum (Muller) M 
L\;mantria dispar (Linnaeus) M 



Paidia marina (Hiibner) 



Actinotia polyodon (Clerck) M 

Mythimna albipuncta (D. & S.) M 

M. unipuncta (Haworth) M 

Cryphia algae (Fabricius) M 

Callopistha juuentina (Stoll) M 

Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner) M 

Autographa gamma (Linnaeus) M 
Macdunnoughia confusa (Stephens) M 
Ephesia fulminea (Scopoli) 
Deltotes candidula (D. & S.) 

Herminia lunalis (Scopoli) M 



M = recorded as a migrant to Britain. 



Table 2. Species list for Les Esquirottes (42°55'N 0°57'30"E), Illartein, 
Foret Domaniale de Bellongue Sud, Castillon-en-Couserons, Ariege, 
France, 30th July 1994. 



COSSIDAE 
Leopard moth 

LASIOCAMPIDAE 

Lackey 

Oak eggar 

DREPANIDAE 
Oak hook-tip 
Dusky hook-tip 

THYATIRIDAE 
Peach blossom 
Buff arches 
Common lutestring 

GEOMETRIDAE 
Little emerald 
Birch mocha 
Maiden's blush 
Riband wave 
Flame carpet 



Zeuzera pyrina (Linnaeus) 



Malacosma neustria (Linnaeus) 
Lasiocampa quercus (Linnaeus) 



Drepana binaria (Hufnagel) 
D. cuwatula ((Borkhausen) 



Thyatira batis (Linnaeus) 
Habrosyne pyritoides (Hufnagel) 
Ochropacha duplaris (Linnaeus) 



Jodis lactearia (Linnaeus) 
Cydophora albipunctata (Hufnagel) 
C. punctaria (Linnaeus) 
Idaea auersata (Linaeus) 
Xanthorhoe designata (Hufnagel) 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



189 



Red twin-spot carpet 
Shaded broad-bar 
Common carpet 
Yellow shell 
Netted carpet 
July highflyer 
Fern 

Tawny-speckled pug 
V-pug 

Clouded border 
Barred umber 
Scorched wing 
Brimstone moth 
Dark bordered beauty 
August thorn 
Early thorn 
Willow beauty 
Common white wave 
Clouded silver 

NOTODONTIDAE 

Alder kitten 

Iron prominent 

Lesser swallow prominent 

LYMANTRIIDAE 
Yellow-tail 

ARCTIIDAE 
Rosy footman 
Dingy footman 
Buff footman 
Four-spotted footman 
Ruby tiger 

NOCTUIDAE 

Flame shoulder 

Lesser broad-bordered yellow 

underwing 
True lover's knot 
Purple clay 

Setaceous hebrew character 

Double square-spot 

Green arches 

White-speck 

Miller 

Coronet 

Copper underwing 
Latin 

Slender brindie 
Bordered straw 
Marbled white-spot 



X. spadicearia (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 
Scotopteryx chenopodiata (Linnaeus) 
Epirrhoe alternata (MuUer) 
Camptogramma bilineata (Linnaeus) 
Eustroma reticulata (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 
Hijdriomena furcata (Thunberg) 
Horisme tersata (Denis & Schiffermuller) 
Eupithecia icterata (Villers) 
Chloroclxjstis u-ata (Haworth) 
Lomaspilis marginata (Linnaeus) 
Plagodis pulueraria (Linnaeus) 
P. dolabraria (Linnaeus) 
Opisthograptis luteolata (Linnaeus) 
Epione paralellaria (Denis & Schiffermuller) 
Ennomos quercinaria (Hufnagel) 
Selenia dentaria (Fabricius) 

Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Denis & Schiffermuller) 
Cabera pusaria (Linnaeus) 
Lomographa temerata (Denis & Schiffermuller) 
Gnophos fuhatus (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Furcula bicuspis (Borkhausen) 
Notodonta dromedarius (Linnaeus) 
Pheosia gnoma (Fabricius) 
Dr\jmor]ia querna (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Euproctis simihs (Fuessly) 

Miltochrista miniata (Forster) 
Eilema griseola (Hubner) 
E. deplana (Esper) 
Lithosia quadra (Linnaeus) 
Phragmatobia fuliginosa (Linnaeus) 

Ochropleura plecta (Linnaeus) 

Noctua janthe (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

L\;cophotia porphi;ria (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Diarsia brunnea (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Xestia c-nigrun] (Linnaeus) 

X. triangulum (Hufnagel) 

Anaplectoides prasina (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Mi;thimna unipuncta (Haworth) 

Acronicta leporina (Linnaeus) 

Craniophora Hgustri (Denis & Schiffermuller) 

Amphipxjra pxjramidea (Linnaeus) 

Pol\;phaenis sericata (Esper) 

Callopistria juuentina (Stoll) 

Apamea scolopacina (Esper) 

Heliothis peltigera (Denis & Schiffermiiller) 

Lithacodia px^garga (Hufnagel) 



190 



OCTOBER 1995 



Scarce silver-lines 
Green silver-lines 
Light crimson underwing 
Small purpled-barred 

plus the distinctive pyralids 
and Mother of pead 



Bena pmsinana (Linnaeus) 

Pseudoips fagana (Fabricius) 

Catocala promissa (Denis & Schiffermtiller) 

Ph];tometra uihdaria (Clerck) 

Uresiphita poli^gonalis (Denis & Schiffermuller) 
Pleuropfya ruralis (Scopoli) 



REFERENCES 

Goater, B. (1986). A new technique of sugaring. Entomohgisfs Rec. J. Var. 98: 37. 
Kirby, W.F. (1903). The butterflies and moths of Europe. Cassell, London. 
Novak, I. (1980). Afield guide in colour to butterflies and moths. Octopus, London. 
Polunin, O. & Huxley, A. (1988). Flowers of the Mediterranean. 2nd Edition. Hogarth press, 
London. 

Polunin, O. & Smythies, B.E. (1973). Flowers of south-west Europe - afield guide. Oxford 

University Press, London. 
Reichholf-Riehm, H. (1991). Field guide to butterflies and moths of Britain and Europe. 

Crowood, Swindon. 
Waring, P. (1995). "Wine-roping" for moths. Butterfly Conservation News 60. 



BUTTERFLY ADAPTATION TO UNNATURAL HABITATS IN 
THE PHILIPPINES 

by Peter B. Hardy (9436) 

10 Dudley Road, Sale, Cheshire, 
and 

Grace C. Abejuela 

43 Rosal Street, Pasaij City, Phillipines. 

Cities do not spring to mind as ideal butterfly habitats. Certainly they do 
not hold anything like the diversity of virgin forest. Nevertheless, studies of 
the more tolerant species, that are able to exploit them, can be rewarding. 

In Britain in recent years, many areas in and around cities have 
become wildlife havens. Unlike in the wider countryside, where as is all 
too well known most habitats outside nature reserves have been severely 
degraded by modern intensive farming, forestry, mineral extraction and 
the like. Often in and around cities the reverse has been true, and in and 
around Manchester (PBH's home area), for instance, abandonment of 
industry has allowed many sites to establish where butterflies have been 
able to form strong colonies - such as river valleys, abandoned railway 
lines and yards, abandoned collieries, former rubbish tips and slag heaps; 
far more public open space exists in and around the city and it is easily 
possible to walk all day on a near-infinite network of public footpaths 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



191 



Regrettably these concepts are almost unknown in tropical countries 
such as the Philippines. The degradation of the countryside has been just 
as severe but the concepts of allowing wildlife habitat to regenerate in and 
around cities and provision of walkways are virtually unknown, thus 
opportunities for study are much more limited. Nevertheless we feel that 
worthwhile studies on butterflies tolerant of the urban fringe can be made, 
even in and around the city of Manila. 

In the Nayong Filipino (Philippine Village) park, a site laid out primarily 
as a formal parkland around a small artificial lake, for the benefit of tourists 
and family parties and adjacent to the extensive mown grass areas of 
Manila airport, during several visits we have recorded up to seventeen 
species in an afternoon (Papilio demoleus, Appias lib\;thea, Leptosia nina, 
Catopsilia pomona, Eurema hecabe, Junonia almana, J. hedonia, J. 
lemonias, Mxjcalesis mineus, Prosotas nora, Chilades pandava (Plate 95Q, 
Fig. 1), Zizina otis (Plate 95Q, Fig. 2), Zizeeria karsandra (Plate 95Q, Fig. 
3), Zizula /ly/ax, Aeromachus plumbeola, Pelopidas matthias and 
Taractrocera luzonensis). Some clearly breed in the scraps of rough 
grassland , e.g. the Grass blues and Hesperiids, particularly the 
extraordinary-coloured (silvery-blue) A. plumbeola, a Philippines endemic. 

We found C. pandava, the Plains cupid, in great abundance in 
December 1994 and April 1995, breeding on young shoots of ornamental 
pitogo palms (Cijcas rumpii) in the formal shrubberies in the park (Plate 
95Q, Fig. 1). We have also found this species breeding on similar palms 
bordering the very formal lawns of the Coconut Palace hotel beside 
Manila Bay, Pasay. 

One or more of the three species of Grass blues (Z otis, Z. karsandra 
and Z. hy/ax), particularly the first two, are even more adaptable. Most 
scraps of greenery, right to the city centre, can produce one or other of 
these species. They have different hostplants - Z. otis mainly utilises 
leguminous plants (Fabaceae) and the main host of Z. karsandra is 
Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Z otis can apparently breed even 
on severely mown lawns, on a small legume in the mown grass. On 3rd 
May 1995 we watched Z. karsandra ovipositing on weedy Amaranthus at 
a demolition site in Intramuros, near the centre of Manila. 

In Fort Santiago, Intramuros, a well-known historic and tourist site, on 
3rd May 1995 we found evidence of breeding Papilio demoleus (the 
Lime butterfly) on a row of five small ornamental Citrus trees (Rutaceae) 
(Plate 95Q, Fig. 4); again, though it provides a small scrap of greenery in 
a densely populated urban area, this site is very formally laid out and 
very far removed from a natural habitat. 



192 



OCTOBER 1995 



Another, quite different, location where we had an opportunity to 
assess the adaptability of certain butterflies was King's Paradise, a very 
small offshore island near Brookes Point, Palawan, in the early stages of 
being developed as a holiday complex by the owner of the Puerto 
Princesa airport hotel. At the time of our visit, in late April 1995, the 
entire natural vegetation of the island's interior had either been replaced 
by coconut palms or was in a state of severe disturbance due to further 
earth-moving work which had recently damaged the understory. A small 
strip of mangrove still fringed some of the shore. During three days on the 
island we saw four species of butterfly - Hebomoia glaucippe (1), P. 
demoleus (max. 2), both species nectaring on ornamental bougainvillea 
bushes, Z. karsandra and Danaus chrysippus. Following our seeing a 
female D. chr\;sippus ovipositing on a tiny, stunted plant of Asclepias 
(Plate 95R, Fig. 5), a single shoot no more than two feet high, and finding 
a single half-grown larva on the same plant, we searched a number of 
larger bushes planted near the shore-line. We found no further ova or 
larvae, but large numbers of pupae - however on close examination 
every one we found had been sucked dry. From a small hole pierced in 
each one we believe the culprits to have been a species of red-and-black 
Hemipteran, which were very abundant on the bushes (Plate 95R. Fig. 
6). Clearly, as the butterfly continued to breed, some pupae must have 
survived but the survival rate must have been very low. We suggest that 
the ovipositing female may have preferentially selected the very stunted 
hostplant as being less likely than the larger bushes to harbour predators. 
However it appeared unlikely that it would have provided enough foliage 
for the larvae to reach maturity. 

De Jong and Treadaway (1993) suggest that less than 10% of the 
forest cover of thirty years ago now remains in the Philippines, and fear 
that at the present rate of continuing deforestation the country will be 
without true forest shortly after the turn of the century. It is therefore 
refreshing that some butterflies are able to adapt to the changed 
environment and thus to continue to exist. 

Acknowledgement 

We wish to acknowledge the help given by C.G. ("Trig") Treadaway in 
identification of Philippine butterflies. 

REFERENCES 

Corbet. A.S. and Pendlebury. H.M.. revised by Eliot. J.N. (1992). The Butterflies of the 
Mala\; Peninsula, 4th edition. Malayan Nature Society. Kuala Lumpar. 

De Jong, R. and Treadaway, C.G. (1993). The Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) of the Philippines. 
Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



193 



A NOTE ON THE SCARLET TIGER MOTH (CALLIMORPHA 
DOMiNULA) AT NEWNHAM-ON-SEVERN 

by Don McNamara (5573) 

6 Fulham Close, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, Middlesex UBIO OSU. 

Some further thoughts on the discovery of a small group of dominula 
larvae in my late parents' garden in Newnham-on-Severn, 
Gloucestershire. 

It is generally accepted that Scarlet tigers form discrete colonies. As this 
moth has been and still is the subject of much on-going research with 
substantial amounts of literature on the subject it is curious that there is 
little written evidence regarding the foundation of new colonies. (I am not 
suggesting that fifteen larvae constitute a colony.) 

The females tend to stay in the region where they hatch with the 
attendant males coming to the females. It is likely that there is some sort 
of "spill over" to adjacent suitable areas or that airborne females may be 
blown away from their usual habitat. 

I have searched the surrounding area for up to half a mile and cannot 
find any likely spots where they could occur although comfrey 
(S\;mph\;tum sp.) is quite plentiful but not in any great batches. Nettles 
and brambles are everywhere of course, and when rearing the moths in 
captivity I always use these as foodplant but it is usually comfrey which 
seems to attract them. 

There might be a clue, however, as the river Severn is close by and the 
moth is known to frequent damp river banks - although here the water is 
a mixture of salt and sweet which may have a bearing on its ecology. A 
bit more exploring is obviously necessary. 

I mentioned in a previous article that abs. medionigra or bimacuh 
were worth looking out for but these only appear in a very few colonies, 
in particular the "famous" Cothill, Berkshire colony - the chances of this 
are remote. 

Also, I mentioned the possibility of the yellow form being found, to 
which I referred as rossica. However, having obtained a copy of the 
Proceedings and Transactions of the South London Entomological and 
Natural History Societx; (1942-43) part I: an extremely thorough survey of 
this moth by H.B.D. Kettlewell points out that rossica is a distinct species, 
namely Panaxia rossica: Kolenati, which occurs in "Russia and 
Transcaucasia" . 



194 



OCTOBER 1995 



I discussed this with some colleagues at the October AES Exhibition. 
1994 'mainly in the pub across the road) and although British examples 
do exist they ought to be referred to possibly as crocea (but H.B.D. refers 
to forewings only being yellow i. Lutea or lutescens seem to fit the 
specimens in my collection fi'om "Hants 1906" and "Ringwood 1898". 
ahhough in Bernard Skinner's book. Moths of the British Isles, the form is 
refen-ed to as ab. rossica. 

Any help on this would be appreciated. - • 

A DINGY SKIPPER IN DERBYSHIRE IN AUGUST 

by RoiA. Frost (10011) 

66 St. LGwrence Rocd Sonh WingfieldL Chesterfield Derbyshire S42 5LL. 

In Derbyshire the Dingy skipper (Eri'rinis tages) has always been 
considered univoltine. the flight period usually being from mid-May to 
late June. Exn-eme dates in the last ten years were 4th May 1984 and 
13th July 1985. The largest colony in the county is probably at Clough 
Wood, near Darley Bridge, where on 1st June 1994 I counted 109 on 
sparsely-vegetated, south-facing spoil heaps. Returning to the site on 
22nd August. I was very surprised to find an immaculate Dingy skipper, 
which constitutes the first evidence of a second brood in the county. 
Thomas and Lewington in The Butterflies of Britain arid Ireland (1991) 
state that there may be a second brood in August after a hot summer but 
only in the warmest southern sites. 

DARK GREEN FRITILLARY IN NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

by Cbns Gardiner (5249) 

A single female of the Dark green fritillan,'. Argynnis aglaja. was seen at 
Castor Hanglands National Nature Reserve on 14th August 1994. 

The bunerfly was well worn, and settled regularly, enabling positive 
identification to be made as well as allowing itself to be photographed. 

This species is notably scarce or absent from the east Midland counties 
and there are no resident populations in Northamptonshire. However, the 
species is a noted wanderer on occasions and may be have come from 
the Norfolk Coast with a spell of easterly winds. 

At Castor it was last recorded in the 1950s and seemingly disappeared 
soon after the woodland was clear-felled in 1952 53. apart from another 
stray singleton noted in 1988. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



195 



MOTH SIGHTINGS IN 1994 

by Chris Raper (7540) 

22 Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, Berkshire RG8 8DS. 

Species: Meganola albula (Denis & Schiffermiilier) "Kent black arches" 

Location: Hartsiock Nature Reserve, Goring, Oxfordshire. 
SU 618795 

Date: 29.6.94 

Recorder: Mr CM. Raper, 22 Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, 
Berkshire 

Species: Heliothis peltigera (Denis & Schiffermiilier) "Bordered straw" 

Location: Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, Berkshire 
SU 655762 

Date: 7.9.94 

Recorder: (as above) 

The first was taken using a Heath trap and the second at a kitchen 
window. Specimens were taken and the identifications have been 
confirmed by Brian Baker (25 Matlock Road, Caversham, Reading). 

The above records will be forwarded to the Entomologist's Record, 
John Campbell at the Oxford Natural History Museum, Brian Baker, 
BBONT and Paul Waring. 

It seems to have been a good year for migrants - several Clouded 
yellows were seen on the Downs this year and I have caught more 
migratory moths than I would normally. Other species new to me were 
the Cloaked minor and Rush veneer. Have other recorders noticed the 
same? 

PURPLE THORN RECORDS IN STAFFORDSHIRE 

by Jan Koryszko (6089) 

On 24th July 1994, Mr Derek Heath caught a Purple thorn, (Se/en/a 
tetralunaria) in his garden at the Meir. Then, on 1st August 1994, I myself 
took a single specimen in Weston Sprink while beating trees and shrubs. 
This is a new species to our area, with Staffordshire records being Burnt 
Wood, Copmere, Cannock Chase, Blythe Bridge Mill, Bagots Wood, 
Trentham and Loynton Moss. It is a local and uncommon species in the 
county. 



196 



OCTOBER 1995 



ENTOMOLOGY NOTE FROM GLASGOW 

by Frank McCann (6291) 

On 20th August I went to look for Pebble prominent larvae at Glen Lusset 
Park, Old Kilpatrick which is situated west of Glasgow near the Clyde 
estuary. I had just arrived at the park and was looking at a nettle patch 
when I observed a caterpillar which looked almost full-grown, feeding on 
a plant quite high up on the stem. I took it from the nettle and put it with 
some leaves into a container. Unfortunately I didn't find any Pebble 
prominent larvae which I know occur there on sallows. 

The larva I found on the nettles, from the descriptions in my 
entomology books, seems to be the Burnished brass. It is a nice-looking 
caterpillar and is green with white and yellow markings on the back and 
sides respectively. 

About a week later I found another Burnished brass caterpillar, on 
nettle again, in a narrow road leading up to the village of Swinton, about 
a mile or so east of home. Both larvae have since pupated in peat-filled 
flowerpots. 

I was along that road again on 3rd September, and on a plant which 
looked like a variety of persicaria I found a caterpillar which is green in 
colour and has a velvety appearance and also has v shaped marks along 
its back which are quite faint. Its head is darker green and seems 
retractable. It was resting on the upper surface of the persicaria leaf low 
down neat the ground. I put it an a flower pot with some of its foodplant 
and also peat for pupation. The caterpillar looks more than half-grown. 

I also caught two species of smallish moths, one of which is the Garden 
carpet. I have them in small containers with various foodplants just in 
case they are females. 

I also found a Grey dagger, about half-grown and a green coloured 
Geometer larva on hawthorn. 



SMALL YELLOW WAVE RECORD 

by Jan Kor\jszko (6089) 

On 26th June 1994 while beating on Millford Common, Staffordshire. I 
caught a Small yellow wave (Hi;drelia flammeolaria) . It has been 
recorded in the nearby Cannock Chase, but is very local. Other 
Staffordshire records are, Burnt Wood, Belmont. Madeley, Baltedey 
Heath, Chartley Moss, and Loynton Moss, where I saw it in 1986. 



OCTOBER 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




COLOUR SECTION 



OCTOBER 1995 




OCTOBER 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 



mm 









Fig. 9. A pair of T. chumash, the female insect is brown and the male is green. 




Fig. 10. A female T. chumash feeding on Ceanothus flowers. 



PLATE 95S 



COLOUR SECTION 



OCTOBER 1995 




Fig. 11. A male T. podura. 




Fig. 12. A camouHaged female nymph of 7. californicum on Picea glauca. 



PLATE 95T 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



197 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE APPEARANCE AND BEHAVIOUR 
OF SPECIES OF THE STICK-INSECT GENUS TIMEMA 
SCUDDER (PHASMIDA: TIMEMATODEA) 

by Greg Bartman 

231 Roycroft Avenue, Long Beach, California 90803, USA. 
and 

PaulD. Brock (4792) 

"Papillon", 40 Thomdike Road, Slough SL2 ISR. 

Introduction 

The Order Phasmida, the stick- and leaf-insects, comprises many unusual 
insects. The surprising behaviour of the primitive stick-insect genus 
Timema Scudder (12 species from the USA and Mexico - the only 
representatives of the suborder Timematodea), sets them apart from other 
phasmids, in addition to conventional morphological differences. 

Timemas are amongst the smallest phasmids, measuring from less than 
12mm to 28mm. Females are always longer than males. Unique 
characteristics separating them from other phasmids (Kristensen, 1975), 
include: 

Tarsi three-segmented (five-segmented in all other species) 

Abdominal tergum 1 is distinctly separated from the metatergum 

Male subgenital plate is not transversely divided, the male abdominal 
segment 10 does not extend beyond the subgenital plate and its 
ventral side is unsclerotized 

The cerci of males have characteristic developments, in the form of 
robust looking appendages curved towards each other distally; 
their shape is useful to assist in distinguishing species. 

Vickery's comprehensive revision of the genus Timema (1993) gives 
some basic information on the few behavioural aspects published, 
particularly observations by Gustafson (1966) on Timema californicum 
(Scudder). Vickery helpfully mentions a number of foodplants, although 
their feeding behaviour in the wild extends to many other plants. Their 
behaviour is more elaborate than recorded and Brock (1994) referred to 
the jumping ability of Timema chumash Hebard, unique amongst 
phasmids. 

The observations which follow are based on four Californian species 
collected by beating tray from March 1993 to June 1995. Timema are 
also known from mountainous parts of Nevada, Arizona and Baja 
California in Mexico. Specimens have been observed in captivity to gain 
further knowledge. 



198 



OCTOBER 1995 



General behaviour 

Although many Timemas may be found on the same bush, they do not 
like to come into contact with one another except during mating. During 
the day they spend most of the time resting under a leaf with legs tucked in 
and antennae pointed forward and in. There is limited activity during the 
day, including occasional feeding and mating, but these activities mostly 
take place at night. Timemas walk quickly across branches and leaves 
feeling with their long antennae. If one meets another, they will raise their 
thoraxes up and down, pushing the other with their heads, and curling 
their abdomen up. Adult females are nearly always mounted by males, 
although at least two species of Timema breed partheno-genetically. 

Defensive behaviour 

1. Odour 

An acrid odour is immediately released by many Timema specimens 
when disturbed; this has been noticed in collecting T. podura Strohecker 
and observed in T. calif ornicum, with the odiferous gland present on the 
tergite of the prothorax (Henry, 1937). In captivity 7. chumash also emit 
an odour, hardly noticeable in the wild. 

2. Jumping abiliti; 

Nymphs and occasionally adults of T. chumash, especially before females 
become bulky with eggs, raise their abdomen in a similar manner to 
earwigs and jump several centimetres before attempting to make an 
escape by running away. Jumping ability is unique behaviour in 
phasmids and often a secondary defence i.e. when these insects are 
beaten from their foodplants, they may often drop to the ground, curl the 
thorax inward to protect the head and tuck in the antennae and legs for 
several seconds. Upon a perceived second threat they will uncoil raise 
their abdomens and jump. 

Newly hatched nymphs of T. chumash, just a few millimetres in length, 
jump several times higher than their own height, a remarkable feat which 
makes cleaning them out very difficult. 

Jumping ability does not appear to be a major feature with other species 
examined although T. californicum exhibits a limited jumping ability. 

3. Curling up 

This type of death-feigning ability has been briefly mentioned above - 
newly hatched nymphs of T. chumash are masters at this feat, curling up 
in a ball for a few minutes, instead of, but sometimes before, or after, 
jumping. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



199 



4. Active escape 

T. podura is arguably the best runner observed, although other species 
are not far behind - T. cristinae Vickery and T. chumash, the latter 
species often running after the jumping behaviour mentioned above. The 
usual course of action is to release an odour and run away to find cover, 
perhaps underneath a rock or leaves, and certainly away from sunlight. 
Extreme heat will kill Timemas which have a short lifespan and they 
favour shady parts of bushes or trees, often at high altitude in 
mountainous zones. Males are the better runners of the two sexes and 
paired couples will also make a run for it. By comparison, T. californicum 
are rather docile when dislodged from foodplants. 



Mating behaviour 

Adults are often found paired up and in the case of T. chumash mating 
typically begins in May (although this can vary, depending on altitude 
and locality), and the following observations relate to this species. 
Although paired, the male is usually only mounted on the female, not 
copulating (Plate 95S, Fig. 9), but when ready to mate he turns his 
abdomen under the female's right side. The female raises her abdomen 
and tilts it slightly to the right with the operculum opened. Copulation 
may take place for several hours, which does not prevent both sexes from 
moving around and eating (usually during darkness). The male eats by 
leaning over the front of his mate or on one side or the other, assuming 
the positioning allow for this. He rarely dismounts, risking another male 
mounting her. After mating, the male continues to remain mounted on 
the female, hence ensuring his genes are passed on. More males than 
females of T. chumash were observed in the wild in 1993 and 1994, 
although females were commoner in 1995. 

If another male approaches a pair, males will fight for position by 
pushing each other with their heads. The mounted male will position 
himself to block the other male from mounting, and both males display 
by raising their abdomens. If a male becomes dislodged, the victor takes 
its place by mounting the female. On occasions in captivity, males have 
been observed fighting so vigorously that the female will walk away and 
be mounted by another suitor. The fighting only lasts a few seconds and 
does not appear to result in any injury. 

If the female is not adult and a male attempts to mount her, she will 
fend him off. 



200 



OCTOBER 1995 



Foodplants 

* = not recorded in Vickery (1993). 
T. chumash * (Plate 95S, Fig. 10) 

Locality: Mt. Baldy, San Gabriel Mts. Los Angeles Co. California (4527ft). 
March 1993, many other dates in 1993, 1994 '^Bartman) and 29th May 
1995 - mainly large nymphs and a few adults (Bartman & Brock). 

Manzanita ^Arctostaph\;lous glouca: Verba Santa "^'Erudiction trichocalijx: 
Oaks Quercus agrifoUa, Q. dumosa; Ceanothus sp. and others (being 
identified). 

Feeding behaviour: nymphs and adults favour new growth leaves, often 
chewing at the node of a leaf stem, severing the leaf. The petioles are 
also chewed. They will eat bark of twigs or branches e.g. Quercus. In 
captivity, they are very fond of water droplets and it is presumed they 
feed on dew in the wild, although this has not been observed. A most 
unusual observation is their sense of smell - flowers of Ceanothus sp. 
cultivated in England are devoured within seconds of being placed in 
their container! 

T. podura * (Plate 95T, Fig. 11) 

Locality: (1) San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co, California - 1994 (Bartman); 
adults, 30th May 1995 (Bartman & Brock); (2) Santa Barbara County, 
California, April 1995 (Dennis Sheridan). 

Chamise Adenostoma /ascicu/atum (1 &2): *A. sparsifolium (1). 
T. cahfornicum * (Plate 95T, Fig. 12) 

Locality: San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co. California (5000ft), 
nymphs, 28th May 1995 (Bartman & Brock). 

White spruce '^Picea glauca. In captivity accepts Ceanothus. Quercus sp. 
and Pinus sp. 

Feeding behaviour: readily eats bark. Sometimes only the top surface of 
pine needles are eaten. 

7. cristinae 

Localities: Paradise and Vista Point. Santa Ynez Mts. Santa Barbara Co. 
California (approx. 1000ft). adults. 1st June 1995 (Brock). 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



201 



Chamise Adenostoma fasciculatum, ^Quercus sp. (x2). In captivity 
accepts Ceanothus. 

Note: found rather late in the year, some specimens apparently 
parasitised, with black patches on bodies. 

Colour variation 

Vickery referred to some degree of colour variation, although these can 
be extreme and the following observations of wild caught specimens are 
worthy of mention: 

T. caHfornicum Nymphs: three distinct colour forms, which are broadly 
similar to adults: 

- green, with pale cream stripes, two side stripes and one central stripe 
(very closely matching the underside of Picea glauca needles, an excellent 
camouflage). 

- brown, with blackish blotches and markings, notably "V" shape on 
prothorax (a thinner line), mesothorax and metathorax. 

- light-brown. 

Underside of all specimens lighter. 
T. chumash 

- usually green or brown, with green form predominant; dotted with very 
small pale raised spots, appearing speckled. Yellow or cream side stripes. 
Green usually the same shade of light green , but may be bluish green. 
Underside typically whitish. 

T. podura 

- sometimes entirely grey colonies, but at San Jacinto locality in 1995 (15 
males, 14 females) found in distinct colour forms: 

- male black patches and lines on grey background. Black patches on 
base of femora. Underside light-grey. 

- male as above on a dark brown background. 

- male as above on a reddish-brown background. 

- male (one only) with black dots and blotches most conspicuous on 
mesothorax and metathorax. 

- females as in male colour forms, but plain green females predominant. 
T. cristinae 

All typical green colour form, with yellow side stripes in female. 



202 



OCTOBER 1995 



Eggs 

Eggs laid by T. chumash in 1993 (dropped to the ground and sometimes 
mixed with debris/frass) were measured with a compound microscope 
which was calibrated to: 1 ocular unit = 11.1m at 40x, 1000m = 1mm. 

Dimensions: width 0.89mm-1.06mm. Average 0.99mm. n-30 

length 1.75mm-2.08mm. Average 1.88mm. n=30 

Description: Operculum flat with raised rim extending all the way around. 
Capsule pale yellow (virtually transparent) to dark brown. Micropylar 
plate a slightly darkened brown triangular region below operculum, with 
no obvious median line (kindly pointed out to the authors by J.T. Clark 
Sellick, a specialist on phasmid eggs, as this feature was not clear). The 
"micropile" referred to by Henry (1937) presumably relates to a knob at 
the posterior end of the capsule, with the "hard collar" representing the 
rim of the operculum. Some eggs changed colour and dented in; 
apparently infertile. This proved to be the case as only approximately 
30% of the eggs hatched the following January. These failed to mature, 
with the nymphs showing little interest in the foodplants provided, 
possibly because of the hard leaves available in January and/or lack of 
new leaves. 




Dorsal outline of eggs of Timema chumash. 

1. Egg with debris removed. 

2. Operculum of same. 

3. Egg coated with soil typical example with capitulum-like structure and 
extension at base. 

4. Egg coated with soil, lacking capitulum-like structure and tapered at base, 
without extension. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



203 



Eggs laid in 1995 were surprisingly rather different in appearance, after 
adults were provided with soil from California to lay their eggs. The eggs, 
coated with soil that the female ingests and uses during oviposition, now 
has a raised capitulum-like structure in many instances (approximately 
80%) and the whole egg is coated with hardened soil, including unusual 
colours present in some soil particles. The egg capsule is tapered towards 
the base, often with an extension at the base. Lengths of capsule 
extended to approximately 2.5mm. As an experiment, removed soil 
resulted in eggs being laid after several days as described for 1993. Eggs 
are laid in the soil, on the floor of the container, or if slightly sticky, 
attached to the netting of its container or leaves, apparently laid in 
batches. 

Similar, uncoated eggs of 7. podura and coated eggs of T. cristinae 
have been inspected, but it is understood these are being described 
elsewhere (C. Sandoval, personal correspondence). 

Conclusion 

Not only is the jumping ability of T. chumash (and to a lesser extent other 
species) unique in phasmids, but behaviour in general is elaborate. The 
ability to curl up in a ball may also be unique, along with the strange egg 
laying behaviour, fully endorsing the Timemas ranking in a separate 
suborder. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors would like to thank Jerri Larsson (California, USA) for 
suggesting a suitable locality where they found Timema californicum and 
Patrick Marquez (California, USA) for his enthusiastic help in collecting 
Timema chumash on 29th May 1995. 

REFERENCES 

Brock, P.D. (1994). Preliminary notes on the remarkable genus Timema Scudder. The 
Phasmid Stud\; Group Newsletter 58: 5. 

Gustafson, J.F. (1966). Biological Observations on Timema californica (Phasmoidea: 
Phasmidae). Annals Entomological Sociefy of America 59: 59-61. 

Henry, L.M. (1937). Biological Observations on Timema californica. Pan Pacific 
Entorhologist. 13(3): 137-141. 

Kristensen, S.P. (1975). The phylogeny of hexapod "orders". A critical review of recent 
accounts. Zeitschift fur Zoologie, S\;stematik und Euolutionsforschung 13: 1-44. 

Vickery, V.R. (1993). Revision of Timema Scudder (Phasmatoptera: Timematodea) 
including three new species. The Canadian Entomologist 125: 657-692. 



204 



OCTOBER 1995 



THE BROWN ARGUS (ARICIA AGESTIS) IN 
NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

by Peter Tehhutt {7941} 

112 Broadwax; East, Abington, Northamptonshire NN3 2PR. 

This delightful little butterfly was last recorded in Northants during 1959. 
There were several reported instances after then, but since the county 
boundaries have changed the relevant site is no longer part of Northants, 
something that occasionally causes confusion when reviewing old 
records. 

During early June 1994 Douglas Goddard, the local County Recorder 
of butterflies, photographed a male Brown argus at a site in the 
Rockingham Forest district. A return visit a Uttle later in the month 
revealed a rather worn male very near to where he first recorded this 
species. A very close study of his photographic evidence reveals that it is 
quite possibly the same insect, although of course one cannot be 
absolutely certain of this fact. Due to the territorial behaviour of the males 
it is a distinct possibility, and the markings were as near identical as one 
could get. 

As word spread of this sighting he received several other reports of odd 
specimens from different sites. As there was a possibility of mistaken 
identification of small dark examples of the female Common blue, it was 
decided to check out some of these areas when the second brood was on 
the wing. As they are usually more plentiful in August it was felt that it 
should not be too hard to obtain confirmation of their presence. 

1 decided to visit the Rockingham Forest district site on 21st August. A 
track enters this site about half way along it, and whereas Douglas turned 
right to see his male specimen I decided, for some unknown reason, to 
turn left. This site contains Common blues [Polyommatus icarus) which 
were now out in very good numbers, but 1 had not gone twenty paces 
when something caught my eye that was different. A rather fine male 
Brown argus was perched on a blade of grass sunning himself. Within ten 
yards a rather worn male was seen, and two more a little further on. The 
first 150 yards revealed nine different individuals, some very fresh and 
others quite worn, but all males, which seemed to indicate that 1 has still 
not located the main population. 

Some 100 yards further on I saw two in flight together, both of which 
settled in the same small area. This seemed more promising and a careful 
approach revealed the first female, with a male in attendance. She had 
probably already paired and rebuffed all his eager advances. After a few 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



205 



minutes he took the hint and, with a rather dejected look, flew to a 
prominent position in the tall grasses to try his luck with the next passing 
female. 

It took me nearly an hour and a half to cover the next 100 yards or so. 
as I watched approximately 80 more of these lively and inquisitive insects 
going about their business. Probably nor more than ten females were 
seen, but as all of these were in good condition I would hazard a guess 
that there were plenty more to come. 

A call from Douglas at 5pm the next day. soon found us travelling to 
the south of the county where several Clouded yellows (Cohas croceus) 
were seen the previous day. Although we did not see these we did find 
several roosting Brown arguses. On our return to Northampton we visited 
another woodland site and again found Brown argus. almost 20 on this 
occasion. Douglas had also observed this species on both these sites on 
15th August. A third site exists in the same area, so they would seem to 
be fairly well dispersed. 

The following Saturday we visited several old quarries near Kettering. 
The first was a very steep-sided site, and although I scrambled (with great 
difficulty) down the first scrub-free area. Douglas decided against it as the 
risk of damage to his camera equipment was too great. I had barely gone 
ten yards when I netted a male Brown argus. which I boxed so Douglas 
could also have a look at it. Strangely enough this was the only one 
found that day despite a lot of searching. 

We thought that someone had originally released a few specimens that 
had managed to establish themselves, but have been unable to find any 
evidence of this. It is known that this species has quite a low survival 
population (the minimum number required to maintain a viable colony), 
but it seems beyond belief that five confirmed colonies could go 
unobserved for 35 years, particularly as four of these areas are regularly 
visited by various natural history recorders. Perhaps the species has 
suddenly extended its range as I understand it has also (re) appeared in 
Lincolnshire. The puzzle remains as to where they have expanded from. 

A further puzzle exists as to the choice of larval foodplant. None of 
these sites contain rockrose (Helianthemum nummularium). and a search 
failed to reveal any storksbill (Erodium cicutarium), although I must admit 
I am not familiar with the latter species. Cranesbill {Geranium sp.) is 
sometimes given as an alternative foodplant. and it is possible that this is 
used on some of the sites. However, despite watching several females 
crawling over various plants and looking as if they intended to oviposit, 
no egg-laying was observed and no ova found. Having seen the ova on 



206 



OCTOBER 1995 



other sites I know they are fairly conspicuous on the underside of the 
chosen leaf, but much closer observation will be needed to determine the 
preferred larval foodplant on these Northamptonshire sites. If anyone 
knows of any alternative foodplants, I should be very grateful if they 
would let me know. 

It will be very interesting to see if this expansion continues in 1995, as I 
suspect it will if the weather is favourable at the right time. Hopefully the 
existing colonies will remain intact and provide us with the answers as to 
the larval foodplants that are used, but I think we could remain in the 
dark as to how these populations have originated and from where. 

Finally, I would like to thank Douglas Goddard for confirming the old 
county records, sharing his observations, and helping to compile this 
report. 



CYNTHIA CARDUl IN EAST SUSSEX 

by A.H.H. Harbottle 

I wish to record that at 9.30am (GMT) on Saturday 4th March 1995 I saw 
a specimen of C\;nthia cardui flying in the garden during a period of 
brilliant sunshine. 



1996 SUBSCRIPTIONS 

Council has increased the 1996 subscription rate by £1 to £10 for 
Ordinary members. The Bulletin is now on or over the next postage 
band, thus costing the Society much more in postage. The increase is 
regrettable, but the subscription rate still does not cover the cost of 
producing the six Bulletins. To help compensate members, Council will 
be giving free entry to members for the 1996 exhibition, which will again 
be held at Kempton Park Racecourse. 

It would greatly help the Society if all subscriptions could be paid by 1st 
January 1996, payment after 1st February 1996 will incur an additional 
administration charge. Members paying by standing order are asked to 
make the necessary arrangements to prevent any delay in receiving their 
Bulletins. 



The Council 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



207 



Book Reviews 

The conservation of butterflies in Britain past and present by John 
FeltwelL A5 pbk., pp vii +230 + (3); 17 b/w illustrations by Brian 
Hargreaves. ISBN 0 907970 02 8. Wildlife Matters, Battle 1995. Price 
£6.99 (+£1.95 p&p from "Marlham", Henley's Down, Battle, East Sussex 
TN33 9BN). 

Yes, this is yet another book about butterflies but one that is very different 
to the usual run of them. It is a thoroughly researched historical account 
of the history of butterfly conservation and gives detailed accounts of the 
attempts, both failed and successful, of re-introducing the three species, 
Swallowtail, Large copper and Large blue. Only a brief mention is given 
of the failed attempt to re-introduce the Black-veined white to Sir Winston 
Churchill's garden at Chartwell. 

Further chapters in the book deal with habitat management, the 
present threats to butterflies, butterflies and the law, voluntary codes and 
practices and a selected list of Nature Reserves, as well as those owned 
by, managed by, or investigated by. Butterfly Conservation (surprisingly 
both Wicken & Woodwalton fens are omitted but the butterflies these 
localities are noted for are deliberately omitted). The chapters on the law 
and voluntary codes make particularly useful reading and give a clear and 
balanced account of the present situation as well as giving the contrasting 
views held by some "collectors" and "conservationists". 

I would take issue with the author's statement that "Collectors were 
almost entirely responsible for the butterfly's (Large copper) extinction . . .", 
especially as he modifies this categorical statement on the same page with 
"it is probable that a combination of over-collecting and drainage was 
responsible." (My italics.) As I have argued elsewhere collectors were not 
to blame and the fact that the Copper's habitat was reduced by drainage 
from 2000 square miles to a few hundred acres of fragmented refuges 
does, I feel, speak for itself. As the author himself says, "it needs space, 
which only huge wetlands can give. Any future habitats need to be big, 
really big with a huge grid of interlocking waterways and pools." 

In the discussion of the Large blue, an account is given below as to 
how, about 60-70 years ago, an apparently deliberate attempt was being 
made to exterminate the Large blue, mainly by disturbance of the habitat 
and levelling the ants' nests so essential to its survival. This may of course 
have been done in ignorance and in search of the butterflies' chrysalides 
then supposed to be in the nests. This information came as a surprise 
tome and it shows, together with other quoted information in this book. 



208 



OCTOBER 1995 



just how painstakingly the author has researched his subject and delved 
into both the sometimes very obscure and hard to get at literature as well 
as studying extant collections of extinct species. 

There is a useful list of acronyms and a glossary. The very extensive 
bibliography runs to 28 pages, but the index could be improved: for 
instance only a single page reference (13) is given for the Black-veined 
white and one has to look under Aporia crataegi to find a more important 
discussion of it on page 159. Produced by desktop publishing the layout 
and type is on the whole pleasing and well laid out. I would, however, 
cavil at the "notes" to the chapters which are in a minute italic typeface. I 
would have preferred the Tables to have been in larger typesize. The 
monochrome illustrations which are by Brian Hargreaves are appropriate 
to the subject and add interest. In particular the contrasting views of an 
entomologist in an 18th century sylvan setting and that of one in a 1995 
pollution devastated landscape, does I feel, say it all and illustrates so 
emphatically that the blame for declining numbers can clearly be laid at 
the door of habitat changes. 

This book is an absolute mine of information on all aspects of butterfly 
conservation and that which applies to butterflies applies to moths and 
doubtless all other invertebrates also. At its very modest price this book 
should be in the library of all those with even the slightest interest in the 
subject. Brian Gardiner 

The Insects: An Outline of Entomohgi; by P.J. Gullan and P.S. Cranson. 
512pp. 220 line illustrations. ISBN 0 412 49360 8. Chapman and Hall. 
£24.99. 

Superb! The only word that I can use to describe this book. For a 
foundation book in entomology look no further. Written in an extremely 
comprehensible form and with line illustrations of high quality, it is ideal 
for students studying the subject in any depth. 

The book deals with general entomological issues such as the 
significance of insects, their structure, both internal and external, and how 
they reproduce, develop and sense their external environment. It follows 
major themes in insect biology, the ecology of ground-dwelling, aquatic 
and plant- feeding insects, the behaviour of social, predatory, parasitic 
and defensive insects, and the importance of insects in medical, 
veterinary and agricultural science and pest management. Unlike other 
tomes, there is a systematic synopsis at the end of each chapter rather 
than having an order by order arrangement. 

The book is very reasonably priced at £24.99 and really is a must for 
the bookshelf. Wayne Jai-vis 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



209 



THE STORY OF SPIDER SUE 

by Wesleyj Caswell 

Let me tell you the story of Spider Sue. Since I was quite young, I have 
often thought of keeping a "bird-eating" spider or tarantula as a pet, but 
never actually got around to getting one, as they were much too 
expensive. Until, that is, the AES exhibition in 1979 when I think it was 
held at Alexandra Palace. In those days, tarantulas were not nearly as 
obtainable as now, but I came across a person selling tiny tarantulas from 
Guatemala for £2 each, and well, I just happened to have a spare £2 to 
spend so, it was quickly changed into a spider. 

Normally, as some of you may know, I only rear silkmoths, so I was not 
sure how to keep it, but put it into a small plastic tube and fed it on things 
like greenfly (she was only about half the size of a small housefly). How 
she survived the first winter with a "keeper" who was "into" tarantulas, 
still amazes me, but survive she did, steadily growing all the time and 
eating bigger and bigger flies etc. Within a few years or so, she had grown 
really large and heavy, much larger than most British spiders. 

When I married in 1981, "spider" obtained a name, as Ann, my wife, 
named her Sue. From then on my pet was known as Spider Sue. 

In 1987, Spider Sue, still growing, became famous for a day 
throughout Britain. It happened like this: 

My wife had brought my mother a little kitten called Jill, and she had a 
habit, as cats will, of jumping up onto the piano where Spider Sue sat in 
her plastic tank. So, the tank had to be covered at times to prevent Jill 
from seeing Sue crawling around. 

One day, I was driving home from the city, listening to BBC Radio 2, 
and at around 4.45pm, Adrian Love said that he was starting a new 
competition, with a prize each day of a Radio 2 tea cosy. All listeners had 
to do was write and tell him the most stupid reason for wanting a tea 
cosy. Instantly I decided that I would write and say that I wanted one to 
cover up Spider Sue, so that Jill the cat could not see her inside. 

The letter was written and about a week later, again whilst driving 
home, Adrian announces the daily winner . . . 

"Now here's a nutter after my own heart ... I have here a letter from 
Wesley Caswell . . . etc.'' and yes, a week or so latter my tea cosy arrived, 
and I still have it, but have not used it to cover Spider Sue! 

Fifteen years after that exhibition at Ally Pally, Spider Sue continues to 
grow, gobbling flies, moths and anything that moves within the container. 
So far, I have never been bitten, but now that baby Esther has arrived, 
perhaps one day I shall have to get the tea cosy out to cover her up! 



210 



OCTOBER 1995 



•\fiP'lir ^ 

60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 
Part V. 1975-84 

by Wayne Jarms (9899) 

Despite the economic status of the country in the 1970s, the Society 
continued to prosper, with a membership of 1276 by the turn of 1975, an 
increase of 50% over five years. The three study groups which now 
remained, the Exotic Entomology Group, the Conservation Group and 
the Insect Behaviour and Ant Study Group, were also well supported and 
all produced their own newsletters. The Bulletin, under the editorship of 
Brian Gardiner, was still produced quarterly, with two larger issues in 
February and August and two smaller issues in May and November. 
Black and white photographs became much more widespread and 
articles in the journal began to take on much more of a conservation 
slant. The Annual Exhibition was held at Holland Park School and was 
again very successful with the second edition of the Coleopterists' 
Handbook selling well. 

Volume 35 Number 310 (February 1976) of the Bulletin broke thirty 
years of tradition with a re-designed cover. Subscriptions were regrettably 
increased, however, to £2 for adults and £1.25 for Juniors due to 
increasing costs in producing the journal. Despite this, the Society 
continued to grow and by the end of the year, another 100 members had 
subscribed. The Exotic Entomology Group increased its membership by 
25% to 211 and the other two groups also continued to gain members. 
The Society did, however, have its problems; notably, the exhibition 
venue. The ILEA announced that the Holland Park School was required 
for other uses during term time in the future, and the Society would, 
therefore, have to seek an alternative. This caused a problem for the 
Society, but eventually the University College School in Hampstead was 
booked. Despite all the problems, the event was again a success and was 
visited by an Independent Television crew, who were filming a series of 
natural history programmes. There were three publications produced by 
the Society during 1976; the Lepidopterists' Handbook, Collecting 
Lacewings and Insect Light Traps. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



211 



The Society continued to expand its membership, with 1521 members 
enrolling by the end of the year. 1977 saw the foundation of the Ansorge 
Award, after a bequest was left by Sir Eric Ansorge. This award was, and 
still is, awarded for the best Junior exhibitor at the exhibition. This year 
saw three founder members of the Society die, Mr G.V. Day, Mr T.H. Fox 
and Mr L.G.F. Waddington. 

The exhibition venue was again changed in 1978 to the Wembley 
Conference Centre. This provided ample room for the event, but was fully 
booked for the following year, posing even more problems for the event's 
organisers as there did not seem to be another venue in London large 
enough to cope with the event's capacity. Membership rose again to 1650. 

Eventually, Alexandra Palace was booked for the 1979 exhibition. This 
provided the "best venue yet" (B. Gardiner's editorial) but again the 
venue was unavailable the following year due to "modernisation" work 
which was to be carried out. Subscriptions were increased to £3.50 for 
adults and £2 for juniors, mainly due to the increased costs involved in 
running the Society. The Dipterists' Handbook was published and like its 
sister publications sold well. 

The new venue for the 1980 exhibition was to be the Royal 
Horticultural Society's Old Hall, which was by no means perfect for the 
event. However, despite this, the best was made of the venue and the 
event went well. It did however, mean that a further new venue had to be 
sought which hopefully could be home to the exhibition for a few years. 
The Conservation Group ceased to exist after 1st January 1980, as it was 
integrated into the Society as the Conservation Committee. It was 
intended that a newsletter was to be published entitled Insect 
Conservation News (ICN), which could be subscribed to. Two issues were 
published during 1980. The membership continued to grow, with 1747 
members subscribed by the end of 1980. 

The following year, 1981, was Butterfly Year, the Royal Entomological 
Society set up a committee to promote all aspects of butterflies and their 
conservation. A series of butterfly stamps was issued by the Post Office 
and the plight of our butterflies at least was brought to the attention of the 
public at large for the first time. Along with this came the final 
amendments to, and passing of, the Wildlife and Countryside Act. 
Hounslow Civic Centre was the chosen exhibition venue, and all went 
well. The Society published ICN 3, 4 and 5. 

The Bulletin printers were changed in August 1982 (Volume 41 No. 
336) from V.B. Pike to Cravitz Printing Company Limited from 
Brentwood, Essex. This was mainly because of the four month turn- 



212 



OCTOBER 1995 




Hair-cr.- sr.er a c aqua's: cy Cyri H-r.-.cr.d. :cr -a cas: art::s 

intha 5:.::a::': :va;- 5. -.-/.-a "'.a :::5: v.:' '.a: v.-s - I Su":' '::r 

butiei^ias cs.z zrls aypa-aa in . a — a 41 :: ~aa: 334. March 1982. 



^ a : a :y : a p ub' : ; h a colour 

'-.zziZ '-. :aa aa::a: of which. 
Briar. Gardir.ar. -.vas av.ar da a ar Hararary l::a :.:aaraa:sr:y far his 



a durraar 



increase id suasir arias :a £4 add £-a far -udiars^ . Od a saa da:a. 




: :c 'adiaaa fC 10 add 11 v ara duai saaa 



V:-v-:a 35. :.d-:da- 3:1, ;.:a; :9rd. -aya 66 
NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS - DINER S DELICACY 

ci J. Gddd 5595J 

Receniiy 1 car^e across Vince-^^: i-iai.s delightful book entitled Why rot 
Eat Insects". d^ 5: :r c :d print in 1885. In its variaus : day a: 5 
: d: ■ ■ dd^ ia to take up eating thesa rraaa ras 

:.: d^ ad d a rodents. I shall just pick ca: a rdad^ d 




AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



213 



the back of this book and you shall see whether your "prejudices"", as the 
author calls it. shall make you turn up your noses at these mouthwatering 
dishes. 

Curried Cockchafers 
Wasp Grubs fried in the comb 
Moth sautes in butter 

New Can'ots with Wireworm sauce 

^ w ^ 
^ ^ ^ 

Gooseben-y cream with sawflies 



Stag beetle lawae on toast 

A few weeks after buying this book I decided to ti'y one of these recipes 
out: so 1 planned on having Fried grasshoppers. I obtained five of these 
and put them into boiling water where they changed to a pleasant reddish 
colour. Then after getting a frying pan. and having placed a small chunk 
of fat in it. I removed the hind legs and wings of my grasshoppers and put 
them into the fi-ying pan. one by one. Then I set out to devour them, and 
found them quite crispy, but they tasted, well, not exactly agreeable. 
Perhaps because 1 had burnt them! 



From Volume 41 Number 337. November 1982. Pages 164-5. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS - 
DAMSELFLIES AND SUNDEW FLOWERS 

bv A.M. Tynan 

During a recent fishing holiday in Sutherland I was interested to find quite 
a number of tivo species of damselfly trapped by the leaves of the long- 
leaved Sundew. Neither species Enallagma cyathigerum (Charp.) and 
Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Sulzer) has the speed or the power of the larger 
hawkers or darters. Similarly the long-leaved sundew with its bunches of 
large erect leaves is a more powerful predator than its round-leaved 



214 



OCTOBER 1995 



relation but the discovery of twelve of these attractive insects struggling to 
escape from a dense patch of Drosera about two square yards in extent 
did come as a surprise. Although it might sound rather hypocritical from 
one who was trying to abbreviate the lives of the local brown trout for his 
own consumption, I spent a little time depriving the plants of their 
suppers, and returned the damsels to freedom. This although still sticky 
seemed preferable to slow digestion and ultimate death. Rather more 
acceptable was the sight of a hawker dragonfly (species not identified) 
taking a blue damselfly (presumably the Enallagma which was present in 
large numbers) on the wing then settling on a rock nearby and devouring 
the whole insect, less wings head first. 

From Volume 42, Number 340, August 1983, Page 144. 
THE FLEAS OF SAINT NENNAN 

In Connaught there is a village well known for its church, which belongs 
to St. Nennan. Here in old days fleas were so abundant and were such a 
plague that most of the people left and the village became deserted until, 
by the prayers of St. Nennan, the fleas were all driven out into a nearby 
meadow. 

Not a single flea thereafter could be found in the village, so filled was it 
with the cleansing spirit of holiness, on account of the virtues of the Saint. 
But the meadow has been so crowded ever since with the fleas that it 
cannot be entered by man or beast. 

From Volume 42, Number 341, November 1983, Page 196. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS - PARASITES OF THE 
PEACOCK BUTTERFLY 

by P.W. Cribb(2270) 

During late May 1982 I collected up to eighty larvae of the Peacock 
butterfly, Inachis io L., from nettles on the wasteland adjoining my 
garden. They were in their last instar and nearly full-fed. Of these larvae I 
obtained forty pupae and forty pupae of an ichneumon wasp. The latter 
were slightly elongated spheres, brownish-black with a central cincture of 
dirty white and attached to the nettles by silken threads. I sent them to Dr 
Mark Shaw at Edinburgh and 1 give his comments: 'The cocoons ex /. io 
are of a Campoplegine ichneumonid in the genus Phobocampe of the 
species I call confusa Thomson, but the name is not very widely used (in 
fact it isn't on the 1978 Kloet & Hincks list, although it has been used in 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



215 



the British literature by Stelfox as well as by me). It is a very abundant 
parasite of io and also A. urticae, and, as it attacks the second instar of 
the host, i.e. before they disperse, very often a large proportion of a 
particular brood are stung." 

From Volume 43, Number 344, November 1984, Page 196. 
A SURFEIT OF STAG BEETLES 

by Richard Bizely (7143) 

In the middle of June this year our local paper (The Leatherhead 
Advertiser) reported that one evening hundreds of Stag beetles (Leucanus 
cervus L.) flew over gardens and were watched by amazed householders. 
A Mr Jeremy Davies, of Linden Road, reported "The air was alive with 
them. People who went out had to duck. I think they must just have 
hatched out and they seemed to come from a hedge. It was an incredible 
sight." 

I myself, some four years ago, in June/July, one warm evening, found 
about 55 dead or dying stag beetles in the garden and under close 
inspection I found that they all had their abdomens removed. I was then, 
and still am, very puzzled. I would be interested if someone could let me 
know the reason for this. Had they been eaten by some bird or other 
animal? 

[I too, many years ago, have seen such a swarm passing overhead, also 
near to Leatherhead. As to the eaten abdomens, I suspect a rodent. I 
have known field mice help themselves to the abdomens of butterflies 
before now and leave the rest of the insect intact.- Brian Gardiner, 
Editor] 

CORRECTION TO EXHIBTION REPORT VOLUME 54 
NO 401, PAGE 147 

Due to a typesetting error, Paul Waring's entry on page 147 for Agrochola 
nitidia should have read thus: 

Agrochola nitida (D. & S.) - Widely distributed in southern and central 
Europe, the larvae reported to feed on "low plants". This individual came 
to a wine-rope hung on a riverside Willow Salix sp. just north of Lednice on 
5th September. 

The text printed under this species infact refers to Emmelia trabealis. 
Apologies to all for this error. 



216 



OCTOBER 1995 



Diary Dates 

Abbreviaiions 



BENHS British Entomological and Natural History' Society. 

BISG Bloomsbuiy Insect Science Group. 

DNHSAS Dorset Natural Historv' and Archaeological Society. 

HMB Huntingdonshire Moth and Butterfly Group. 

LCES Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 

RES(QG) RES Rooms. 41 Queen s Gate. London SW7. 

I: Information from: 



To make the diaiy effective connibutions are needed from members. Any 
relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is made for 
entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 

NOVEMBER 

1st RES Meeting - To Freeze or not to Freeze: Is that the Question? 

RES QG: Tea IT.OOhrs. Meeting 17.30hrs. Prof. J.S. Bale from the 
University of Birmingham talks about the principles of insect cold 
hardiness and explains over-wintering strategies in ecological terms. 
Applications of insect cryobiology will also be discussed. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

8th BISG Meeting - Development of electrical synapses in Drosophila. 
The role of the shaking-B gene. 

Birkbeck College. Department of Biology-. Room 232. Malet Street. 

London. Tea 17.30hrs. Meeting IS.OOhrs. Dr P. Phelan. 

I: Dr Richard Rayne 0171 631 6253 e-mail r.rayne(« biol.bbk.ac.uk. 

14th BENHS Indoor Meeting - Post Exhibition discussion and Members 

slides. 

RES QG IS.OOhrs. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way. Brampton. Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

21st LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Photographic and slide evening and short papers. At Liverpool Museum. 
19.00hrs. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



217 



22nd BISG Meeting - The Evolution of Arthropods. 

Birkbeck College, Department of Biology, Room 232, Malet Street, 

London. Tea 17.30hrs, Meeting IS.OOhrs. Dr D. Osorio. 

I: Dr Richard Rayne 0171 631 6253 e-mail r.rayne@biol.bbk.ac.uk. 

25th BENHS Workshop - Craneflies 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 
DECEMBER 

6th RES Meeting - Pests and Predators in Orchards. 

RES(QG) Tea 17.00hrs, Meeting 17.30hrs. Talk by Dr M.G. Solomon. 
I: RES 0171 584 8361. 

BISG Meeting - Responses of blackflies to host odours. 

Birkbeck College, Department of Biology, Room 232, Malet Street, 

London. Tea 17.30hrs, Meeting IS.OOhrs. Dr S. Schofield. 

I: Dr Richard Rayne 0171 631 6253 e-mail r.rayne@biol.bbk.ac.uk. 

12th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Members' entomological videos and Christmas social evening. At 
Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

13th HMB Meeting. 

Woodhurst Village Hall, Huntingdonshire at 20.00hrs. 
I: Barry Dickerson 01480 475689. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting - Opportunity or design - Which is best for 
conserving our biological diversity;? 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Dick Vane-Wright from the Natural History Museum 
talks about new mapping and analysis techniques developed at the NHM 
which give new means of conserving biodiversity. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 
JANUARY 1996 

15th BENHS Indoor Meeting - The ecologx; and conservation of ground 
beetles. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Brian Eversham (BRC Monks Wood) talks about this 
intensively studied group. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



218 



OCTOBER 1995 



1 6th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Members' short papers and Presidential Address. At Liverpool Museum. 
19.00hrs. 

20th LCES Annual General Meeting. 

Liveipool Museum. 14.00hrs. 

23rd DNHAS Natural Histon; Meeting - Britain s Heritage of Ancient 
Habitats. 

Dorset Countv' Museum. Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 
I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

FEBRUARY 

14th HMB Meeting. 

Woodhurst Village Hall. Huntingdonshire at 20.00hrs. 
I: Barry Dickerson 01480 475689. 

17th BENHS Workshop - Bluebottles and Reshflies. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

20th LCES Indoor Meeting - Rare Insects of the North-West 

Liveipool Museum. 19.00hrs. 

27th BENHS Annual General Meeting and Presidential Address. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



MARCH 

9th BENHS Workshop - Molluscs. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean. 

109 Miller Way. Brampton. Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

11th BENHS Indoor Meeting - Landscapes and Wildlife Conservation in 
New Zealand. 

RESlQG) IS.OOhrs. Talk by Margaret Palmer. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way. Brampton, Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol. 54 



219 



19th LCES Indoor Meeting - North Wales Invertebrate Conservation. 

Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

23rd BENHS Workshop - Aculeates. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

26th DNHAS Natural History Meeting - Beetles: Well I quite like 
Ladyhirdsl 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 
I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

APRIL 

10th HMB Meeting. 

Woodhurst Village Hall, Huntingdonshire at 20.00hrs. 
I: Barry Dickerson 01480 475689. 

16th LCES Indoor Meeting - Leaf mining insects and their mines. 

Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting - Plant-Insect interactions with particular 
reference to galls. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Talk by Margaret Redfern. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

20th BENHS Workshop - Sawflies. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

23rd DNHAS Natural History Meeting - The elusive white - Butterfly 
hunting in Columbia. 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 
I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

MAY 

14th BENHS Indoor Meeting - Sex, Parasites and Venereal Disease in 
Ladybirds. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Talk by Dr Mike Majerus. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



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CONTENTS 



P. Waring and R. Thomas. Moths and butterflies of the French Pyrennes, 

22nd-31st July 1994 179 

P.B. Hardin and G.C. Abejuela. Butterfly adaptation to unnatural habitats in the 

Philippines 190 

G. Bartman and P.D. Brock. Observations on the appearance and behaviour of 

species of the stick-insect genus Timea Scudder (Phasmida: Timematodea) 197 

P. Tebbutt. Brown argus {Aricia agestis) in Northamptonshire 204 

W.J. Jarvis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, Part V. 1975-84 210 

Short Communications 

N.A. Robinson. How long-legged was that Roman soldier? A contribution on Romanus 

hngipes 178 

D. McNamara. A note on the Scarlet tiger moth [Callimorpha dominula) at Newnham- 

on-Sevem ; 193 

R.A. Frost. A Dingy skipper in Derbyshire in August 194 

C. Gardiner. Dark green fritillary in Northamptonshire 194 

C. Paper. Moth sightings in 1994 195 

J. Koryszko. Purple thorn records in Staffordshire 195 

F. McCann. Entomology note from Glasgow 196 

J. Koryszko. Small yellow wave record 196 

A.H.H. Harbottle. Cynthia cardui in East Sussex 206 

W. Caswell. The story of Spider Sue 209 

Editorial 177 

Book Reviews 

The conservation of butterflies in Britain past and present 207 

The insects: An outline of entomology 208 

Diary Dates 216 

1996 Subscriptions 206 

Confection to Bulletin 54 no. 401 page 147 215 



NOTICE 

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of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or informa- 
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responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 25th October 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430). from 4 Steep Close. Orpington. Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill. Brentwood. Essex CM14 4TA. 



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Volume 54, No. 403, December, 1995 




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EDITORIAL 



As our 60th Anniversary year comes to a close, the 61st year dawns in a 
new light. The Bulletin will appear in its new format in February, 
complete with colour cover. Over the year several other changes will be 
seen. The AGM and Members' Day will take place on Saturday 20th April 
at the Royal Entomological Society of London and the 1996 Exhibition - 
which I remind you will be free for Society members to enter - will take 
place on Saturday 5th October, under the new direction of organiser 
Maxwell Barclay. 

1 again apologise to all authors who are waiting to see their articles 
published. 1 do have a large backlog at the moment, but by February's 
issue this problem should have been rectified and the delay should be 
minimal. This does not, however, mean that I no longer want articles . . . 
please keep them coming in. Notes regarding the submission of articles 
may be found below. 

Finally, 1 would like to wish you all a very Merry Christmas and 
prosperous New Year on behalf of the Society and 1 look forward to you 
joining us once again for 1996. 

Wayne Jarvis 

NOTICE TO AUTHORS 

Articles should be submitted preferably on A4 paper but not necessarily 
typed or word processed. There should be no underlining, italics or bold 
type in the article and lines should be double spaced. Otherwise, the 
articles should be formatted in a manner similar to that in the Bulletin and 
should include the author's address. Slides/photographs/Illustrations 
should be clearly labelled with the authors name and membership 
number. 



222 



DECEMBER 1995 



THE CONNECTION BETWEEN MELOE PROSCARABAEUS 
AND ANTHOPHORA RETUSA ALONG THE 
PEMBROKESHIRE COAST 

by Gordon Knight 

Observations 

Meloe proscarabaeus (the Oil beetle) (Plate 95U, Fig. 1) is large (up to 
36mm), black and conspicuous along the Pembrokeshire Coast National 
Park 180-mile coast path and together with Timarcha tenebhcosa (the 
Bloody-nosed beetle), the two beetles are conspicuous members of the 
coast path fauna in April and May. Anthophora retusa, Meloe's presumed 
host, breeds along the same stretch of coast, but is not common. 
Furthermore, at a time when many of Meloe's larvae are ready to "hitch- 
hike" to an Anthophora nest, Anthophora has ceased flying for the year. 
There is, therefore, a problem. I will summarise observations to date and 
hope that an interested reader will be able to suggest a solution to this 
impasse. 

The female Anthophora retusa (Plate 95U, Fig. 2) (the "flower bee") is 
like a small Bombus (Bumble bee). In fact she is the same size as a 
Bombus pratorum queen. She is all black, save for the ginger pollen- 
brushes on her hind legs, and very fast moving when on the wing in 
March, April and May, my earliest record being 4th March, and my very 
latest, 4th June. The males, as is customary with insects, emerge before 
the females, are brown and could be mistaken for another species and, 
unusually for males, have as long a flying season as the females. They fly 
at an even faster rate and rarely land to feed, but either hurry along 
female "flower-lanes" or hover outside colonies "attacking" them. 

The females are rapid, weather-hardy pollinators of spring flowers, both 
wild and garden, which include primroses, cowslips, ground ivy 
(Glechoma hederacea), violets, aubretia, borage and kidney vetch 
(Anth\;llis vulneraria) and even rhododendron, and there is never any 
doubt that all the Primula species in my village garden are visited many 
times over, producing a full complement of seed. The rate of 
Anthophora's visits compared with those of some other spring pollinators 
can be seen from table 1 . 

Theoretically, the rapid visits of Anthophora should ensure that Meloe's 
larvae have a greater chance of being picked up by Anthophora than by 
any other species, but so far 1 have not found any larvae on the above- 
mentioned flowers, mainly perhaps because most don't hatch out until 
June! 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



223 



Table 1 . Rate of insect visits to Glechoma hederacea. 



Species 

Bomb\;lius major 
Apis melHfera 



Visits per minute 



12-15 



13-16 



Bombus lucorum and terrestris 



17-19 



B. pascuorum 
B. pratorum 
Anthophora retusa 



30-43 



27 



25-31 



Because of erosion there are abundant exposures of what appear to be 
ideal nest sites for Anthophora virtually all along the Pembrokeshire coast 
in the top few feet of glacial till, but in fact over a period of seven years I 
have only discovered two colonies. One was a strong colony in a cliff 
south of St. Davids (SM 750243) in 1991 and the other was a smaller 
colony near Strumble Head (SM 883395) in 1993. The St. Davids colony 
was totally wiped out by 1993 and the Strumble head colony by 1995, I 
suspect by Meloe, despite the above-mentioned difficulties. Obviously for 
species survival the occasional adult Anthophora must found a "colony" 
in a new site and not use, as most do, the parental "colony". I have 
observed this in Suffolk, but not in Pembrokeshire. 

Conveniently for my studies, and to my utter astonishment, a strong 
(permanent) Anthophora colony was discovered sharing my Welsh 
cottage home. The bees' nest is in the inferior pointing between the stones 
of its eastern wall and as the gaps do not affect the inside of the cottage, 
thus they shall remain! A wait of five minutes, and certainly ten minutes, 
on a moderately fine day is sufficient to establish the existence of an 
Anthophora colony and there is not another in my village, although there 
are other stone walls and other cottages which appear to be suitable. 
Presumably the apparent permanence of my cottage colony is due to the 
absence of Oil beetles in the vicinity and the fact that Anthophora forages 
locally, not visiting the coast path where Meloe are to be found. 

The legendary French entomologist Jean Fabre in 1853, and before 
him Newport in 1851, were the first to work out the extraordinary life- 
cycle of Meloe proscarabaeus, which is conveniently summarised by E.F. 
Linssen (1959). My earliest record of Meloe is 5th April, and my latest, 
24th May. Its slow, lumbering gait, never far from the coast path, must 
attract the attention of predators as well as humans, but once attacked it 
oozes cantharidine (as does the "Spanish fly" - also a beetle) to 
discourage further jaw or beak movements. As it cannot fly it can never 



224 



DECEMBER 1995 



be far from the Anthophora (or other) host burrows from which it has 
emerged, though the smaller males, distinguished by their oddly kinked 
antennae, can move a little faster. 

Although they are nearly always found on or near bare ground, like the 
coast path itself or on the tops and sloping faces of bare cliffs, 
occasionally Meioe turn up in atypical sites, such as the ten males and 
five females I discovered in rank grass in April 1994 at Penbrush (SM 
882394) where the nearest active Anthophora colony was 100 yards 
away. So, however slowly, perhaps they can move further from their 
point of origin than I supposed. But more puzzling is the fact that I can 
always count on finding them along the coast between Porthclais (SM 
742237) and Porthlysgi (SM 732236), near St. Davids, where I have 
never seen Anthophora}. 

Matings, mostly in April, can regularly be witnessed, as can eating grass 
or other vegetation to hand and females digging pits along the coast path. 
Unlike dogs they dig with their jaws as well as their legs and also upside 
down, and into these pits they lay a clutch of bright orange eggs, which 
they then cover over, mainly perhaps to protect them from Myrmicine 
ants. 

One such clutch which I collected hatched between five and six weeks 
later, but a nearby clutch which I left in situ took a week longer. The 
louse-like larvae are 2mm long, thin and bright yellow. They are 
extremely active, constantly rearing up their front ends, with legs waving, 
and climbing whatever is available. They grip shiny surfaces by their rear 
ends as do leaf beetles. They are called triangulids because each leg 
appears to have three "claws", although these can only be seen with 
difficulty. After reaching a suitable flower, say thrift (Armeria maritima). 
they spend much of their time wriggling about inside, particularly on the 
anthers where they become "plastered" with pollen, some of which I 
suspect they eat along with nectar, but at night, when cool or in bad 
weather they retreat into the innermost recesses of the flower. It is easy to 
imagine how they could have evolved from a pollen beetle. 

On a fine day on 7th June 1995 between Porthclais and Porthlysgi I 
spent two hours searching for triangulids on the flowers which grew along 
that stretch of coast, finding 74 in all, even though most of the flowers 
had gone to seed. Their distribution was patchy and they occurred only in 
or near bare earth sites along the coast path or near the cliff edge. None 
were found in bird's foot trefoil [Lotus corniculatus) or kidney vetch, and 
most in thrift, the actual count being as follows: 

thrift 44 (one flower with 14) 

sea campion [Silene maritima) 28 (one flower with 14) 
sheep's bit (Jasione montana) 2 



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A further check, the day after, confirmed that in suitable sites most thrift 
flowers contained one or two triangulids and occasionally more than 12. 
Was this because they actually preferred thrift or because thrift flowers, 
despite the fact that the majority had gone to seed, were the most 
widespread flowers in the locality? It is not as if thrift is a particularly 
popular flower with insect visitors, kidney vetch being far and away the 
most popular during its flowering season, attracting virtually all species, 
including Anthophora, from other flowers. Triangulids were still easy to 
find in the same sites as late as 15th June 1995. What sort of "lifts" could 
they expect at this season? By far the commonest visitor to this miserable 
remnant of thrift flowers was Bombus lucomm. Just occasionally a small 
solitary bee or fly would visit them, but there can be no doubt that in 
June most triangulids would obtain lifts from this widespread and 
abundant Pembrokeshire bumble bee. Note that this is well after all 
Anthophora are "grounded"; moreover Anthophora have never been 
seen along this section of coast. 

Triangulids were easy to entice off the flowers by inserting a small 
paintbrush, but were just as easily persuaded to release their hold on the 
bristles when presented with another flower. So could Bonnbus lucorum 
be used as a means of reaching thrift or other flowers which grow in a 
more promising site? If B. lucorum was itself the host, then of course the 
Anthophora/Meloe time problem would not arise, but there is no 
evidence for this. 

According to Linssen's summary of their life history the few lucky 
triangulids to reach the correct, already provisioned host cell, first eat the 
egg and then the pollen/nectar provisions, at the same time developing 
into a more maggot-like, immobile state. This of course raises yet other 
problems. How does this growing larva in its relatively immobile state 
reach other host cells to enable it to acquire enough food to attain adult 
size? And finally how does the very large adult beetle claw its way to the 
surface through what will usually be stony ground? 

Conclusion 

' In my own mind I am sure that Meloe was responsible for destroying the 
two good Pembrokeshire coastal colonies of Anthophora, so 1 am not 
disputing Fabre's original findings, but this cannot be the whole story. The 
larvae will be "hitch-hiking" from 18th May to 26th June. Hence those 
"cadging lifts" in May could occasionally be picked up on, say, cowslip, a 

' favourite with Anthophora, or perhaps violet-not primrose, which will 
have finished flowering (Anthophora actually collects cowslip pollen). 



226 



DECEMBER 1995 



These triangulids will anive ai Anthophords cells at an ideal time, but 
from the beginning of June ihey must find another host, as Anthophora 
has ceased operations. They must frequently be picked up by Bombus 
lucorum on thrift, but presumably their survival depends upon their 
obtaining a subsequent lift from a solitary mining bee species. Which 
other species is not known, but there are 180 miles of coast path and 
associated cliffs in which other species abound. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are due to Dr Roger Key of the Nature Conservancy Council for 
England for his encouragement and assistance, particularly in regard to 
references. 

REFERENCE 

Linssen. E.F. ^1959j. Beetles of the British Isles. SO - 86. 



WILDLIFE AND COUNTRYSIDE ACT QUINQUENNIAL 
REVIEW 

by Paul Bauy 

In the Entomological Livestock Group list 382 (15th August 1995) I 
outlined proposals for additions to the protected species on Schedule 5 
-section 9;. I also stated at the time that there was no sign of the 
rumoured '"ban on releases". I have now discovered (via information 
from a very reliable source ) that the proposals to ban all releases of any of 
the fully or partially protected species are to be considered and are likely 
to become law. This appears very likely to happen, especially as I have 
been told that we were not going to be consulted over the matter. It 
seems that this one was to be slipped through on the quiet! Exactly whose 
decision this was. I don't know. An^^-way. the best thing to do of you don't 
agree with this proposal is to write to the addresses I shall give below and 
put your opinion across. If the JNCC and English Nature get a few 
hundred letters fi'om the veiy people that this legislation will affect - then 
they might consider all sides before making a decision. 1 believe that 
legislation pushed through on the quiet will not be easily accepted by the 
people at the blunt end. Write to: Margaret Palmer. JNCC. Monkstone 
House. City Road. Peterborough PEl 1J\' (Tel: 01733 62626 Fax: 01733 
555948) or English Nature. Noithminster House. Peterborough PEl lUA 
(Tel: 01733 340345 Fax: 01733 68834). 



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BUGGED UP TO THE NINES - DRESS SENSE FOR 
ENTOMOLOGISTS 

by Richard Jones (8355) 

13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 

There can be nothing more disconcerting than to be innocently walking 
along a sunny woodland ride, oblivious to all but the distant twittering of 
song-birds, when suddenly a dishevelled shape lumbers menacingly from 
the undergrowth; cursing and stumbling, the looming figure rips through 
the brambles, drops the beating tray and stands panting before a very 
startled rambler. This is not the way for an entomologist to make an 
entrance. 

The little girl, out walking Horace the King Charles spaniel, blinks and 
turns to her mother: "Is that a tramp mummy?" she asks. 

Unsure what this apparition could possibly be, mummy is on the verge 
of confirming her daughter's suspicions, but errs on the side of discretion. 
"I'm not sure, but whatever it is don't touch it" she urges, pressing forward 
to glare at the spilled tubes, scattered pill-boxes and dangling pooter. This 
could be worse than she had initially imagined. 

Sadly, this is all too often the entomologist's first contact with civilised 
humanity. The image of this obviously dowdy and repugnant creature is 
firmly set in the public imagination; first impressions are long-lasting and 
final. And to our detriment it is people like this that get us decent and 
respectable entomologists such a bad name. 

Something has got to be done to improve the image of field naturalists. 
Eccentricity is one thing, but downright untidiness is inexcusable. The 
following notes have been penned with the hope that readers will bring 
them to the attention of those wretched creatures with whom it is so 
embarrassing to be seen net in hand beside. 

At the risk of appearing sexist, I can only apologise, because the 
ensuing essay is aimed almost entirely at my male colleagues. This is 
partly because I am more familiar with male apparel, but also to some 
extent because since there are probably fewer women entomologists there 
are also fewer badly dressed women entomologists. It may also have 
something to do with the fact that men seem to be more cavalier in their 
attitude to clothes and personal hygiene. 

Important note! 

Any resemblance of the characters portrayed herein to real people living 
or dead is completely intentional. When they read this and recognise 
themselves they should be thoroughly ashamed. 



228 



DECEMBER 1995 



The suit 

There was a time when suits were de rigeuer and no gentleman would be 
seen dressed in anything else. With the modern style of "casual" clothes, 
corduroy or denim jeans and waxed jackets have usurped the rightful 
place of the two-piece suit as the most frequently encountered country 
squire's attire. But jeans are not roomy enough for squatting to grub at 
the roots of trees and the pockets are pathetically small not even room 
for a few cream crackers and a small jar of Gentleman's Relish. As for wax 
jackets, we must blame the Sunday colour supplements for infecting the 
country set with the notion that these are anything other than ghastly wet- 
look donkey jackets. 

The blessings of the suit are manifold. There are usually endless 
pockets, both inside and out, to carry all manner of paraphernalia, from 
boxes of tubes and hand lenses to hip flask and spam sandwiches. Those 
items most likely to be lost in the frantic scramble after quarry or climbing 
over high barbed-wire fences, can be attached by a cord to one of the 
many lapel button holes. However, too many items secured by too many 
pieces of twine can give the incumbent the appearance of being held 
together by bits of string - not the height of chic as one can imagine. 

In summer, a light cotton suit is cool and airy, while in winter a dark 
tweed or worsted will hide mud-stained knees and backside, keep the 
bitter wind out and offer some protection against snarling bramble thorns 
and farm dogs. The appearance of a waistcoat on the coldest and 
windiest days offers further protection against the elements and provides 
neat little pockets for handwarmers and extra strong mints. 

Whether to go single- or double-breasted is a matter of personal 
conviction and current "fashion" has little to do with the choice at hand. 
Varying lapel widths, presence or absence of shoulder pads and the 
modern or out-moded cut of the cloth can be used to good advantage in 
presenting the mildly eccentric figure that is the well-dressed naturalist. 

The tie 

Whereas a gentleman will use a tie to ornament the neck and declare 
allegiance to one club or the other, the typical entomologist regards it 
more as a kind of self-imposed torture device. Having wrapped it about 
the neck, twirled it through several bouts of ignominious (and 
mathematically bizarre) knotting and unknotting, the final effect is one of 
noose not nice. 

For those less well informed than the rest of us. here's a little tip to 



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logo or motif on the tie is intended to be displayed just below the Adam's 
apple, not under the left ear. 

True, some society ties, 100 per cent rayon, do not handle well unless 
treated to hearty does of saddler's grease and warm sweat. But their 
ability to absorb spilled claret without a blemish is unsurpassed; this I can 
declare from personal experience beside flailing elbows at various 
entomological bean-feast. 

Buying a tie can be a traumatic experience, especially since natural 
history emblems have been appropriated by all and sundry to pass as 
local or national symbols. Faced by a stern sales assistant in a Penzance 
gentleman's outfitter's, I plucked up my best courage to ask about the 
yellow tie with blackbirds on it. 

"You mean the choughs, sir" he sneered, pronouncing it "choffs", "the 
ornithological emblem of Cornwall". 

"Ah, yes, that's the one. Do you have any other colours?" 

"No sir, choughs are black and the gold is the Cornwall colour." 

A shudder ran involuntarily through his body at the notion! I quickly 
bought the tie and left. Tie-buying encounters need not be so harrowing, 
many high street shops and back street jumble sales are willing to serve 
even the most dowdy entomologist. 

Some ties are wide and some are narrow, following the vagaries of 
fashion. Almost anything of medium width is acceptable, but the two 
extremes can make personal statements if required. A broad silk tie, 
brightly coloured, can give the wearer a brash and confident dash of 
colour, but be warned that kipper ties are worn only by wide-boys. A 
discrete narrow number suggests calm and sophistication, but bootlace 
ties should be avoided unless one is stopping off at a barn-dance later. 

Apart from giving the wearer a vague air of decorum, and offering 
something to fiddle with when faced by an armed and angry game- 
keeper, ties can have distinct entomological functions. They can be used 
to make hasty repairs to broken net handles; they can be lashed across a 
bulging rucksack full of sievings for the Burlese funnel, and they can even 
be used to hold the light trap fast to the roof rack. 

As well as such practical uses, ties offer excellent opportunities for 
entomological snobbery. Garbed with the official neckerchief of the so- 
and-so club, one is often greeted with cries of "Oh, I didn't know you 
were a mem.ber of the what-d'ye-m'-call-it society." Remember to cross 
one's fingers when extolling the virtues of the group. Take care not to 
overdo the performance when recounting how one first joined this elite 
party. And never let on that one found the tie for 15p in an Oxfam shop. 



230 



DECEMBER 1995 



The hat 

To some extent, eccentricity can be given full rein when it comes to head- 
gear. However, on no account wear a white flat-cap or a floppy green 
angler's hat unless one wishes to invite ridicule. Other foppish affectations 
such as berets, boaters and fezes are probably also best avoided. 

Although the bowler was once regarded as the typical genfleman's hat, 
it is now rather old-fashioned and very expensive to launder if knocked 
off into a cow pat or dented when one falls out of a tree. Slightly more 
practical designs include, among others, the much more flexible Panama, 
fedora, Homburg, trilby, Australian bush-hat and American cowboy hat. 
All of these can be carried with aplomb and style and cleaned under a 
cold tap if mistreated or over-used. 

The cloth-cap should be donned with care to make sure that the check 
or plaid pattern does not clash with the suit. Despite the fact that the brim 
gets in the way when peering through the camera viewflnder, never wear 
the cap backwards or one will simply be dismissed as a simpleton. 

Under certain conditions, pith helmets or sou'westers make perfectly 
acceptable accoutrements, though these are rather specialised garments 
and would look out of place at, for example, the Verral supper or other 
garden party. 

Apart from hiding a dreadful haircut, keeping off the rain and shading 
the eyes from the sun (avoid vulgar sunglasses and comical green plastic 
sun-visors), hats are extraordinarily practical. Having accidentally left the 
net on a bus, flying insects can be caught with a deft swipe of the deer- 
stalker; a loose- weave straw hat will make a passable sieve; other types 
will serve as make-shift fans on a hot day or containers for picking 
blackberries. 

The supreme justification for having a hat is being able to raise in 
greeting to some stranger or other. If one ever causes a start when 
tumbling out of the undergrowth, raising one's hat is just enough to 
convince that one is not a dangerous psychopath or a bumbling fruitcake. 
This works especially in exotic locations where entomologists are thin on 
the ground. In foreign situations, obviously aberrant behaviour such as 
avidly dissecting a dung heap or collecting live fleas from mange-ridden 
cats, can cause embarrassing social problems unless the situation is 
disarmed by the polite, if comical, antics of hat-raising and hallooing. 

Losing one's hat is a sad fate, but should this occur on a hot day, 
please resist the temptation to wear a knotted handkerchief after the 
manner of postcard cartoon characters. 



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Footwear 

Shoes or boots need to be comfortable and strong. Since they are 
invariably encrusted in mud they should be waterproof. In the past, 
galoshes worn over light-weight shoes were common and practical, but 
these appear to have given way to the green welly. These are all very well 
if one drives a shooting brake and owns a smooth-haired English setter 
called Dennis, but conventional black gum-boots are perfectly acceptable 
in most cases. Industrial variations with steel toe-caps are available, but 
do take care when pond-dipping at dyke edges or the added weight of 
the metal insert is liable to drag one wait-deep into the water. 

Cowboy boots are a little over the top unless the rhinestones are picked 
off first and unusual reptile skins are vulgar beyond belief. Some 
foolhardy show-offs have been noted with 1930s-style brown leather 
cavalry boots complete with side buckles and brass eyelets for the 
bootlaces, but such footwear is ungainly, uncomfortable and makes the 
wearer look a right chump. 

Sandals are only of dubious use on dry heaths and distant white sand 
beaches. Suede should be avoided at all cost unless one is a geography 
teacher. Plimsols and "training" shoes might be comfortable and ooze 
street credibility, but they show the stains as soon as one steps in one's 
first badger latrine. 

Woollies 

Whether one favours jumpers, cardigans, sweaters or jerseys, in Fair Isle, 
pead or plain, a woolly can still add to the entomolgist's smartness. A 
word of warning though - don't let elbow holes ruin the effect; get the 
best repairs one can afford, don't attempt to darn them oneself and shun 
leatherette patches like the plague. 

If a distant (or close!) relative knits their favourite entomologist a mail 
sack of a pullover grin and bubble thankfulness, then immediately scheme 
to loose it at the first opportunity in a raised peat bog. Perhaps the cat 
would like it? 

Other raiments 

The anorak has suffered a decline in its perceived stylishness, mainly due 
to the remorseless torment of train-spotters by the media and other 
pompous intellectuals. Although functional and economical, one does 
have to admit that it does lack something in terms of suavity and 
elegance. Unless intending to make a personal statement in terms of self- 
depreciating irony, it is best left on the clothes peg and a light overcoat 
worn instead. 



232 



DECEMBER 1995 



A recent bright appearance has been made by the ubiquitous cagoule. 
in gaudy colours and various synthetic fibres. They now commonly 
bespot the countryside with specks of orange, purple and turquoise, 
usually in matching pairs. Although decidedly waterproof, they have a 
tendency to acquire vulgar amounts of condensation on the inside and it 
is not long before the wearer is sodden from within rather than without. 
From an entomological perspective, these strange garments may show 
some promise in attracting horseflies, although further research on this 
topic is no doubt in order. 

The dufflecoat, once a beatnik's jazz icon, is now rather outmoded. Its 
patch pockets have an annoying tendency to fill with leaf litter and fluff 
and once moistened by even the most modest of showers it takes on the 
feel and weight of wet roofing felt. Beatnik entomologists are now 
wearing black polo-neck shirts and linen zoot-suits. 



New styles 

One-piece clothing has recently come to entomological circles, having 
been assimilated from the worlds of angling and photography - the 
many-pocketed over-waistcoat. The sleeveless "bugging jackets" are worn 
over shirt, jacket or even overcoat and, like Batman's utility belt, offer 
countless zippered pockets to take notebooks, hand lenses, tubes and 
other entomological accoutrements like Swiss army penknife and thermos 
of bovril. As long as the wearer's tie is straight and general appearance 
tidy, there can be no objection to these peculiar garments. 



What next? 

Gazing into the future is a hopeless task, except that fashion goes in 
cycles and there are always being revivals of past styles. Several dress 
items have been tried and rejected over the years. As with all fads, a 
vogue blossoms then disappears. Nevertheless there may still be some 
mileage in many items and it would be interesting to discover whether 
certain garments could be resurrected including jodhpurs, plus fours, 
lederhosen, gaiters and puttees. 

For myself, I always regretted the fact that the poncho never really took 
its rightful place in the halls of entomological fashion and I must admit 
that 1 look forward with eager anticipation to the imminent return of the 
frock coat. 



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CORFU IN LATE SEPTEMBER - BUTTERFLIES 

by David Withrington (7110) 

21 Lawn Avenue, Peterborough PEl 3RA. 

I spent the last two weeks of September 1993 in Corfu with two naturalist 
friends. Corfu is the most northerly of the Ionian islands, with views over 
Albania and the Greek mainland. On weekday mornings, I helped to 
escort fellow tourists on wildlife walks, organised by Friends of the Ionian. 
The rest of the time was available for exploring this surprisingly green 
island. 

There was wildlife literally in and behind every bush, with autumn bird 
migration in full swing and wild flowers reasserting themselves after the 
scorching heat of the summer. The flora ranged from the imposing sea 
daffodils, through cyclamen and crocus in the olive groves, to the 
beautiful yellow Sternbergia on the slopes of Mount Pantokrator (936 
metres). 

With stripe-necked terrapins in the ponds, tortoises and wild boar in the 
dunes, colourful locals and good food and drink in the tavernas, it was 
reminiscent of Durrell's "My Family and Other Animals" (set in Corfu). 

We stayed in Maltas, a tiny village in the south-west of the island, with 
some new apartments behind a long sandy beach. Butterflies proved to 
be numerous and varied, although it was fairly late in the season. A small 
patch of rough ground outside our apartment produced the ubiquitous 
Swallowtail (P. machaon), whites (P. rapae, P. daplidice and L. sinapis), 
blues (L. boeticus, S. pirithous, C. argiolus, A. agestis, A. thersites and P. 
icarus), browns (M. jurtina, C. pamphilus, L. maera and P. aegeria) and 
skippers (S. orbifer, T. lineola and O. venata). 

Another productive habitat was the cliff path (Plate 95V, Fig. 3) - a 
mixture of bare ground, rough grass, brambles and maquis. Here we saw 
three species of grayling (H. semele, H. aristaeus and H. sxjriaca), the 
Wall (L. megera) and Southern comma (P. egea). The biggest surprise 
was the graceful Hungarian glider (N. huularis) which we saw in the 
south, centre and north of the island - apparently some 200 kilometres 
south of its previously recorded range. 

Two large, fast- flying butterflies were easy to identify but difficult to 
observe. In low-lying coastal areas we often saw individual Plain tigers (D. 
chrysippus) . migrants from Africa which look like Monarchs. The Two- 
tailed pasha (C. jasius) would seldom allow an approach closer than four 
metres, even when feeding on over-ripe grapes. On 1st October, we 
climbed to the top of Mount St. Mattheos (463 metres) where we saw a 



234 



DECEMBER 1995 



Two-tailed pasha patrolling a stretch of woodland path. As I was trying to 
photograph it on a dead branch, it took off and landed on my hat (Plate 
95V, Fig. 4). It stayed there contentedly while I struggled to undo my 
camera strap, so that I could pass it to my friends without lifting it over my 
head. It proved to be very photogenic, flying off every five minutes to see 
wandering males of its own species. After half-an-hour, I took off my hat 
and we bade it farewell. 

This episode seemed to symbolise a close association between man 
and nature on Corfu. But it was not borne out by any behaviour of some 
of the locals who were often seen driving around on mopeds and banging 
off rifles. I also observed dynamite being thrown into the sea from a 
fishing dinghy. Near our apartment I was sprayed with pesticide from a 
plane debugging the olive groves. This was presumably accidental, 
though I had been shaking my fist at the pilot. 

On the other hand, we met taverna owners (the second a Dutch lady) 
who had, respectively, rescued a shot kestrel and a crossbill that had been 
hit by a car. Part of the objectives of Friends of the Ionian is to introduce 
local schoolchildren to wildlife. This is made possible by the enlightened 
attitude of tour operators, such as Sunvil with whom we were travelling. 

Amongst the other interesting butterflies that we saw were Silver- 
washed fritillaries (A. paphia) and their larger relative the Cardinal (A. 
pandora). The skippers were well represented, with the Mallow skipper 
(C. alceae), Marbled skipper (C. lavatheme) and Mediterranean skipper 
(G. nostrodamus) . One lasting memory of Corfu will be my first ever 
sighting of the Lattice brown (K. roxelana). We were sitting in a small 
village taverna near Spartera in the south of the island, having an 
afternoon snack and a beer. Ever alert, we spotted a butterfly settling on a 
branch of a very large olive tree above our heads. It was clearly a Lattice 
brown, and it stayed there motionless for 35 minutes before flying away. 



GREY DAGGER ON LAUREL 

hy Frank McGann (6291) 

On the 27th October 1994, I was walking along Bogbain Road, 
Easterhouse, when I found a Grey dagger larva on laurel. The larva was 
feeding on a leaf four feet from the base of the plant. The laurel had some 
leaf damage and I presume that this was due to larval feeding. I took the 
larva and put it in a container alonq with some laurel and birch leaves. 



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LOS ANGELES INSECT FAIR - 1995 

bi^PaulD. Brock (4792) 

"Papillon", 40 Thorndike Road, Slough SL2 ISR. 

During a trip to California and Arizona, I was able to make a brief visit to 
the Ninth Annual Insect Fair held on Saturday and Sunday, 20-2 1st May 
1995 at the Arboretum of Los Angeles, Arcadia, California. 

This event was well supported by mainly local insect traders and 
exhibitors and visitors travelled many miles to see it, in addition to people 
visiting the Arboretum. 

The venue, north of Los Angeles, was ideal for a day out, with visitors 
paying US$5 entrance fee to the Arboretum, which included entry to the 
Insect Fair. Exhibitors were situated in a hall (34) around the patio area 
(24), with good access. Several people stated that the Fair was too 
commercialised, but European Fairs are much more commercially 
orientated. Several exhibitors were not selling any items. 

The Fair catered for children well - there were special activities, 
children's books, toys and face painting. Live exotic insects were relatively 
few in number, no doubt due to regulations on importing insects from 
outside the USA; the US Fish and Wildlife Service were represented to 
provide information on this aspect and the US Department of Food and 
Agriculture-Aphis/PPQ provided information and details of career 
opportunities. 

Excellent displays of dead exotic insects were intermingled with various 
traders from the impressive wide range of equipment and books offered 
by Bio Quip Products, Inc. to deadstock for sale of various orders and 
some livestock e.g. tarantulas were well represented. There were antique 
insect prints, insect candy for sale (trading name "Licket cricket"!), 
numerous T-shirt designs, gifts, maps and plants. Prices were generally 
reasonable, although I had to resist some expensive antique prints. 

This was an interesting smaller scale version of European Insect Fairs, 
with something for everyone, and possibly several thousand visitors over 
the two days. Another feature of the Fair was six talks - three held on 
each , of the two days of the Fair, including such varied subjects as scarab 
beetles, dragonflies and butterfly farming from China. 

For information about forthcoming Fairs, held annually, contact the 
organisers - Dr A.V. Evans, Insect Zoo Director, Natural History Museum, 
900 Exposition Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA, who also exhibit at 
the Fair. 



236 



DECEMBER 1995 



THE STRANGE TALE OF "THE MANCHESTER TINEA ' - 
RETOLD 

by Eddie Sutcliffe 

359 IVheat/ey Lane Road. Fence. Burnley. Lancashire BB12 9QA. 

The now extinct ""Manchester Tinea"" was first described by John Curtis in 
his 16 volume Magnum opus. It can be found on page 304 of the seventh 
volume of this work which was published in 1830. Here it is described as 
Pancaha woodiella of the Tineidae family, a detailed account is given of a 
female specimen which includes reference to the strikingly-coloured bright 
orange forewings and the reddish-orange hindwings freckled with black. 
Opposite the text is a slightly larger than life-size hand-coloured print of 
the moth together with detailed anatomical drawings of mouth parts and 
hind leg. Since this time the moth has been referred to at various times as 
Oecophora woodiella. Schiffermuelleria woodiella and latterly as 
Euclemensia woodiella in the family Momphidae. It has been described 
and illusti-ated in the works of Humphreys and Westwood and in those of 
the Rev. F. Morris. There is nothing remarkable about all this, but let us 
delve back into history and we may have a tale that, while belonging to 
the annals of entomology, could, with its complexity and mystique, grace 
the pages of fiction. 

My story begins in June 1829 with Robert Cribb. an amateur 
entomologist who resided in Oldham Road. Ancoats. Manchester. About 
the 15th June he visited Kersal Moor, which was situated less than two 
and a half miles from the centre of Manchester. There he observed a 
brightly-coloured moth flying round a hollow tree trunk, close to 
Singleton Brook. On this visit, and subsequent visits later in the month, 
he secured some 30 to 60 specimens of the moth in question - there 
appears to be some dispute over the exact number. Of these specimens 
taken Cribb gave one to a Mr R. Wood and two to Samuel Carter, fellow 
entomologists, and. at that time, friends of Cribb. It was intended that the 
specimen given to R. Wood should be sent on to Curtis for identification, 
and this was duly done. On receiving this and finding it to be a species 
hitherto unrecorded. Curtis named the moth Pancalio woodiella (after 
Wood). Cribb was most instated by this slight and refused to part with 
any other specimens. 

Now Cribb. in addition to his liking for entomology, also had a 
fondness for the fruits of the hop which Samuel Carter attempted to use 
to his advantage. Finding Cribb from time to time a little worse for wear, 
he would try to persuade him to part with his box of specimens, but 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



237 



to which Cribb agreed but informed Carter that it was in pawn at a 
beerhouse. Carter thereupon gave his five shillings to redeem the pawn - 
this was the last he saw of Cribb for several weeks! On the next occasion 
when the two men met Carter informed Cribb that he would give him his 
ten shillings and in addition go to the beerhouse with Cribb and pay the 
money owed on the box as well. However, on arriving at the said house 
they were met by the mistress who informed them that "the box of flies 
has been stuck in the fire" as she did not think he was coming for them. 

Needless to say not only was Cribb the first person to take specimens of 
this species, he was also the last, and the moth has not been seen again 
to this day. Of the the three specimens which remained, the one held by 
Curtis is now (together with the rest of Curtis's collection) in the 
Melbourne Museum, Victoria, Australia. The two held by Samuel Carter 
were eventually sold with his collection to the Manchester Museum. One 
remains there today, while the other was exchanged for a collection of the 
late Lord Walsingham, and is now in the British Museum, London. 

The chronicles that I have used in assembling these facts are first those 
of Joseph Sidebotham, who gives an account on pages 52-54 of The 
Entomologist, 1884. In this he states that, on his joining the Manchester 
Natural History Club in 1840, the tale was recited to him by Samuel 
Carter and other members present. Further accounts are given by James 
C. Melvill in the Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist, May 1924, and by 
Alan Brindle in the Entomologist's Gazette, Vol. 3, 1952. 

AUTUMN LEPIDOPTERA FROM GLASGOW 

bi; Frank McGann (6291) 

On the 12th September 1994 I found a half-grown larva of the Broom 
moth on sallow. This was at Possil, Glasgow on a piece of waste ground 
where sallow and other trees grow. I also found a larva of what I think is 
the Mottled beauty. Both larvae were resting on the upper surface of the 
sallow leaves. I had been searching for more Poplar hawkmoth larvae, 
common at this location. 

At Bargeddie Parish Church I found two larvae, one of which was an 
Arctiid, the other, much smaller, looked like a species of Wainscot moth. 
The Arctiid caterpillar could be the Ruby tiger. It is feeding well on 
dandelion. 

Recently I have also caught a female Garden carpet moth, which has 
laid numerous eggs on blackcurrant, and found a cocoon of a quite large 
larva on Oxford ragwort. I have this at home and will be looking to see 
what it produces. 



238 



DECEMBER 1995 



OF BATS, BADGERS AND BOVINES 

by M. Hancox 

According to recent reports, it seems that salmonella disease of relevance 
to poulny and other livestock, and hence to human health, m.ay also be 
present in wildlife. This has been suggested for bats (Simpson 1994). as 
well as for badgers (Humphrey & Bygrave. 1988). But since salmonella 
will be present in the sporadic outbreaks of salmonella in poulny. sheep 
and cattle, in faeces, it is hardly suiprising if there is occasional spillover 
to wildlife. Serotine bats for example may consume appreciable quantities 
of small Aphodius dung beetles (C, Catto pers. com.), and badgers often 
turn over cow pats in search of the larger Geotrupes dor beetles 'Hancox 
1992). 

This may provide an interesting clue to the great badgers and bovine 
TB saga. It is quite clear that badger tuberculosis is initially of dietary 
origin in 70% of cases being first clinically diagnosed in lymph nodes 
under the tongue (the submandibulars), and hence comparable to child 
"scrofula"" of the tonsils formerly from unpasteurised milk. Badgers would 
be almost bound to pick up TB. salmonella, or indeed brucellosis via the 
dietary^ route from infected cattle, particularly from point source cow pats. 
Blaming badgers or bats for bovine problems is hence not altogether 
believable! 

REFERENCES 

Corbel. M.J. (1983). Response of the badger to infection uith Brucella abortus. Res. in Vet. 
Sci. 34: 296-300. 

Hancox. M. (1992). Dor beetles, badgers and bovine TB. Bull. Amat. Em. Soc. 51: 161-2. 

- . a994). Badgers and bovine TB. Anirrial Welfare (UFAW) 3: 253-4. 

Humphrey. T.J. S: Bygrave. .\. il988). Abortion in a cow associated with salmonella 

infection in badgers. Veterinary Record 123: 160. 
Simpson, V.R. (1994). Normal bat flora. Veterinau; Record 135: 487-8. 



A DATE FOR YOUR 1996 DIARY 

AES Annual General Meeting and Members' Day on 20th April 1996. 

All members are urged to attend this event to be held at the Royal 
Entomological Society of London. 41 Queen's Gate. London SVV7. Doors 
open at 10.00am 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



239 



THE STICK-INSECT DATAMES OILEUS (WESTWOOD) 
1859 (PHASMIDA) 

by Francis Seow-Choen (9847) 

54 Mimosa Walk, Singapore 2880, Singapore. 

The insect currently known as Datames oileus apparently occurs over a 
wide range in South-east Asia. Westwood described the insect he called 
Acanthoderus oileus in 1859 but unfortunately based his description on 
a nymph from Java. Subsequently, Giinther in 1934 synonymised 
Acanthoderus gravidus Bates 1865, Acanthoderus mouhoti Bates 1865, 
Datames aequalis Rehn 1904, Datames mitratus Redtenbacher 1906, 
Datames cxjlindripes Redtenbacher 1906, Datames arietinus 
Redtenbacher 1906 and Dares fulmek Werner 1934 with Datames 
oileus. 

Redtenbacher examined specimens from Malacca, Perak and North 
Sulawesi in describing Datames mitratus and specimens from Mentawai 
Island and Malacca for Datames arietinus. Rehn's specimens of Datames 
aequalis were from the Moluccas. Bragg has recently found specimens of 
similar insects from Sarawak. Mr Chan Chew Lun and I have collected 
specimens of Datames oileus from Singapore, Selangor, Pahang and 
Sabah. It was clear from our examination of these specimens that the 
Datames so far collected and examined from Peninsular Malaysia and 
Singapore are co-specific whilst the Datames from Sepilok in Sabah are 
not the same species (Figures 1-4). It is unlikely therefore that the type 
specimens being from widely separate localities might not actually be co- 
specific. The taxonomy of these insects is therefore shrouded in 
uncertainty and there is an urgent need for a revision of the entire genus, 
but only after having examined specimens from all the type localities at 
least! 

Whatever their status or names, these insects are fascinating and easy 
to breed in captivity. In the wild in Singapore, they have been found 
feeding on leaves of Curculigo latifolia (Hypoxidaceae), Dieffenbachia sp. 
(Araceae), Uncaria gambir (Rubiceae), Aidia wallichiana (Rubiaceae), 
Uroph{;llum glabrum (Rubiaceae), Daemonorops cf. did\;moph\;lla 
(Palmae) and Scindapsus aureus (Araceae). In the United Kingdom, the 
insects have been reared successfully on Aroids (Araceae) and the 
Wandering Jew (P.D. Brock; pers. comm.). 

I am grateful to Mr Tay Eng Pin, Senior Research Taxonomist, 
National Parks Board, Singapore Botanic Gardens for help with the 
identification of foodplants. 



240 



DECEMBER 1995 



THE LARGE WHITE IN SOUTH AFRICA 

by Phi! Grey (3820) 

Coridon, Steppeshill, Langton Makrauers, Swanage, Dorset BH 19 SET. 

On arrival at an eastern suburb of Cape Town in February 1995, the first 
butterfly I saw in the garden was a female Large White (Pieris brassicae). 
It was of normal English size and markings and it transpired that these 
butterflies were to be seen passing by every one or two minutes and 
sometimes t'vvo or three at a time. 

This species is not supposed to occur in South Africa and they were 
certainly not present in Cape Town in February 1994 so I went to 
Kirstenbosch National Botanic Gardens, also east of Cape Town, and to 
the Company Gardens in the centre of the city; in both places the Large 
white was to be seen in great numbers. 

On a visit to friends to the west of the city, the lady had lost three rows 
of cabbages in her garden and was left only with the "forks" . She was far 
from amused! I pointed out three unmistakable batches of eggs laid 
beneath the "forks", at which stage I began to feel that she was blaming 
me for being a "butterfly-man"! 

I sought out the entomologist in his office at Kirstenbosch Gardens and, 
although he was not a lepidopterist, he had heard that the Large white 
had been seen in the Cape Peninsula since the previous August. He did 
not seem unduly perturbed when I suggested that, as the butterfly 
probably had no natural predators in South Africa, a plague of pest 
proportions might arise. 

It would be interesting to know whether any of our widespread 
membership has heard of this phenomenon or knows how it came about. 

There is a similar story in reverse involving the little brown South 
African Lycaenid, Cacyreus marshalli, which lays its eggs on Pelargonium 
flowers. This species arrived in Spain and its islands four years ago and 
has become a pest to Pelargonium growers. It was possibly exported from 
the Cape among Pelargonium flowers but one cannot imagine anyone 
sending infected cabbage leaves to Cape Town. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



241 



A FURTHER NOTE ON BLACK-VEINED WHITE 
AGGREGATIONS IN CENTRAL FINLAND 

by Leigh Plester (2968) 

BioFilm Ltd, Yla-Muuratjdrvi, 41800 Korpilahti, Finland. 

Having written a note (Bulletin 53: 286-7), accompanied by a 
photograph showing a small group of Black-veined whites (Aporia 
crataegi) imbibing at wet mud, I was delighted to see a colour photo 
accompanying a short article entitled "Butterflies like a snow storm" in 
issue 6-7 1994 of Suomen Luonto (Nature of Finland) magazine. The 
slide had been sent in by a horse rider and showed three other young 
ladies on horseback clearly passing through a cloud of some 200-300 of 
the same butterflies! The ground in the picture looks much drier than the 
area in which I observed my individuals but lies in the same vicinity at 
Korpilahti, Central Finland. Finland's leading butterfly expert, Dr Kauri 
Mikkola of the University of Helsinki, replied to the young lady's query 
regarding why butterflies "by the thousand" had congregated on a track 
used annually by horses and their riders and I am grateful to him for 
permission to translate part of his reply here. 

"This is a wonderful observation!" enthuses Dr Mikkola, "as the species 
dwindled alarmingly in the 1960s, not returning until the 1970s, and then 
mainly to south-eastern Finland, where its population had been 
abundant. Gathering in large flocks is typical of the species, but we can 
only guess as to its nature. The Black-veined white lives in colonies: in 
some places they are extremely abundant but in similar places elsewhere 
they are scarce or absent. In addition to roads. Black-veined whites may 
also gather on flowers or trees to rest for the night. 

"Presumably the following conditions have to be met for flocking to 
take place: (1) open gravel or sand, ie normally a road, in a peaceful spot 
close to the breeding place, (2) the collection of moisture from previous 
rain, often with small dried puddles, (3) nitrogen-containing substances 
dissolved in the ground from animal droppings and urine, (4) social 
behaviour draws the insects together." 

He goes on to say that the gathering spot is almost always a road or, as 
in this case, a bridle path. Horses are also ridden along the dirt road 
where I found the individuals mentioned in my article. The ideas I put 
forward on the subject seem to be not too far off the mark, in view of Dr 
Mikkola's further comment that "The social aspect comes out in the 
following minor event: ten years ago I watched a lorry in the Altai 



242 



DECEMBER 1995 



mountains come along a lonely road and drive into a Black-veined white 
swami. damaging one buttei'fly. which was transponed ten metres away 
from the original gathering place. Immediately the flying butterflies began 
to land next to this injured specimen, even though there had been none 
of the butterflies there before." He ends by saying that although the 
females are known to pair immediately after emergence, flocking would 
help to ensure that mating takes place. 

MORE LEPIDOPTERA FROM GLASGOW 

by Frank McGann (62911 

Recently 1 found som^e Grey dagger lar\'ae on hauihorn and then shortly 
afteiwards another one on sycamore. The laner was resting on the upper 
surface of one the leaves of a sycamore sapling, a foot or so high, 
gi'owing behind a mesh fence. The following day I found another Grey 
dagger laiva about the same size as the first i.e. about half-grown, on 
another sycamore sapling near to the first one. 

Whilst 1 was out at Possil Park. Glasgow with friends. I noticed some 
sallow bushes gi-owing amongst paving and against a wall. I recognised 
lea\-es that had been eaten by Saully laivae. a lot of which were present. 
On one of the sallow leaves I noticed large droppings of frass. I at once 
suspected a much larger laR'a and sure enough on the sallow in question 
I saw a full-grown Poplai- hawkmoth cateipillar. It was resting near the 
cenn-e of the bush, and I collected it. I searched for some more and higher 
up on the same sallow bush I found another, slightly smaller than the first. 
This I also collected, and ha\-e both laivae in separate flower pots with 
eanh from the garden plus of course leaves for them to feed on. I put in 
sallow, birch and garden rose leai-es. The laivae are beautifully marked 
and look in perfect condition. I have found Poplar hawkmoth larvae 
before, again on sallow, a tree of which grew in the garden of my 
previous house in Wellhouse Crescent. Easterhouse. There I also found 
the eggs of the moth and the perfect insect or imago. 

Regarding the Grey dagger laivae. I have found these on trees other 
than their usual hawthorn. I've seen them on apple, oak. wild rose, 
hornbeam, lime, elm and now sycamore. The laivae I found on elm were 
at a place near Arbroath in north-east Scotland, whilst on holiday in 
1970. At that location then. I picked up a piece of almost rotten branch 
from the ground near the elm trees. I broke it in two with my hands and 
inside was a Grey dagger larva which must have bored its way inside to 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



243 



HEATH FRITILLARY ABERRATIONS IN 1994 

by Lee & Derek Slaughter 

On 16th June, 1994 we visited Luckett Nature Reserve in east Cornwall 
to see the Heath fritiilary butterfly. The butterfly is one of Britain's rarest 
and is fully protected by law under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 
1981. We are very fortunate to have this fine reserve in our county which 
supports healthy numbers of this beautiful butterfly and our visit on this 
particular afternoon we forecast should be at about peak flight time for 
this season. Luck was on our side; no sooner had we reached the area 
which supports the main colony than dozens of Heath fritiilary butterflies 
were gracefully flying around us. The colour of this species is orange 
marked with black on the upper wings and the tips of the antennae 
orange. We managed to obtain a number of photographs of this butterfly 
and were attempting to photograph a late Small pearl-bordered fritiilary 
when something caught our eye. It looked like a dwarf Ringlet butterfly. It 
was dark chocolate/black in colour and was flitting slowly between some 
shoots of bracken. We followed it for a few seconds and watched it settle 
on an open leaf of bracken. When it opened its wings, we looked at it and 
then at each other without uttering a word. It suddenly dawned on me 
that it was a male Heath fritiilary with no orange marking on the 
upperside at all. Upon close examination we could see that there were 
five very faint spots no bigger than pinheads on the margin of the upper 
hindwing but the rest of the upperside was completely melanic (excess of 
dark suffusion/markings). Strangely enough the specimen was more 
willing to let us photograph it than most normal specimens and a number 
of slides were taken of it. It was also quite friendly and stayed within an 
area of 50 square yards or so leaving us with over an hour to observe this 
obviously rare variation of the Heath fritiilary. Upon checking in my 
library upon returning home 1 can confirm that the first mention of this 
aberration was by F.W. Frowhawk in his book Varieties of British 
Butterflies published in 1938 under the name "navarina" selys - Long. 
He showed two known examples of this aberration both caught in 1936 - 
one in Essex and one in Kent. Another specimen was caught at this very 
locality (Luckett) in 1978 by A.P. Gainsford who described it under the 
name cijmothoe extreme. This particular specimen was sold several years 
agounder Department of Environment licence for a considerable sum of 
money and hence stresses the extreme rarity of this particular butterfly. 
Another two aberrant specimens were also seen later that same afternoon but 
both not nearly as extreme as the above-mentioned specimen. I myself re- 
visited the same locality two days later and, after much searching, found and 



244 



DECEMBER 1995 



photographed iusi one more quite superb aberrant male Heath fritillarv' and. 
although not as extreme as the cymoihoe extreme aberration seen two days 
previously, the specimen ivas still dark brown black all over except for 
m.arginal spots on the upper hindwing and bright orange marks near the 
margin of the upper forewing. 

My father and 1 consider ourselves extremely fortunate to have seen not 
one. but four quite extreme aberrations of this nationally endangered 
buttenly. It does seem, sn-ange that all four butterflies were m.ales and I would 
conclude too that the occurrence of these specimens could probably be 
attributed to veiy changeable weather conditions earlier in the year. There 
were several seasons in the 19705 when A. P. Gainsford captured some 
exn'em.e aberrations of this species 'before the species was protected from 
capture by law in 1981' for which 1 think he tried to draw his own conclusions 
as to the cause of the occmTence of them in certain seasons only. If anyone 
else has ever witnessed any similar sighting at this site then please let me 
know whether it be this season or noti as further study on this subject could 
make somie interesting flndings. 



A REVIEW OF THE NEW PERMANENT EXHIBIT OF 
INSECTS AT OXFORD 

by Murray Eilond (9731) 

:V::sc'' C:::eze. 0:-z- 0:<2 cl'J. 

It is a rare exhibit that operates on m.any levels - without sacrificing 
accuracy - and effectively conveys a complex subject in simple termis. 
Such an exhibition has been designed by Dr George McGavin and Jo 
Liddard. at the University- Museum in Oxford Such success, sadly, has 
not been the rule. Many museums that have changed the format of their 
permanent exhibitions have opted for the user-friendly "interactive 
exhibits", which almost without exception brings the level of description 
down to the stunningly obvious. At the same time they are often poorly 
understood, and cleady do not address the interest of the target audience. 

Such is not the case at Oxford, where a range of materials, from 
specimens, models, charts, photographs and micrographs, are used to 
convey the range of the subject effectively. The photographs are 
particularly good, which is hardly suiprising. as a number are from the 



AES BULLETIN, VoL54 



245 



there are informative captions, and further notes in bold face type. A 
good example is near a photograph of a flower mantid. The note reminds 
the viewer that mantids are the only insects able to see over their 
shoulder. This bit of information, when taken with the photograph, leads 
the viewer to question and explore the information at his/her disposal. 
Clearly stated on the caption, and clear from the photo, mantids have a 
range of adaptations designed to capture prey. 

Such organisation is not only used on a small scale. The exhibit starts 
with the standard definition of "The Arthropoda", and then presents the 
insect orders. Starting with Archaeognatha, commonly known as the 
bristletails, the reader is presented with a dossier of facts. The Greek/Latin 
names are explained, the (average) size of the insect is given, and 
development and distribution are covered, along with the numbers of 
families and species. Identification is divided into two parts, adult and 
nymph, and the habitat and biology of the order is summarised. Each 
category for each family is clearly presented, and major topics of interest 
are introduced within the body of the exhibit. 

Instead of presenting separate displays covering such aspects as colour, 
for instance, these themes are integrated with the order that best 
illuminates them. The Orthoptera were chosen to demonstrate the various 
ways in which colour can be used. Warning colours, flash coloration and 
eyespots, and cryptic coloration, were all illustrated by grasshoppers. This 
method was very successful at making these concepts clear, and at the 
same time interesting to any audience. It is even notable that this exhibit 
includes Phasmids, an order that has been generally neglected in such 
presentations, and one that is dear to many amateur entomologists. 

Overall the display can only be appreciated as a complete success, and 
by the number of people attracted to the hitherto unknown upper level of 
the museum, this appears to be the opinion of the majority. The only 
complaint to be directed towards what is certainly the best exhibit in the 
University Museum is that it does not occupy about half the space of the 
museum. Given that insects make up perhaps 56 per cent of known life 
forms, a case could be made for proportional representation. 

A DATE FOR YOUR 1996 DIARY 

AES 1996 Exhibition on Saturday 5th October 1996. 

Everyone is welcome to attend this highly enjoyable event at Kempton 
Park Racecourse, Staines Road, Sunbury, Middlesex. Entry is free for all 
Society members. 



246 



DECEMBER 1995 



LARVAL FINDINGS IN GLASGOW 

by Frank McGann (6291) 

On 26th September 1994 my friend Margaret and I visited Robroyston 
which is situated just north-east of Glasgow. There is a new housing 
estate there and the surrounding countryside is lovely. Before we left the 
bus stop I searched the leaves of a smallish beech tree growing nearby. 
Resting on the underside and in the middle of one of the leaves there was 
a large beautiful green larva. I had not seen this species before and was 
impressed by its beauty and form. It was approximately one inch in 
length and had a largish head with markings along the middle of its back. 
I examined it closely and put it in my container with beech leaves and 
twigs. 

I then searched a hawthorn hedgerow on the way to the area I 
intended to search for caterpillars. At this particular site (which is a lane 
bordered with hawthorn and some beech trees and sallows) I had 
collected blackberries when I was a child, but hadn't returned since. 
Margaret and I then sat at the base of a beech tree on the edge of the 
lane. Whilst searching the twigs and leaves of this tree I found resting on a 
twig a specimen of Coxcomb prominent larva - which looked almost full- 
grown. I took it from the tree and put it in my container. 

Further along the country lane I found another Coxcomb prominent, 
this time on sallow. It was also almost fully-fed. I noticed the different 
coloration of the two larvae, the one from the beech having reddish tinges 
to it, and the one from the sallow being decidedly greener. Both were 
very beautiful larvae. 

Still further along at an opening to a grassy field I found a Tiger moth 
caterpillar on thistle. It was resting on the stem about half-way up, and 
was smaller than the one I had previously found at Easterhouse. It had 
star-like tufts of blackish hairs and a small black head. It could have been 
a Buff ermine caterpillar. 

On a day when 1 wasn't expecting to find much, I found four good 
caterpillars. Long may the fine weather continue! 

The green caterpillar 1 had found on the beech tree at the bus-stop is 
the Green silver lines - 1 looked up the description in my entomology 
books, and found it described with a colour illustration in The Moths and 
Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland (Vol. 9). It is also described in 
South's Moths of the British Isles (Series 1). 



DECEMBER 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




Fig. 1. A female oil beetle digging. 




Fig. 2. Female Anthophora retosa. 
PLATE 95U 



COLOUR SECTION 



DECEMBER 1995 




Fig. 3. Viel^■ along ihe ciiri-pam. 




Fig. 4. The Two-tailed pasha. 



DECEMBER 1995 



COLOUR SECTION 




Fig. 5. Nyany Camp. Jonglei Province, southern Sudan, aerial view, showing paucity of 
woody vegetation, dry season, January 1982, including sites of mounds and seasonal pools. 




i A, ■ i.Li-- -- 

Fig. 6. The Emperor moth G\;nanisa jama, sensu Pinhey, 1968 form/esta Rougeot. 1978 
found at rest in grass by day, Bor woodlands, Jonglei Province, southern Sudan. 



PLATE 95W 



COLOUR SECTION 



DECEMBER 1995 




Fig. /. Laivae of Bunea alcinoe feeding in Balanites aeg\;piiaca tree. 




iii'-'t IlmvlI iTosi-moiiL'm: wvo lai\'ae of Bunea aicinoe and a road found in 
stomach. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



247 



THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE NORTHERN EGGAR MOTH, LASiOCAMPA 
QUERCUS CALLUNAE, AND THE WIDER IMPLICATIONS 

by Paul Waring (4220) 

I was very interested to read Brian Winslade's comments about his 
experiences rearing the Northern eggar at raised temperatures and with 
fridge treatments [Bulletin 53: 59-60). His results demonstrate clearly that 
given strong cues in the form of drastic temperature changes, the race is 
capable of developing much faster than in the wild. The raised 
temperatures enable faster rates of metabolism and therefore growth, a 
common experience with the Lepidoptera. The mechanisms by which 
insects ensure that the adults emerge together, at an appropriate time to 
mate and lay eggs, and that hatching of eggs coincides with the correct 
stage of the larval foodplants, have always been a source of fascination - 
about which much has now been written in the scientific literature. 
Sometimes these mechanisms are simply temperature dependent, but the 
photoperiod, ie the length of daylight, at critical stages of development, is 
often influential, and other factors may also be involved. A period at a 
low temperature is often needed to trick the insects into developing as if 
they had experienced winter; an hour or two in the fridge is unlikely to do 
it. This whole subject remains a source of wonder and experimentation. 

The synchronisation of insect development is not just of entomological 
interest. It has much wider repercussions. How many people realise that 
the spring birdsong that we all enjoy relates directly to generations of 
Winter moth larvae and other abundant insects on trees and shrubs 
recognising the cues and timing of spring bud-burst? If the caterpillars get 
it right, they can capitalise on the short-lived supply of nutritious young 
leaves. Many of the insectivorous birds which fill the woodlands with song 
in defending their breeding territories coincide their broods to cash in on 
the abundance of spring larvae. As the leaves on trees and bushes get 
bigger and tougher and accumulate unpalatable chemicals, their food 
value declines, so there are major advantages to moths in correctly timing 
the laying and hatching of their eggs. If the larvae get it wrong and hatch 
before bud-burst, they may starve to death. When this happens on a large 
scale, young birds sometimes die in their nests because the parents simply 
cannot find enough food for the family. This is no concern to the larvae 
of course, but merely a knock-on effect. Moth eggs are like little time- 
bombs set to go off at the right moment. However, to put the eggs in 
place so that they are ready to hatch in the spring, the adult moths may 
fly in the summer, autumn, winter or spring, depending on the species. 



248 



DECEMBER 1995 



Other species do not exploit the first spring leaf growth, but nevertheless 
have their characteristic times of appearance. The adults of each species 
of moth are presumably at an advantage appearing together when they 
do and they need to get it right to find a mate - another set of cues and 
another source of fascination. What is quite clear from experiments like 
Brian's is that the time taken to get from egg to adult moth and the 
duration of each stage is flexible and can be reduced or extended by 
environmental factors. 



FURTHER STAFFORDSHIRE LIME HAWKMOTHS 

by Jan Kor\;szko (6089) 

Since my last report in Bulletin 53: 129. further Lime hawkmoths (Mimas 
tiliae) have been reported. On 12th June 1994 1 found a dead moth on 
the road by the Cinderhill Industrial Estate, close to Weston Sprink. The 
following evening I found another moth sitting outside a shop window in 
Longton town centre. 

But the most remarkable records again came from Normacot Longton. 
Steve Chapman, a local schoolboy, who is a very keen entomologist, 
reported a number of moths from Watery Lane. Normacot. where quite a 
few lime trees grow. Steve also found larvae and dug up pupae in the 
autumn at the base of the trees. 

Since 1992 this species has become much more widespread in the 
Longton. Normacot and Meir areas of north Staffordshire. 



EARLY LEPIDOPTERAL SIGHTINGS 

by Rosalind Hodge 

On Sunday 19th March at 1.30pm I was surprised to see C\;nthia cardui 
in my garden. I was able positively to identify it, as I grabbed my folding 
net and was able to catch it. 

On 1st April at 5.30pm at Wakehurst Place. Ardingly. West Sussex a 
bright unworn specimen of Vanessa atalanta alighted on the grass about 
four feet from me. 

Both these days were extremely warm with brilliant sunshine and I 
thought it rather early in the season to see these varieties. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



249 



PUFFIN ISLAND EXPEDITION 

by Colin Jones 

Being a light-trapping fanatic, and always on the lookout for unusual and 
virgin territory, especially the latter, I have, for the past few years, longed 
to light-trap Puffin Island which lies off the north-east coast of Anglesey in 
Gwynedd. Even more so since I was informed by Bangor University, that 
it had never been done before. 

I applied for permission from the owner, who granted me an open 
permit for July and August, providing I made a small donation to the 
RNLI which seemed quite fair and who knows, I may need their services 
out there. 

The island is not easily accessible, due to the meeting tides and being 
at the head of the Menai Straits, which is notorious for its current at the 
best of times. 

Luckily, I have a friend, Dave Phillips, who owns a tough sea-going 
vessel. The Three Brothers who offered to take me as close as possible 
and from the boat to the island in a punt. 

As I had a two-month permit, and providing I telephoned The Estate 
office, prior to our visit, we could watch the weather, combined with tides 
and take the opportunity almost immediately, work permitting. 

It wasn't until late July, that everything fell into place. The weather was 
calm and humid, the tides were perfect and my moth-trap at home was 
producing large numbers. So it seemed we couldn't fail to catch one or 
two species, even on an island in the Irish Sea. 

So at 6.30pm on the 29th July, we weighed anchor in Conway 
harbour and headed for Puffin Island, a good two hours away. 

Dave had circled the island in the boat previously, and found the 
landing place, but he had reservations about leaving the boat for too 
long, in case the anchor dragged. So it was decided we would get on the 
island, set up the trap and generator as quickly as possible, then move 
away to the north-west, where anchoring would be more reliable. 

It's strange when you see the island from the mainland how small it 
looks, but as we approached, it seemed like a mountain rising up out of 
the sea. On the cliffs, there were Shags and Cormorants, shoulder to 
shoulder in their hundreds. There were seals on the shore, Puffins in the 
water and a Manx shearwater flew past as a Fulmar circled the boat. 



250 



DECEMBER 1995 



We landed on the single beach at around 8.30pm and thought the 
worst part was over. There is a footpath but to even get on it, you 
firsthave to stand on a large rock, not easy with a moth-trap and 
generator. Once on the path, it's up, up and up. There were many rest 
camps on the way, as we paused for breath and to wipe the sweat 
away. 

The island habitat was not what I was led to believe. There were 
Elders that overgrew the path, forming tunnels over our heads, nettle 
and long grasses, teazle and a strong smell of rotten bird droppings. 

We eventually came to a clearing near the top, just as dusk was falling 
and decided this was far enough. After setting up the trap and trappings, 
we returned to find the boat exactly where we had left it. So far so good. 

As we moved away from the island, it was almost dark and we could 
see the bushes glow by the light of the trap, which we had sited on the 
north-west side. So, with all being well, we settled down for the night, 
near Red Wharf Bay and proceeded to fish through the night, until just 
before dawn. 

At about 4.30am we put the kettle on and made our way back with 
high hopes. The weather was still calm and warm as we again sweated 
our way to the top of the island. On approaching the trap, I could see 
Garden tigers and Swallow-tailed moths, on the bushes and grass 
surrounding it. A good ten minutes were spent counting and noting these 
down before I got near the trap. Being a home-made portable, the trap 
isn't very big, about 18 inches square and when 1 looked inside, it 
seemed full to the brim with moths. 

I lost a few on taking the lid off but the final count was 482 of 42 
species. 1 have been informed since, by Mrs M.J. Morgan of Bangor 
University, that only two or three of the species caught have been 
recorded before, during hand-netting in the hours of daylight. No rarities 
perhaps but at least the species list for Puffin Island has been increased 
by about 40. 

Eight specimens of one species defied identification and 1 sent one to 
Bernard Skinner, who was also baffled and forwarded it to the British 
Museum. They identified it on genitalia as Crescent dart. 

We made a return visit on 27th August but the weather turned rough 
in the night and just 27 of five species were recorded. Even so, two more 
species were added to the list of the previous visit. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



251 



The species list and total for the two nights are as follows: 



Lasiocampidae 

Lackey Malacosoma neustria (19) 

Drinker Euthrix potatoria (8) 



Geometridae 




Common emerald 


Hemithea aestivaria (1) 


Small fan -footed wave 


Idaea bisehta (1) 


Single dotted wave 


/. dimidiata (1) 


Riband wave 


/. auersata (7) 


Dark-barred 




twin-spot carpet 


Xanthorhoe ferrugata ( 1 ) 


Garden carpet 


X. fluctuata (1) 


Ypllr>\A; shpll 


C^nYyiYifrinynniYyin hiliyii^ntn (^] 

1 I^JukJ^I Lit 1 If I IKJ. Ullll iC-di-LX \ / 


Wormwood pug 


Eupithecia absinthiata (2) 


Bordered pug 


E. succentuhata (1) 


V-pug 


Chloroclijstis v-ata (1) 


Early thorn 


Selenia dentaria (4) 


Scalloped oak 


Crocallis elinguaria (z) 


bwallow-tailed motii 


J. _ _ I_ • /10\ 

Uurapterux sambucana (18) 


Willow beauty 


Fenbatodes rhomboidaria (15) 


Engrailed 


Ectropis bistortata (8) 


Arctiidae 




Common footman 


Eilema luhdeola (5) 


Garden tiger 


Arctia caja (71) 


Noctuidae 




Heart & club 


Agrotis clauis (6) 


Crescent dart 


A. trux (17) 


Large yellow underwing 


Noctua pronuba (16) 


Lesser yellow underwing 


N. comes (2) 


Lesser broad-bordered 




yellow underwing 


N.janthe (11) 


Least yellow underwing 


N. interjecta (11) 


Small square -spot 


Diarsia rubi (2) 


Square-spot rustic 


Xestia xanthographa (12) 


Brown-line bright-eye 


Mythimna conigera (13) 


Clay 


M. f err ago (8) 


Smoky wainscot 


M. impura (53) 


IVIouse moth 


Amphfpyra tragopogonis (53) 


Straw underwing 


Thalpophila matura (1) 


Dark arches 


Apamea monogi\;pha (1) 


Light arches 


A. lithox]jlaea (3) 


Cloaked minor 


MesoHgia furuncula (10) 



252 



DECEMBER 1995 



Common rustic 
The Uncertain 
Mottled rustic 
Pale mottled willow 
Burnished brass 
Silver-Y 
The Spectacle 
Straw dot 
The Snout 



Mesapamea secalis (78) 
Hoplodrino alsines (2) 
Caradrina morpheus (1) 
C. clauipalpis (1) 
Diachr{;sia chri^sitis (20) 
Autographa gamma (3) 
Abrostola thplasia (5) 
Rivula sericealis (1) 
Hypena proboscidalis (27) 



On the second visit, we were asked by Mrs Morgan at Bangor 
University to collect insect samples, leaf litter etc. We managed to find a 
weevil which is very uncommon for the whole area (Barynotus obscurus). 
So what we lost in moths, we made up for in weevils and it wasn't a 
wasted journey after all. 

Many thanks to the following for making the whole thing possible: Sir 
Richard Williams-Bulkeley, owner of Puffin Island. Dave Phillips, Skipper 
of The Three Brothers sailing vessel, without whose help I would never 
have got the trap and trappings onto the island. He is also now a budding 
moth enthusiast! Mrs M.J. Morgan at Bangor University for her help and 
information. Also to Bernard Skinner and the British Museum for their 
help in identification. 

MASS PHORESY BY PSEUDOSCORPIONS 

by Toriy King (9094) 

"A wide distribution, a cryptolic life, intricate structure, characteristic 
habits, mysteries and puzzles in plenty, all this builds up to the biology of 
a group of wholly delightful creatures." So said Theodore Savory of the 
Arachnid order Pseudoscorpiones (Savory, 1977). So why do many 
entomologists, amateur and professional alike, seem to know very little 
about the hugely intriguing habits of pseudoscorpions? Perhaps it is 
because they are not insects. Or that they are not very big. Or that they 
are not venomous to anything larger than small invertebrates. Or even 
that, as Peter Weygoldt bluntly points out, "no species seems to be of 
direct importance to man" (Weygoldt, 1969). Whatever the reason, it is 
an unjustifiable ignorance, for anyone who flirts even briefly with the 
study of pseudoscorpions is invariably snared into a romantic infatuation 
with them. "Their deliberate, almost pompous progress, alternating with 
rapid backward dartings, is like nothing else in the animal kingdom.'" 
Weygoldt, indeed, was led to write an entire book devoted to 
pseudoscorpion biology. And now, less than a month after encountering 
live pseudoscorpions for the first time, I am writing an article about them 
for the Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Societi;. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



253 



Although this article is concerned with a behaviour known as "phoresy" 
(one for the dictionary!), a browse through Weygoldt's delightfully written 
book reveals pseudoscorpions as exhibiting many diverse and eccentric 
behaviours, such as their ability to run backward much faster than 
forward, or the ability of some species to transfer sperm without mating 
while other species conduct elaborate and intimate mating dances (one of 
which being so exhaustive as to necessitate a ten-minute siesta during the 
performance). It is for me here only to tease your inquisitiveness with the 
wonders of pseudoscorpion biology, and to encourage a lazy afternoon's 
leisurely read through the literature for yourself. 

One misty Bishop's Stortford morning, following the bitterly cold night 
of 14th October 1994, I discovered in my m.v. light trap a fly carrying no 
less than five pseudoscorpions on one leg. The fly's mobility seemed 
detrimentally affected by the one-sided load, and it strikes me as an 
impressive feat on the fly's part to have found its way into the trap, 
especially considering that the temperature had been so low as to restrict 
the moth catch to just two individuals. 

This habit of "hitch-hiking" (Danahar, 1991) by certain pseudoscorpion 
species appears to be very frequent, at least during a certain time of the 
year (Savory, 1977) and especially by mature females (Weygoldt, 1969). 
Indeed one exhibit in the "British Natural History" exhibition at the 
Natural History Museum, London informs the reader that the 
pseudoscorpion species Lamprochernes nodosus is "often seen attached to 
the legs of flies in houses and office buildings." 1 did wonder, however, 
what proportion of the general public who read this would be able to agree 
that they had often seen Lamprochernes nodosus attached to the legs of 
flies in their house or office building. But if only they were to look . . . 

Data on the "carrying capacity" of flies in terms of potential numbers of 
pseudoscorpion passengers was rather harder to come by. Danahar 
(1991) and Eitschberger (1994) both report just single individuals, while 
Bailey (1865), despite frequent observation of common houseflies, never 
found more than two on one fly. However, Savory (1977) refers to a 
study by Vachon in 1932 which reports 78 pseudoscorpions on the legs 
of 57 harvestmen in one week, with the highest number on one 
harvestman being eight. How they were distributed in terms of numbers 
on each leg is not stated, but I suspect that five on one leg of a flying 
insect, as with my fly, must be approaching the limit of potential hitch- 
hiker load. One wonders whether a more even distribution of 
pseudoscorpions across the fly's legs would increase the number a fly 
could carry during flight. Carrying capacity would almost certainly also be 
dependent on the size of the fly, and therefore could vary greatly between 
different species. 



254 



DECEMBER 1995 



Over the years, several reasons for phoretic behaviour by 
pseudoscorpions have been suggested. Bailey (1865), somewhat 
confused as to the identity of his house-fly passengers, describes his 
excellently illustrated pseudoscorpion as an "insect of parasitic nature . . . 
extremely like Tenebrio mohtor, the beetle of the mealworm; both are of 
a red-brown colour." However, with the advantage of considerable 
hindsight, we can agree with his description in his assertion of their 
colour. Some authors suggest phoresy may arise from attempted 
predation of the carrier, but this seems unlikely as the pseudoscorpions 
tend neither to injure nor feed on the fly (Weygoldt, 1969; Savory, 1977), 
despite the potency of their venom (most species have poison glands in 
their pedipalps or "pincers"), and its speed of action. From Savory's 
experience "A victim once bitten seems to be at once immobilised; and 
one has seen a spider, swinging on its thread, and coming into 
momentary contact with a false scorpion much smaller than itself, die 
instantaneously when it was bitten. It is tempting to claim for false 
scorpions that in proportion to their size, they are the most venomous of 
all the Arachnida." It would appear, then, that phoratic behaviour is 
unlikely to arise from a failed attempt to injure the host, but rather that 
the flies are specifically used as transport to aid dispersal, "an office for 
which they are admirably adapted from their erratic character. Nobody 
can tell what sorts of places and company they do not visit in their 
wanderings" (Bailey 1865). Indeed! However, some effort has since been 
made to map the activities of flies, and following these Savory (1977) 
warns of making assumptions about actual distances travelled by flies. 
Nevertheless, the dispersal capacity of a fly is surely much larger than that 
of the wingless pseudoscorpion (Danahar, 1991), and for the generalist 
species at least there should be no specific requirements for the 
destination save for the presence of a community of small arthropod prey 
(e.g. spring-tails, psocids. even head-lice (Weygoldt, 1969)). 

Finally, a cautionary note on the topic from Graham Bailey (1865). 
"Queer-looking insects are always turning up in unexpected places, and I 
have no doubt many of them are dropped by the flies! It is probable that 
by this means many of these 'odds and ends' find their way into the 
human stomach, and produce various disorders in the skin." 

So be warned! 

REFERENCES 
Bailey. M. (1865). Fly parasites. Science Gossip, 1:227. 

Danahar, G.W. (1991). A pseudoscorpion hitch-hiker. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 50: 277-278. 
Eitschberger. U. (1994). Another case of a pseudoscorpion hitch-hiker. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. 
53: 187. 

Savory, T.H. (1977). Arachnida. 2nd Edition. Academic Press. 

Weygoldt, P. (1969). The biolog\; of pseudoscorpions. Haivard University Press. 



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SOME EMPEROR MOTHS (SATURNIIDAE) OF THE 
SOUTHERN SUDAN 

by Paul Waring (4220) 

1366 Lincoln Road. Werrington. Peterborough PE4 6LS. 

Introduction 

From January 1981 until February 1983 I lived at a place called Nyany 
(Plate95W, Fig. 5), in Jonglei Province, southern Sudan, working on an 
ecological impact study of the Jonglei Canal, the results of which can be 
found in Howell et al. (1988) which also included photographs of the 
area. During my spare time I recorded the Lepidoptera of the area 
around the bush camp in which we were based. I had regular 
opportunities to find saturniid moths and their larvae by day during 
butterfly monitoring on a fixed route of approximately 1km in length 
encircling the camp. This route was walked once and sometimes twice per 
week. The route was always commenced between 14.00 and 14.30 
hours, was only attempted on fine days with sunshine and took between 
one and two hours to complete. 

Data on nocturnal moths were collected using a standard black plastic 
Robinson trap with 125W MB/U bulb. This was operated from dusk, 
around 18.00 hours, to between 22.00 and 23.00 hours, at least twice a 
week, as a rule, occasionally as late as 00.30 hours or even 01.30 hours. 
Power was supplied from the camp generator while it was operated to 
provide evening light for the camp. Owing to shortage of fuel it was rarely 
possible to operate the generator, and hence the trap, all night, although 
one or two all-night sessions were achieved for comparative purposes. 
The light trap was inspected soon after dark and once or twice more 
before it was time to switch off the power. The trap was not manned 
continuously, partly because of the large numbers of mosquitoes, but a 
good search was carried out around the trap and on the wall of a hut 
illuminated by the trap on each inspection. The catch was sorted and 
recorded before the power was switched off and then the trap was packed 
away, so moths were recorded even if they did not reach or enter the 
trap. Searches for nectar flowers by day and at dusk were also 
undertaken, though of course saturniid adults do not feed, and any 
Lepidoptera and their larvae that entered the camp or came my way 
during casual observations were noted. 

During this time saturniid moths were notable by their almost complete 
absence from the light trap catches. Some have a reputation for flying late 
at night (A. McCrae and A. Bjornstad pers. comm.) and it is possible that 



256 



DECEMBER 1995 



some were missed because the trap could not be operated all night. 
However, some were seen flying after dark, usually into lighted rooms in 
the camp, not especially late, and the details are given below. A few Vvere 
encountered as adults by day and one species was numerous as laivae on 
one of the trees in the camp in both years of study. An all-night trap 
session on the edge of the swamps to the west of Nyany on 5 6th June 
1982 revealed that some sphingids arrived between 22.00 hours and 
midnight but there was virtually no moth activity after midnight and no 
saturniids were seen on this occasion. A similar result was obtained when 
the trap was operated in Nyany camp until 01.30 on the night of 26 27th 
June 1981. The impression was that, as a group, the Saturniidae were 
not well represented in the area around the camp, the site and habitat 
details of which are given below. Only three species of saturniid were 
seen there. In view of the paucity of recent moth records from southern 
Sudan. I have taken the opportunity to include records of additional 
saturniid moths seen in the woodlands just north of Bor and. outside 
Jonglei Province, on the outskirts of Juba. the capital of southern Sudan. 
These raise the total to five species. One of these. Pseudcphelia 
apoUinaris simplex, was initially thought to be the first record for Sudan 
(A. McCrae pers. comm.) but a single specimen from Wau. Bahr el 
Ghazel Province, dating from 1918 has since been located in the National 
Collections. 



Site details 

Nyany is situated between Bor and Kongor in Jonglei Province, at 
approximate latitude 6°52'N longitude 31°25"E. A map is given in 
Waring (1992, p. 265). Nyany is an old Dinka cattle-camp some 80km 
north of Bor and 10km east of the old village of Jonglei. the latter, 
surprisingly, being marked on most atlases. During the period of the study 
Nyany was the base camp of the Jonglei Ecological Research Team, and 
consisted of a number of mud huts and an unsurfaced access road (Plate 
95W. Fig. 5). Bor and Kongor were the nearest settlements of any size, 
being small towns with local ti'aders. However the area was inhabited by 
the Dinka. who live and move between scattered mud-huts, grass-roofed 
cattle byres and seasonally occupied camp-sites. 

Bor is a small market town, principally of mud huts but some more 
permanent buildings, government offices and moorings and loading areas 
for boats on the Nile. Roads were unsurfaced. Bor is situated at 
approximately 6° lO'N 31 '40E. 



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During work I visited Juba on a number of occasions each year. Some 
moths were collected at the lights of the laboratory of the UN Project 
Development Unit, where there was a 24 hour electricity supply. This was 
on the northern edge of Juba at approximately 4°56'N 31 °29'E. 

One of the saturniid specimens was found at Panyagor, by Kongor, at 
approximately 7°0rN 31°27'E, in habitat similar to that at Nyany. 



Habitats 

The camp at Nyany was 11km east of the permanent swamp system of 
the Sudd, in an area of open grassland containing depressions which 
filled with rainwater during the wet season. The area was a flat plain 
scattered with termite mounds. 

The grassland consisted principally of the grass Sporobolus puramidalis 
P. Beauv. with C\jnodon dact\;Ion (L.) Pers., Echinochloa pijramidaUs 
(Lam.) Hitchc. and Chase, and Setaria barbata (Lam.) Cunthe. amongst 
other grasses. The wild rice Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. and Roehr. 
was the principal species in the seasonally-flooded area to the west and 
Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf., a reddish grass when dry, reaching 2-3m 
in height, was the dominant species of the plains to the east. 

The principal larval foodplants of saturniid moths are various species 
of trees and bushes. Such trees and shrubs as were present were confined 
mainly to the termite mounds and included mainly various Acacia 
species, of which A. seya/ DC, A. drepanolobium Harms ex Sjestedt. the 
whistling thorn, and A. fistula Schweinf. were the most abundant. 
Balanites aeg\;ptiaca (L.) Del., Cadaba farinosa Forsk., Calotropis procera 
(Ait.) Ait.f., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Crataeua adamsonii Pliv., Grewia 
tenax (Forsk.) Fiori, Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Salvadora persica L. and 
Secrinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill. In addition to the Acacia spp., 
other known saturniid foodplants present included Piliostigma thonningii 
(Schum.) Milne-Redhead, which was abundant in the Jonglei region 
though particularly around the camp at Nyany, Ziziphus, represented by 
Z. mauritiana Lam. abundant in the general area, and Z pubescens Oliv., 
which was occasional, Turraea nilotica Kotschy & Peyr., occasional in the 
general area, and Combretum, represented by C. fragrans F. Hoffm., 
locally abundant in clumps of woodland, and C. aculeatum Vent., which 
was seen occasionally in the area. The termite mounds around the camp, 
which carried the all-important woody vegetation, were scattered at 
distances of 50-100 metres from one another, sometimes more. 



258 



DECEMBER 1995 



Climbers included ChasiiiGmhera dependens Hochsi.. Ipomoea 
obscura [L.) Ker Gawl. and Kedrostis foeiidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. 

Smaller broad-leaved plants included Abutilon figarianum Webb.. 
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.. Cassia mimosoides L.. Commelina 
forskalei Vahl.. Crotalaria polysperma Kotschy ex. Schweinf.. Desmodium 
hirtiim Guiil. and Perr.. Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq.. Hibiscus 

cannabinus L.. Indigotera sienophylla Guill. and Pen'.. Ipomoea aquaiica 
Forsk., Mimosa pigra L.. Pemairopis spiralis (Forsk. Dene.. Ponulaca 
oleracea L.. Sida alba L.. Solanum incanum L. and Vigna luteola ^Jacq.) 
Benth. amongst others. 

The woodlands at Bor had a similar range of species but trees were 
larger and more abundant and consisted of various Acacia species in 
particular. These Acacia seya! woodlands were being felled and 
ti-ansponed for use as building materials to construct the mud huts and 
cattle byres on the plains to the north and east. There was a small copse 
of similar habitat at Kopp. just south of Nyany. which had not been felled 
by the Dinka because it was sacred. A map from 1952 shows that such 
woodland was more extensive around Nyany at that time. Floods in the 
early 1960s are believed to have killed mar;.' z-ees on all but the higher 
ground and termite mounds (Howell et al. 19SS ;. 

The Project Development Unit (PDU) of the United Nations 
Development Program^m-e ' UNDP^ at Juba consisted of a group of 
permanent buildings in a fenced compound on a tlat plain in which most 
of the vegetation had been cleared or overgi-azed. What remained around 
the compound was Sporobo/us-dominated grassland with few herbs. The 
sward was cut to keep it short in the wet season but became parched, 
with much bare gi'ound. during the diy season. There were a few scrubby 
bushes outside the compound, mainly Acacia spp. and Ziziphus. 



Climate 

In the above parts of southern Sudan there is a single, well-defined wet 
season consisting of intermittent rains from May to October, preceded by 
the odd shower in late April. The annual rainfall measured at Nyany was 
738.5mm in 1981 and 776.8mm in 1982. July was the wettest month in 
both years (213mm and 204mm respectively). December to early April is 
the dry season, during which hardly any rain falls: maximum day-time 
temperatures can soar to between 40-44 X in the shade, and much of the 
grassland and vegetation becomes tinder-drv,'. Maximum temperatures of 
30-40 °C were the norm during the rest of the year and minimum 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



259 



temperatures seldom fell below 15-20°C at any time. There were 
dramatic beginning and end points to the wet season at Nyany in 1982. 
After isolated showers on 24th and 25th April, the first heavy rains fell on 
2nd May (18mm), preceded by a dust storm, and the last rains ended, 
accompanied by another strong wind, on 31st October, after which the 
Dinka said almost immediately that the rains were now over. Days in 
November were often muggy and there was much floodwater lying about 
but the pools of floodwater and rainwater dried up over the subsequent 
weeks. The rains brought a flush of grass growth and a great increase in 
available cover for insects, snakes and other animals, with grass-cutting 
beginning in ernest in mid-June to keep the camp clear. 



The Saturniid moths 

The Saturniid moths recorded at Nyany, Bor and Juba between January 
1981 and February 1983 were those below, listed in taxonomic order, 
following Pinhey (1975): 

Subfamilx; Attacinae 

Epiphora bauhiniae (Guerin-Meneville, 1982) form sudanica Le Cerf 
(Nyany, Juba). 

Subfamilx; Satumiinae 

Pseudaphelia apoUinaris (Boisduval, 1847) form simplex Rebel, 1906 
(Nyany only). 

Usta terpsichore Maassen and Weymer, 1885 (Juba only). 

Bunaea alcinoe (Stoll, 1782) (Nyany and Panyagor only). 

Gynanisa jama, sensu Pinhey, 1968 nec Rebel, 1915 form festa Rougeot, 
1978 (Bor and Juba) (Plate 95W, Fig. 6). 

Imbrasia [Gonimbrasia auctt.] hecate (Rougeot, 1955) (Nyany, Kopp, 
Juba). 



Species accounts 

Epiphora bauhiniae, the Southern atlas moth of Pinhey 1956 p. 4 and 
1975 p.llO. 

The species occurs as several forms which probably grade into one 
another geographically: Pinhey (1975) attributes form vera to southern 



260 



DECEMBER 1995 



and south cental Africa, aibarina from Tanzania and Kenya, bauhiniae 
from equatorial West Africa and sudanica horn Sudan, all feeding as 
larvae on various species of Ziziphus. for which foodplant there are many 
supporting records. McCrae pers. comm..) questions Pinhey's view of the 
geographical distiibution of the various forms. Form sudanica Le Cerf 
1923 has been recorded from "near Khanoum.". but probably doss no: 
occur in the bush country of the Suk. northern Uganda, as stated by 
Pinhey (1975). It is described as having a reddish gi-ound colour at the 
base of the wings, in contrast to the dark m.aroon in atbarina (Pinhey 
1956). Both Q:bc.-'-:^'z and sudanica have the puiple coloration in the 
middle of the tc : c , . ; ~ extending back to the n'ailing edge of the wing in a 
broad belt, replacing m:uch o: the w'l^.ite patch present here in bauhiniae 
(which was originally described as a separate species schultzei Aurivillius 
1905"' - A, McCrae. pers. com.mi. In the rorm. bzuhiniae the purple 
median patch only reaches the hind m.argin of the forewing as a thin line 
which fades away. Form bcuhinae appeai-s to be more uidespread Lhan 
Pinhey belie\-ed and extends from West Afiica into East Africa, so the 
vernacular name of Southern atlas gi\'en by Pinhey is misleading. 

I captured a female at light at the Project Development Unit (PDU). 
Juba. on 4th August 1951. A second female was round in our lab hut at 
Nyany on the morning of 21st May 1982. Both specim.ens were retained. 
Both have large white patches between the puiple m.edian area and the 
hind m.argin of the forewing so these mxOths conform, to form bauhiniae 
rather than the peripheral formes aibarina of Tanzania and sudanica of 
northern Sudan. 

Bunaea alcinoe. the Common em.Deror of Pinhev 1956 p. 6 and 1975 
p.114. 

This is one of the m.ost widespread and adaptable of all the African 
saturniids in that it extends from dry wooded grasslands to rainforest, 
though it does not occur in quite such dry country' as E. bauhiniae [A. 
McCrae pers. comm.^. It occurs commonly almost throughout the African 
continent south of the Sahara. In Sudan it has been found as far north as 
the Nuba Mountains. It has also been reported from Madagascar though 
this refers to a separate species B. aslanga (A. McCrae pers. comm.). B. 
alcinoe is a variable species, even within any given area. The larvae have 
many recorded foodplants including Bauhinia, Croton. Cussonia. 
Ekebergia. G\;mnosporia. HarpephvUum, Khai;a. Maesa and Terminalia 
(Pinhey 1965. 1972. 1975). According to Pinhey (1975). the larvae are 
commonly eaten as a relish, though he does not mention in which part of 
Africa this occurs. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



261 



Larvae were found feeding gregariously on the leaves of a large lone- 
standing tree of the date palm Balanites aeg[;ptiaca at Nyany on 11th 
November 1981 on my return from annual leave (Plate 95X, Fig. 7). 
Larvae have also been found feeding on this plant in northern Uganda, 
Zaire, coastal Kenya, the rift valley in Ethiopia and Nigeria (A. McCrae, 
pers. comm.). The larvae at Nyany were later found wandering over the 
ground below until 22nd November after which no more were seen. 
Three were collected and all were keen to burrow below ground. Two 
successfully pupated in earthen cells below the surface and one adult 
emerged on 26th May 1982, after a tawny-yellowish form had flown to 
the lighted mess window at 21.00 hours on 15th May 1982 and another 
wild one had been found in the kitchen hut by the original tree on the 
evening of 17th May 1982. Subsequently an adult was found at the mess 
light by the Balanites tree at 19.00 hours on 8th October 1982 and 
another on 11th October 1982 under the same tree soon after dawn (at 
06.00 hours). On 15th October 1982 a male was found at rest during the 
day on a Balanites aegyptiaca tree at Panyagor near Kongor. On 12th 
November 1982 about 25 larvae, each four centimetres in length, were 
noted feeding in groups of six or seven on a series of sprays of the 
Balanites tree back at Nyany, just above head height, at the north-west 
corner, and several sprays had been defoliated. The larvae had the same 
black and red markings and white spines as when full-grown. By 13th 
November they had moulted and dispersed to feed singly in the tree. On 
21st November 1982 the larvae had reached nine to ten centimetres in 
length, were very stout and were found descending the tree and on the 
ground below, in numbers at first light on what was a rather overcast and 
cloudy day. By 07.00 hours several were seen some metres from the tree, 
in search of pupation sites. As the larvae were very noticeable but only 
seen in November, I wondered if the insect is univoltine here and was 
intrigued that adults were seen both at the beginning and end of the rains. 
In both the reared specimen and the tawny individual of 15th May 1982, 
one hindwing had failed to expand fully, perhaps symptomatic of the lack 
of rain, and hence moisture, when these individuals emerged. This 
species is continuously brooded in wetter regions such as the Kampala- 
Entebbe area of Uganda, but in dry habitats it usually appears at the start 
of the rains, so it would seem that mine in October, with larvae in 
November, were of a second generation and that I somehow missed 
seeing larvae of the first (A. McCrae pers. comm.). 

Two fully-grown larvae were found, along with a toad, in the stomach 
of a Nile monitor lizard Varanus niloticus (Linn.) during a post-mortem 
dissection (Plate 95X, Fig. 8). The lizard had died as a result of having 



262 



DECEMBER 1995 



been bitten by an Egyptian cobra Naja haje (Linn.). The snake was 
discovered at 20.55 hours on 18th November 1981. on the roof of one of 
the mud huts at Nyany. holding the hind leg of the lizard in its jaws, while 
the lizard struggled to escape. Both the larvae from the lizard's stomach 
were seven centimetres in length and looked like they had only recently 
been eaten, probably the same evening the lizard died. The lizard 
measured 79cm in length and weighed 600g. The heavy spines and 
coloration of the larvae look like effective deterrents against avian 
predators and the larvae appeared to be unmolested by the local birds so 
predation by this lizard, which had swallowed the larvae whole, is of 
interest. 

B. alcinoe is like the great majority of African saturniids in pupating 
below ground though E. bauhiniae and the following species P. 
apollinQris often spin up amongst debris and leaf-litter (Pinhey 1972, 
McCrae. pers. comm.). 

Pseudaphelia apollinaris. the Apollo moth of Pinhey 1956 p. 25 and 1975 

p.m. 

P. apollinaris in its broad sense is a widespread and highly polymorphic 
species with records from Natal. Mozambique. Botswana. Zimbabwe 
(Rhodesia). Zambia. Malawi. Zaire. Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, with 
recorded larval foodplants including Turraea. and possibly Combretum 
(Pinhey. 1975). 7. nilotica is mentioned specifically by Pinhey (1972). 
Sevastopulo (notes. 1961 - in Natural History Museum. London) found 
that larvae from eggs hatched on the Kenyan coast refused Combretum 
abbreuiata. The larva is figured by Pinhey (1956. PI. 27). Both sexes, but 
particularly the males, fly slowly through the bush by day and are said to 
be reminiscent of the Apollo butterflies [Parnassius species. Papilionidae) 
of Europe and Asia (Pinhey. 1972). They also fly by night. 

A male was captured at m.v. light after dark on 18th June 1981 at 
Nyany. It conforms to the form simplex Rebel 1906 which has grey tips to 
the forewings but does not have broad dark margins to the fore and 
hindwings and lacks spots at the forewing cell, unlike other forms. The 
simplex form, which Rouget (1962) regards as a separate species, is 
known from western Uganda and the Central African Republic and 
extends as far west as southern Cameroon. This record from Nyany is an 
addition to its known range. Simplex has been captured at least once 
before in Sudan however. There is a specimen in the National collections 
at the Natural History Museum labelled 31st May 1918. Wau. Bahr-el 
Ghazal. This province borders the Central African Republic which lies to 
the south-west and Nyany is some 400km (250 miles) further east. The 
Wau specimen comes from the Rothschild bequest, and was possibly 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



263 



captured by one of the 400 or more collectors Lord Rothschild paid to 
obtain biological material from all over the world (Rothschild 1995). 
Simplex probably feeds as a larva on Turraea spp. like the apolHnahs 
form, but this needs confirmation (A. McCrae, pers. comm.). 

Usta terpsichore, the Cavorting emperor of Pinhey 1956 p. 25 and 1975 
p.112. 

A widespread species in South Africa, extending northwards through 
Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia 
(Pinhey, 1975). The species also occurs in the Gambia (McCrae in Prost 
et al. 1980), across northern Ghana, Nigeria, Chad and has been noted 
from Somalia and from the Nuba Mountains in Sudan (A. McCrae, based 
on data from the Natural History Museum, London, and the Hope 
Collections at the Oxford University Museum). Pinhey (1972) lists the 
following foodplants for central and southern Africa: Commiphora 
caryaefoha Oliv. (= C. woodii Engl.), Melia azedarach Linn., Sclerocarya 
caffra Sand, and Schinus molle Linn. (DC). The latter is the pepper tree 
introduced from South America and the latter record actually comes from 
Kenya ex Gardner (1957). The reference to Melia azedarach derives from 
Schultze (1914) and comes from the Chad region, where Melia is an 
introduced tree; probably the principal natural foodplant is Sclerocarya 
birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (larvae found in north Uganda and northern 
Nigeria), a tree very widespread in dry woodland and probably to be 
found around Juba (A. McCrae, pers. comm.). 

1 captured a male at an outside light at the Project Development Unit 
(PDU), Juba, on 18th May 1981. 

Commiphora, Melia and Sclerocarya were not seen in the Jonglei area. 
Commiphora belongs to the Burseraceae and no other members of this 
family were seen either. Four species of the Meliaceae, to which Melia 
belongs, were recorded, including Turraea nilotica K. & P., Trichilia 
emetica Vahl, Pseudocedrela kotsch\;i Schweinf. and Azadirachta indica 
A. Juss. Sclerocar\;a is a member of the Anacardiaceae which was 
represented by Lannea humilis (Oliv.) Engl, and Lannea schweinfurthii 
Engl, in the Jonglei region. 

Gijnanisa jama festa (no English name in Pinhey 1956, 1972 or 1975, a 
female is figured in Pinhey 1956, Plate 17 Fig. 2 but nowhere cited as 
such). 

This genus is in need of revision. There are a number of confusingly 
similar forms, some of which are distinct species. The type locality of jama 
Rebel (1915) is southern Tanzania but this is probably a different sub- 



264 



DECEMBER 1995 



species from form festa described by Rougeot (1978) from Senegal. 
Forms conforming to festa have been recorded from western Senegal and 
the Gambia across to central Kenya and a G^nanisa from the Nuba 
Mountains, Sudan may also be of this form though this needs 
confirmation (A. McCrae, pers. comm.). 

The larval foodplants are probably Acacia spp. (A. McCrae pers. comm.. 
from data label in the National Museum, Nairobi, and other sources). 

A male of the northern festa form, which may be a good species, 
distinct from southern material (Rougeot, 1978), was encountered at the 
PDU compound on 4th August 1981. Another male was found at midday 
on 30th August 1981 in the woodlands near Bor while on a botanical 
survey. The moth was discovered at roost in grass. When touched it 
immediately flicked the forewings forward and exposed the mauve-tinged 
eyed hindwings. It was photographed in this display (Plate 95W. Fig. 6) 
before it crawled up the grass stem on further agitation and took off with 
slow, flapping flight, like a big bat, up and over the road into the top of a 
tree. The broad dark wing margins gave a peculiar and puzzling 
impression of shadow all around the wings. 

Imbrasia hecate (= nictitans auct. nec. Fabricius) (referred to as 
Nudaurelia nictitans in Pinhey 1956, p. 17, the Black-eyed emperor). 

Long known from Kenya and West Africa (Pinhey 1956) but not included 
as a species of southern Africa (Pinhey. 1975). this moth is actually 
widespread and sometimes abundant in woodlands from the Gambia 
(McCrae in Prost et a!. 1980) to northern Uganda and to south-west 
Kenya and Shaba in south-east Zaire (McCrae. pers. comm.). Rougeot 
(1962) adds Tanzania. The larva is evidently polyphagous. Foodplants 
include, from northern Uganda: Piliostignna thonningii and 
Butyrospermum paradoxum (Gaertn. f.) Hepper: from northern 
Cameroon: Terminalia, Bauhinia (which may refer to Piliostigma, 
formerly included under Bauhinia) and Anona senegalensis Pers.. but 
above all on Terminalia schweinfurthi (Schutee in Aurivillius. 1905): and 
from Shaba, Zaire, Connbretum psidioides Welw., Piliostigma (Bauhinia) 
reticulata (DC.) Hochst. and Julbernardia paniculata (Seydal 1939) - 
compilation courtesy of Angus McCrae. 

A moth of this species was seen on 16th May 1981 at the PDU lab in 
Juba. A female was encountered on 28th May 1981 when it flew to the 
lighted window of the camp mess at Nyany in the evening. Another 
specimen was found between 20.00 - 21.00 hours crawling up grass 
stems and fluttering its wings while I was on a nocturnal foray to the 
woodland at Kopp just south of Nyany on 28th June 1981. and another 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



265 



female of this large pink flappy moth flew to the mess window at Nyany 
and settled on it at 20.00 hours on 20th August 1981. 

General conclusions and comments 

All the above saturniid species were seen during the rainy season, which 
seems to be typical (A. McCrae, pers. comm.). Most were either at the 
beginning or the end of the wet season, with eight of the fifteen adults 
appearing in May or June and seven in August or October. None were 
seen in the middle of the rainy season in July. Pinhey (1972) reports that 
in southern Africa most of the species are "usually double-brooded, 
appearing as the warm weather commences, about September, and their 
progeny will often be seen flying about the time of New Year or a little 
later. Their broods in the Western Cape are, of course, different". Larvae 
were presumably feeding during the wet season. Pinhey (1972) also cites 
an instance of an African saturniid (the White veiled moon moth Argema 
besanti Rebel 1895) spending 18 months in the cocoon, which was found 
in the field, before the adult emerged successfully, so this may be one 
means of passing the dry season. 

The paucity of individuals and species seen at Nyany may be partly 
because it was not possible to run the light trap all night but is also a 
reflection of the poor quality of the habitat for this group of moths. 
Suitable woody foodplants of all types were very limited in abundance 
around the base camp and the swamps to the west would also offer few 
opportunities for saturniids. No African saturniids are known to be 
associated with swampland and such conditions would be unsuitable for 
the majority of species which pupate underground. The swamps of this 
flat alluvial clay plain generally lack fringing forest or even scrub along the 
swamp edge and most woodland has been lost or cleared. The scarcity or 
absence of many woodland (let alone forest) species emphasises the 
barrier which the area constitutes between west African woodlands and 
Ethiopia. 

In spite of the small number of saturniids observed, useful contributions 
to our knowledge of these moths in Africa have been made. Relatively 
little previous information has been collected from southern Sudan so any 
species lists are valuable additions for work on the biodiversity and 
geographical range of species in Africa. The record of Pseudaphelia 
apollinahs and the illustrations of the particular forms of the various 
species encountered are especially important. The observation that 
monitor lizards prey on the spiny larvae of Bunaea alcinoe adds to our 
understanding of the natural history and ecology of these fascinating and 
attractive large moths. 



266 



DECEMBER 1995 



Acknowledgements 

I am most grateful to Dr Angus McCrae for checking the moth 
identifications and current nomenclature and for helping with literature 
and many comments from his own as yet unpublished research. I thank 
Dr Mike (J.M.) Lock and John Goldsworthy for their help in recording the 
plants around Nyany camp and for their valuable botanical work in the 
Jonglei area. I would like to thank Mike Carwardine for his hospitality at 
the PDU, Juba, and Dr Stephen Cobb, Mefit-Babtie and the Jonglei 
Executive Organ of the Sudanese Government for providing me with the 
opportunity to live and work in the southern Sudan. Lastly, I thank David 
Wilson for his photographic work in illustrating the set specimens. 



REFERENCES 

Aurivillius, C. (1905). A. Schultzes Sammlung von Lepidoptera aus West-Afrika. Ark. Zoll. 
2(12): 1-47. 

Gardner, J. CM. (1957). An annotated list of East African forest insects. EAfr.agr.for.Res. 
Org.; Forestr\j Technical Note 7: 37-39. 

Howell, P.P., Lock, J.M. and Cobb, S.M. (1988). The Jonglei Canal - impact and 
opportunity;. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

Lock, J.M. (1981). List of plants recorded from the Jonglei area. Unpublished typescript. 

Pinhey, E.C.G. (1956). The Emperor moths of Eastern Africa. Journal of the East African 
Natural Historx; Society 23: 1-63. 

- , (1968). Some new African Lepidoptera. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 25(9): 153- 
176. 

- , (1972). The Emperor moths of South and South-Central Africa. Struik Ltd. Cape Town. 

- , (1975). Moths of Southern Africa. Tafelberg. Cape Town. 

Prost, A., Rougeot, P.C. and Walsh. J.F. (1980). Lepidopteres Attacidae de Haute-Volta. 
Bull, de IT.AN. (A) 42(2): 379-393. 

Rothschild, M. (1995). Presidential Address 1994. Antenna 19: 53-59. 

Rougeot, P.C. (1962). Les lepidopteres de lAfrique noire occidentales. Institute Frangais de 
lAfrique Noire. Dakar, pp. 214. 

- , (1973). Lepidopteres Attacidae nouveaux ou peu connus du territoire Francais de Afars 
et Issae. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 78: 209-213. 

- , (1978). Sur quatre lepidopteres Attacidae africains du Museum national d'Histoire 
naturelle. Bulletin Societe Entomologique Frangais. 83: 137-140. 

Schultze, A. (1914). Zur Kenntnis der ersten Stande von cinigen west- und 
zentralafrikanischen Heteroceren. arch. Naturg. 80A(1): 144-163; 80A(2): 119-139. 

Seydel, C. (1939). Contribution a I'etude de la biologie de la faune entomologique 
ethiopienne. Proc.Int.Congr.Ent. 7th. Bedin. 1938: 1308-1330. 

Waring, P. (1992). A butterfly and moth safari to Bangangai Game Reserve on the 
Sudan/Zaire border. Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society 51: 264-283. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



267 




60 YEARS OF THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS SOCIETY 
Part VI. 1985-95 

by \NayneJarvis{9899) 

With Volume 44 Number 346 (February 1985) the Society entered its 
50th year and the Bulletin changed slightly in format. The design on the 
cover adopted its current status with the masthead changing with the 
seasons. The August issue was a celebratory Golden Jubilee number and 
was a bumper issue containing special articles and historical matter 
concerning the Society. In addition, members were issued with a reprint 
of the extremely rare Volume 1, a car sticker and a First Day cover 
depicting the Brimstone to coincide with the Post Office issue of insect 
stamps. A garden party was held at the home of Colin Plant, who was 
President during the jubilee year. The 1985 exhibition was again held in 
the Hounslow Civic Centre. The number of people attending the event 
caused some problems with regard to space, especially during the early 
part of the day, nevertheless the event was its usual success. Membership 
didn't quite make the magic 2000 figure with 1996 members subscribing 
during the year. 

The following year saw membership cross the 2000 mark for the first 
time in the Society's history, reaching a figure of 2017 by the end of the 
year. The second revised edition of the Hymenopterists' Handbook was 
published. 

In 1987, the exhibition was held for the final time at the Civic Centre, 
Hounslow. The number of people attending the event made it essential 
that the venue was changed for the following year. Society sweatshirts 
were produced for the first time with a Brimstone embroidered upon 
them. The year's publication was the Legislation to Conserve Insects in 
Europe handbook, which dealt with the increasingly complicated laws 
regarding insects. The Exotic Entomology Group had a mixed year: on 
the activity front the group had one of its best, but financially, with 
increased postal and printing costs of the newsletter, debts of £330 were 
recorded, thus making an increase in the group subscription rate for 1988 



268 



DECEMBER 1995 



essential. The Conservation Committee's publication Insect Conservation 
News was registered under an ISSN number in 1987. commencing with 
Volume 13. 

The 1988 exhibition was held at Kempton Park Racecourse where it 
has remained since and was well attended. Membership fell slightly to just 
under the 2000 mark once again. Volume 14 of Insect Conservation 
News was published. 

The Bulletin was the main focus of 1989 with the publication becoming 
a bi-monthly rather than a quarterly journal. Another improvement was 
that the Society began giving free reprints to authors of longer articles. 
Along with the Bulletin the Society also issued A Director]; for 
Entomologists. Subscription rates were however, increased to £6 for 
ordinary members. The 1989 exhibition was again held at the highly 
suitable venue at Kempton Racecourse and was very Vv'ell attended on 
what was a very cold and blustery day. Membership during the year, 
however, fell to 1838. 

Council decided to try and attract younger members to join the Society 
during 1990 by including a Junior Section within the Bulletin. It was was 
great regret and sadness that the Society reported the death of B.R. (Roy) 

Stallwood in July of 1990. 

Membership by 1991 continued to hover around the 2000 mark 
despite the increased number of Bulletins. The Society published a new 
revised edition of the Coleopterists' Handbook and the long-awaited 
Habitat Conservation for Insects - A neglected green issue, which sold 
extremely well. The second Junior Section appeared in the Bulletin 
during the year. On another sad note, the Society's Registrar. Nancy 
Cribb, died suddenly and unexpectedly during the year. 

With little happening of note in 1992. 1993 saw the third death of an 
influential Society member in as many years. Peter Cribb died on 31st 
October having joined the Society in 1953 and Council in 1957. The 
Society published the second edition of the Director]; for Entomologists 
during the year and issued it free to members. 

Last year (1994) saw several changes to the Society with two long 
standing officers of Council deciding that enough was enough. Brian 
Gardiner handed in his pen to yours ti'uly after twenty years of editorship 
and Reg Fry handed the cheque book over to Andrew Locke. Insect 
Conservation News was revived as Invertebrate Conservation News 
(Volume 15) and became incorporated within the Bulletin and was to be 
published evei-y four months. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



269 



And finally, 1995 - the Diamond Jubilee Year of the Society. The 
anticipated arrival of the colour cover did not materialise, but a 
celebratory two-colour cover issue was produced for the August issue. 
The other major event of the year was the publication of the Practical 
Hints for the Field Lepidopterist. Membership is presently around the 
1600 mark, and hopefully with the new look Bulletin we will be able to 
begin to build our Society into the best entomological organisation that 
can be found. 

I hope you have enjoyed this look back at just a few snippets of the 
Society's history as much as I have enjoyed compiling them. I have not 
mentioned by any means all of the people who at various times have 
given their free time voluntarily to run the Society. Each has played an 
important part in some aspect of the Society and hopefully members will 
continue to do so in the future. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank the following people for their help in compiling this 
history: Lorna Eason, for her help in browsing through the thousands of 
pages of articles which have been produced by the Society over the past 
sixty years to select some of the more interesting snippets, Brian Gardiner 
for his help and expert knowledge, all of the staff at Cravitz Printing who 
have allowed me a little extra time each issue to prepare the article, my 
two proof-readers, Peter Hardy and John Gregory and finally, all the 
members of the Society who have either written or phoned me about the 
Society in its earlier days. 



THE MOTH THAT WASN'T 

by Graham Stevens 

Urb. Ph. de les Clotxes 11, Apt. de Correos 20, 46450 Benijayo, Valencia, Spain. 

In 1994 my geraniums were totally destroyed by what I believed was a 
South African moth. At the beginning of this year I noticed a number of 
small brown butterflies with short tails paying particular attention to my 
new geranium plants, and within a short period of time they have also 
been, destroyed. With the help of Mr John Tennent of North Yorkshire 
the culprit has now been identified as Cacyreus marshalli. For several 
years now this little butterfly has destroyed huge numbers of geraniums 
in southern Spain and is slowly making its way northwards. The female 
lays her eggs inside the soft stem of the plant and the resulting larvae eat 
out the centre of the plant, thus destroying it. 



270 



DECEMBER 1995 



Diary Dat€5 

Abbreviations 



BBONT Berks, Bucks and Oxon Naturalists' Trust. 

BENHS British Entomological and Natural History Society. 

DNHSAS Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society. 

HMB Huntingdonshire Moth and Butterfly Group. 

LCES Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. 

RES Royal Entomological Society of London. 

RES(QG) RES Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London SW7. 

I: Information from: 



To make the diary effective contributions are needed from members. Any 
relevant items should be sent to the Bulletin Editor. No charge is made for 
entries. Please allow three months advance notice. 

JANUARY 1996 

15th BENHS Indoor Meeting - The ecology and conservation of ground 
beetles. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Brian Eversham (BRC Monks Wood) talks about this 
intensively studied group. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

16th LCES Indoor Meeting. 

Members' short papers and Presidential Address. At Liverpool Museum. 
19.00hrs. 

Reading University and BBONT Evening Class. 

Conserving Butterflies, Moths and other Invertebrates. A ten week 
evening class held at Reading University giving an inti-oduction to the 
conservation of invertebrates and their habitats, taught by Martin Haivey 
(AES Habitat Conservation Officer). The course includes two visits to 
local nature reserves and costs £33 (£17 for concessions). 
I: Reading University Extramural Office 01734 318347 or Martin 
Harvey 01491 671889. 



AES BULLETIN, Vol.54 



271 



20th LCES Annual General Meeting. 

Liverpool Museum, 14.00hrs. 

23rd DNHAS Natural History Meeting - Britain's Heritage of Ancient 
Habitats. 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 
I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 



FEBRUARY 

14th HMB Meeting. 

Woodhurst Village Hall, Huntingdonshire at 20.00hrs. 
I: Barry Dickerson 01480 475689. 

17th BENHS Workshop - Bluebottles and Fleshflies. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

20th LCES Indoor Meeting - Rare Insects of the North-West. 

Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

27th BENHS Annual General Meeting and Presidential Address. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 



MARCH 

9th BENHS Workshop - Molluscs. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

1 1th BENHS Indoor Meeting - Landscapes and Wildlife Conservation in 
New Zealand. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Talk by Margaret Palmer. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

19th LCES Indoor Meeting - North Wales Invertebrate Conservation. 

Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 



272 



DECEMBER 1995 



23rd BENHS Workshop - Aculeates. 

Please contact organiser for details and to book in advance. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

26th DNHAS Natural History; Meeting - Beetles: Well I quite like 
Ladybirds! 

Dorset County Museum, Dorchester at 19.30hrs. 
I: Kate Hebditch 01305 262735. 

APRIL 

10th HMB Meeting. 

Woodhurst Village Hall, Huntingdonshire at 20.00hrs. 
I: Barry Dickerson 01480 475689. 

16th LCES Indoor Meeting - Leaf mining insects and their mines. 

Liverpool Museum, 19.00hrs. 

BENHS Indoor Meeting - Plant-Insect interactions with particular 
reference to galls. 

RES(QG) IS.OOhrs. Talk by Margaret Redfern. 
I: Dr Ian McLean, 

109 Miller Way, Brampton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE18 8TZ. 

20th AES AGM & Members' Day. 
RES(QG) lO.OOhrs. 
I: Wayne Jarvis 01582 486779. 

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JUST PUBLISHED BY 
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NEW BRITISH BEETLES 



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There are over 650 British beetles not included in Norman Joy's Practical handbook of 
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many groups have undergone revision. New British beetles puts these changes into 
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CONTENTS 



G. Knight. The connection between Meloe proscarabeus and Anthophora retusa 

along the Pembrokeshire coast 222 

R.A. Jones. Bugged up to the nines - Dress sense for entomologists 227 

D. Withrington. Corfu in late September - butterflies 233 

C. Jones. Puffin Island expedition , 249 

T. King. Mass phoresy by pseudoscorpions 252 

P. Waring. Some Emperor moths (Saturniidae) of the southern Sudan 255 

W.J. Jarvis. 60 years of the Amateur Entomologists' Society, Part VI. 1985-95 267 

Short Communications 

P. Batty. The Wildlife and Countryside Act Quinquennial Review 226 

F. McCann. Grey dagger on laurel 234 

P. Brock. Los Angeles Insect Fair 1995 235 

E. Suttcliffe. The strange tale of "The Manchester Tinea" - retold 236 

F. McCann. Autumn Lepidoptera from Glasgow 237 

M. Hancox. Of bats, badgers and bovines 238 

F. Seow-Choen. The stick-insect Datames oileus (Westwood) 1859 (Phasmida) 239 

P. Grey. The Large white in South Africa 240 

L. Plester. A further note on Black-veined white aggregations in central Finland 241 

F. McCann. More Lepidoptera from Glasgow 242 

L. & D. Slaughter. Heath fritillary aben-ations in 1994 243 

M. Eiland. A review of the new permanent exhibit of insects at Oxford 244 

F. McCann. Larval findings in Glasgow 246 

P. Waring. The effects of temperature on the development of the Northern eggar 

moth, Lasiocampa quercus callunae, and the wider implications 247 

J. Korxjszko. Further Staffordshire Lime hawkmoths 248 

R. Hodge. Early Lepidopteral sightings 248 

G. Stevens. The Moth that wasn't 269 

Editorial 221 

Diary Dates 270 

NOTICE 



It is to be distinctly understood that all views, opinions, or theories, expressed in the pages of this Journal are solely those 
of the author(s) concerned. All announcements of meetings, financial grants offered or sought, requests for help or informa- 
tion, are accepted as bona fide. Neither the Editor, the Officers and Council of the Society, nor its Trustees, can be held 
responsible for any loss, embarrassment or injury that might be sustained by reliance thereon. 

© 1995. The Amateur Entomologists' Society. 
(Registered Charity No. 267430) 
All rights reserved. 

Published 22nd December 1995 by the Amateur Entomologists' Society 
(Registered Charity No. 267430). from 4 Steep Close. Orpington. Kent BR6 6DS. 
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill. Brentwood. Essex CM14 4TA. 



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